商务英语的相关不同论文


    
    Research in International Marketing of Multinational Enterprises




    Research in International Marketing of Multinational Enterprises
    Abstract
    Through the study and comparison of international marketing of multinational enterprises this paper first expounds the definition of multinational enterprises and analyzes the cultural differences in international marketing such as values language communication customs habits and so on Next it analyzes the impact of multinational enterprises on international marketing helping enterprises to better understand the strategic elements of international marketing international marketing strategies and international marketing mix
    These analyses will point out the importance of crossculture and marketing strategies as well as the significance of the development of multinational enterprises which is beneficial to deepen the cognition of people to multinational enterprises in the international marketing Through the comparison of cultural differences and the use of effective marketing strategies multinational enterprises can better cultivate cultural awareness expand international business and adapt to the trend of international development

    Keywords international marketing multinational enterprises cultural differences strategic elements marketing strategies









    跨国企业国际营销研究

    篇文通跨国企业国际营销研究较首先阐述跨国企业定义分析价值观语言交流俗惯等文化差异国际营销中表现形式 次分析跨国企业国际营销影响帮助更理解国际营销战略素国际营销战略国际营销组合
    分析指出跨文化营销战略重性跨国企业发展意义利深化跨国企业国际营销中认识 通较文化差异采营销策略跨国企业更形成文化意识扩国际市场适应国际发展趋势

    关键词 国际营销跨国企业文化差异战略素营销策略
    Contents
    Abstract Ⅰ
    摘 Ⅱ
    Introduction 1
    1 Definition of International Marketing 2
    2 The Forms of Cultural Differences in International Marketing 3
    21 Differences in Cultural Values 3
    22 Differences in Language Communication 3
    23 Differences in Customs 4
    24 Differences in Religious Beliefs 4
    3 The Influence of CrossCultural Barriers on International Marketing 6
    31 Communication Difficulties in International Marketing 6
    32 Cultural Conflicts in International Marketing 6
    33 Difficulties of International Marketing Research 7
    4 Strategic Elements of International Marketing 8
    41 Evaluation of Products and Foreign Markets 8
    411 Evaluation of Products 8
    412 Evaluation of Foreign Markets 9
    42 Identification of Target Market 9
    421 Analysis of Market Share Decision Mode 9
    422 Analysis of Target Segment Marketing Strategy 10
    43 Developing Marketing Plan 10
    5 International Marketing Strategies of Multinational Enterprises 12
    51 Implementing Adaptive Strategies 12
    52 Implementing Localization Strategies 12
    53 Leveraging Third Parties 13
    54 Creating Marketing Campaigns 13
    6 The International Marketing Strategic Mix of Multinational Enterprises 14
    61 Product Innovation 14
    62 Corporate Image 15
    63 Resources Integration 16
    64 Information Communication 17
    Conclusion 19
    References 20
    Acknowledgments 21
    Introduction
    International marketing is a trade activity in which an enterprise based on the needs of foreign customers provides products or services to foreign customers and finally gains profits The development of the world economy and technology affects not only the international business practice but also the political social cultural legal and other marketing environment of the target market Therefore the meaning of international marketing also advances with the changes and development of society Different countries have various cultures languages and customs these differences may hinder the development of multinational companies and have a negative impact on their overseas market expansion Therefore it is necessary for them to make a research and study of international marketing in detail Taking the cultural difference and the marketing strategy as the carrier this paper will analyze the main content of international marketing the cultural difference in international marketing and the different marketing strategies It also points out that the crosscultural barriers on the influence of international marketing and the importance and significance of marketing strategy It is comprised of the following six chapters

















    1 Definition of International Marketing
    Marketing was defined by the American marketing association as the process of creating exchange planning and implementation of ideas pricing promotion and distribution to achieve personal and organizational goals(Jenny Darroch et al 2004 p29) Marketing is the activity of presenting advertising and selling a company’s products in the possible way(A S Hornby 2014 p942) Marketing is an important function of business operators The marketing activities of enterprises are carried out to meet the needs and desires of consumers Before marketing we must be clear about the market rules whose core is the needs and desires of people
    In order to better understand the definition of international marketing the following three points must be paid attention First international marketing is a transnational marketing activities it is only when products and services are sold abroad or in foreign markets Secondly international marketing is the management process of multinational sales activities multinational companies and export enterprises are the main body of international marketing Thirdly international marketing activities must focus on product quality aftersales service and so on since its purpose is to meet the needs of foreign consumers
    International marketing refers to the flow of goods and services into the hands of customers or users in more than one country(Vern Terpstra 2006 p36) It is a trade activity in which an enterprise based on the needs of foreign customers provides products or services to foreign customers and finally gains profits The basic idea of international marketing is that all the activities of an enterprise must center on foreign consumers starting from satisfying the needs and desires of foreign consumers attracting more customers and having a larger market share by satisfying the needs of foreign consumers The factors like interests of the public and social welfare improvement should be taken into account so as to achieve the marketing objectives of the enterprise







    2 The Forms of Cultural Differences in International Marketing
    21 Differences in Cultural Values
    Values refers to beliefs about what is right and wrong wand what is important in life (A S Hornby 2014 p1708)Values are an important yardstick for people to measure the good the evil beauty and ugliness Because different countries have dissimilar cultural backgrounds geography history and other factors people are bound to have greatly different understandings in values Some things are valuable in a country and are regarded as the benchmark of beauty but they may not be affirmed in another country Therefore before an international enterprise opens a foreign market it needs to make some preparations and have a clear understanding of the values of the target country
    Different cultural background and developing process will make the country and people have different values at the same time their consumption concept will also have some dissimilarities so people’s consumption behavior and demand are also different Many countries will make advertisements in accordance with corresponding styles for the consumption of their own people For example Americans pursue novelty and excitement so the key of brand advertising to the United States should be put on having novelty and innovation Japanese people are more emotional therefore the brand advertising to Japan should pay more attention to the deep emotional communication French people pursue romance and elegance so the French brand advertising is emphasized to fully reflect romantic atmosphere To put it simply international marketing should adjust accordingly to the specific values of different countries It is important to remember that there is no unitary marketing method can do everything
    22 Differences in Language Communication
    Language difference is an obvious distinct aspect between each country Communication is a key component of marketing and the most important factor in trade rates is effective communication Therefore if there is an obstacle in language communication it may cause unnecessary misunderstanding and affect the marketing work Especially in the understanding and expression of many languages the cultural differences will lead to some misunderstandings between the two sides which will eventually lead information not be effectively delivered Therefore if we want to carry out international trade and promotion of products we should consider the different factors in language from all aspects
    The most direct manifestation of crosscultural barriers encountered in international marketing is the communication and understanding barriers caused by different languages Due to geographical history and other factors different countries have their own languages and ways of thinking so different languages and ways of thinking will lead to translation barriers in international trade which not only will affect brand marketing in foreign countries but also may cause international laughing stocks For instance the CocaCola company entered Chinese market for the first time its brand was put as 蝌蚪啃蜡 in Chinese this kind of translation obviously does not reflect any characteristics and attributes of CocaCola beverage In Chinese culture tadpoles have nothing to do with wax This kind of transliteration made the drink unpopular in China Later it was renamed Kekoukele(口乐) which not only reflects the delicious nature of the beverage but also expresses good wishes and arouses consumers’ desire for a try thus opening the Chinese market smoothly and successfully
    23 Differences in Customs
    Customs is a traditional and widely accepted way of behaving or doing something that is specific to a particular society place or time(A S Hornby 2014 p375) The content of customs is very extensive including food clothing housing transportation and other aspects It is common that every country has its own customs Even in China there are many cultural differences among different ethnic minorities And customs are most easily ignored in international marketing because it involves really extensive content let the marketing staff to guard against In different environments and cultural backgrounds people will form different lifestyles or habits The most common habits are dressing eating and festivals These differences also directly lead to communication and contact barriers At the same time differences in customs and habits will also affect people’s aesthetic vision For example Americans have a sincere love for green They regard green as a symbol of peace and health But in China no one wants to wear a green hat because it is a badge of disgrace Quanjude a Chinese restaurant chain which specializes in roast duck has won the recognition of consumers in different countries by adjusting the taste and eating style of roast duck according to the different eating customs of consumers in different countries It can be seen that the differences in customs will also affect the marketing situation of the market
    24 Differences in Religious Beliefs
    Religion is an ideology which is closely related to economic basis and other ideologies It is a part of the traditional culture of each nation and is restricted by the traditional culture Different traditional cultures have produced different religious beliefs Religious belief plays an important role in national culture and people’s life There are many different religions in the world such as Christianity Catholicism Buddhism and Islamism Different markets have distinctive religious features Religion is a doubleedged sword for international marketing and it can use the power of religion as a calling and attraction to open up a portion of the market if its religious factors can be incorporated into marketing on the contrary ignoring them may not only spoil the effect and purpose of marketing but also lead to disputes and even wars caused by sensitive topics
    It is because of different cultural differences in international marketing if they want to successfully carry out international marketing multinational enterprises must pay attention to these points




























    3 The Influence of CrossCultural Barriers on International Marketing
    International marketing is the product into the specific countries and regions for indepth promotion and publicity ultimately achieve the purpose of occupying the local market Sometimes marketing may cause a fierce collision between local residents and culture so we have to face the differences brought by different cultures At the same time international marketing personnel should be clear that international marketing will not only bring good benefits but also cause bad effects
    31 Communication Difficulties in International Marketing
    Different cultural backgrounds are mainly reflected in different languages of course international marketing is hard to do without language which is a powerful tool In fact the same words may have different meanings in different cultures Because language as a branch of a culture reflects the social reality the differences in social reality will naturally be reflected in the language This difference in language causes a lot of difficulties in communication and translation which often makes it impossible to achieve complete communication between the two sides Especially in the face of indepth communication the deep meaning of the text cannot be accurately expressed which makes it impossible to convey its own original meaning While word games are one of the common means of marketing it is impractical to play word games when communication is not reached and there is a risk of selfdefeating
    32 Cultural Conflicts in International Marketing
    In the process of international marketing the communication between different countries will inevitably involve cultural aspects Because of the deeprooted cultural background at work all the time groups with different cultural backgrounds tend to believe that their own culture is superior This is the result of cultural pride and there is nothing wrong with that However this kind of superiority may magnify produce culture clash For example racism in today’s international society is an obvious case of cultural conflict If a multinational enterprise cannot avoid cultural conflicts in specific international marketing it will not only lead to unsuccessful marketing but also make the enterprise bear serious charges and affect the reputation of the enterprise
    33 Difficulties of International Marketing Research
    The purpose and importance of marketing research are needless to say It is an indispensable and important way for multinational enterprises to open new international markets and it is also a necessary preparation for enterprises before entering new international markets The core of enterprise research is to obtain the market information including local economic condition social development cultural customs as well as the information related to enterprise products such as the need for enterprise products in the country the local people’s purchasing power local similar products of other brands and their share etc This information relates to the positioning and development of the enterprise in the foreign country But because of different cultural backgrounds it is more difficult for enterprises to research and obtain accurate information between different countries To sum up crosscultural barriers not only increase the communication difficulties of international marketing but also easily induce cultural conflicts and enhance the difficulty of international marketing research Therefore in order to better deal with the difficulties in international marketing we also need to understand the strategic elements of international marketing














    4 Strategic Elements of International Marketing
    Before carrying out international marketing multinational enterprises need to consider the relevant strategic elements Different countries have different cultural backgrounds so they first need to have a necessary understanding of the market then accurately position the market according to the local customers’ demand for products and finally make a favorable marketing plan
    41 Evaluation of Products and Foreign Markets
    Products and markets are pretty significant when international enterprises carry out international marketing The next two sections are about products and markets evaluation
    411 Evaluation of Products
    Three aspects need be analyzed in evaluating a product namely product value analysis selfworth analysis and valid value
    The first is product value analysis the first thing to be clear about is what problem the product should solve This is the general direction Second multinational enterprises need to know for whom When a product is trying to solve a problem multinational enterprises all have a concept of the user and they know who they are trying to solve the problem for Thirdly the user is there but they don't know exactly what the user scenario is Once multinational enterprises know the scenario they will be more aware of the value of products and more likely to spot problems Finally multinational enterprises need to understand the size of the market and choose the right business model If they are going to get into this market and get a piece of it they have to look at the size of the market Many internet products with the idea that users can raise money are dismissive of business models and cost accounting It’s also a tragedy to find out that they have a user but they can’t monetize it
    The second is selfworth analysis at the very beginning multinational enterprises need to know which products are in the same category and what is their competitive advantage Competitive Product analysis has always been a core work to do products if competitive products have occupied a dominant position in the market the possibility of reentry is already very low Next we need to know whether the time is right to enter the market The market is too ripe to be missed The market is too early to be nurtured This depends on the judgment of the person at the helm of the industry and good startup projects are all about doing the right thing at the right time
    The third one is validate value Although the product is valuable and suitable for them to do but there are a lot of selfguess For example whether the user needs is really same as what they think whether it will really rely on the product they provide product operation mode is really feasible and so on So verifying product requirements is also a very very important part
    412 Evaluation of Foreign Markets
    Market evaluation is the process of evaluating the feasibility of the selected target market Market evaluation is an important basis for planning marketing scheme and making marketing decision which is helpful for enterprises to allocate limited marketing power reasonably according to the value of each target market and get the highest reward with less investment Market evaluation is primarily a quantitative measure of demand First of all on the basis of fully estimating the market demand and market potential enterprise demand and market potential should be evaluated to master the market scale and structure At the same time the scale and market position of the enterprise are estimated by understanding the sales volume of products in the market
    42 Identification of Target Market
    The target market is the market that the enterprise must enter in order to achieve the economic benefit and the expected goal In other words enterprises must provide highquality products and services with customers as the core Once there is a target market all the behavior of the enterprise must revolve around the target market When enterprises enter the market they should consider the marketing objects and scale the different market culture and different economic effects Therefore preparations need to be made in the following aspects
    421 Analysis of Market Share Decision Mode
    There are three kinds of market occupation decisionmaking Centralization nonspecialization and overall occupation
    Centralization is the process by which the activities of an organization particularly those regarding planning and decisionmaking framing strategy and policies become concentrated within a particular geographical location group(Yi 2018)
    Nonspecialization refers to an enterprise’s choice of two or more market segments consistent with its own goals and resources(Yi 2018) These market segments do not necessarily have to be highly cooperative but each market has to bring a substantial profit return to the enterprise When choosing the target market the enterprise must be clear that any behavior that cannot bring profit for the enterprise must be resolutely abandoned
    Overall occupation is the enterprise deals in all kinds of products required by consumers(Yi 2018) There are usually two ways One is to try to meet the needs of all consumers in the market by implementing undifferentiated marketing strategy the other is to develop a product and marketing strategy that fits the market segment in order to win over consumers
    422 Analysis of Target Segment Marketing Strategy
    The different characteristics of buyers make the market segmentation have different criteria In fact the selection of target market can be carried out according to the criteria of market segmentation There are three market criteria no differentiation marketing differential marketing and centralized marketing strategy
    No differentiation marketing is just launching a product and then using a marketing program to do it
    Differential marketing is that enterprises are ready to use market segmentation as a standard for each target is designed to meet the requirements of different market segmentation Differential marketing can bring more consumers and more income for enterprises but it has a fatal disadvantage It can decentralize the attention of enterprises and expose them to different areas of the market such as production sales and aftersales service Once the product problems pile up the company also suffers from heavy loss
    Centralized marketing strategy refers to the concentration of all the forces of enterprises with one or a few similar nature of the submarket as the target market trying to occupy a larger market share in the smaller submarket Enterprises with limited resources prefer to use centralized marketing strategy Small businesses can quickly brand products through centralized marketing so that some consumers have a deeper understanding But centralized marketing enterprises are faced with a small part of the market when the market consumer demand changes enterprises will be more likely to get into trouble
    43 Developing Marketing Plan
    Generally developing marketing plan includes the following aspects
    The first one is market analysis That is according to the understanding of the market situation an enterprise position the selling point consumer group sales volume of the product
    The second one is the mode of sale Multinational enterprises find out the patterns and methods that suit their product sales
    The third one is customer management Multinational enterprises serve customers and motivate them to increase sales or purchases Following up with potential customers
    The forth one is sales task Multinational enterprises develop a reasonable sales plan to increase the volume of sales target Planning works only when you try to accomplish the tasks you set out to do in various ways
    There is also an examination time Sales plan can be divided into several different plans such as annual sales plan monthly sales plan daily sales plan The time of assessment is also different 
    And the last one is conclusion It is to judge the sales plan for the last time period
    The above six aspects are necessary for a plan Of course the plan is not fixed but should be adjusted according to market conditions In a word these strategic elements are indispensable for multinational enterprises to successfully carry out international marketing





















    5 International Marketing Strategies of Multinational Enterprises
    51 Implementing Adaptive Strategies
    To carry out international marketing activities first of all it is necessary for multinational enterprises to realize barrierfree and crosscultural communication Effective communication is the prerequisite for success Therefore it is necessary to have an indepth understanding of the local cultural background and grasp the cultural differences between each other so as to take certain measures to reduce such differences and form a smoother and intimate communication In view of the importance and penetration of culture cultural factors should be considered in marketing activities such as market research product selection service and publicity which is the key to marketing success or failure Therefore in addition to mastering the local market environment marketing personnel of multinational enterprises should also conduct a detailed investigation of cultural differences and new changing trends They should be highly sensitive and able to steer the market in the right direction based on consumer demand and ultimately make decisions that benefit the business Therefore transnational enterprises need to have a deep understanding of different national cultures reduce the problems caused by cultural differences and respect the local cultural customs They should also master the local language proficiently to reduce communication barriers highly integrating into the local market and culture
    52 Implementing Localization Strategies
    In the international marketing multinational enterprises need to quickly integrate into the lives of the local people to understand their consumption habits Through the research of cultural difference and the investigation of consumer’s consumption concept the consumer’s consumption characteristic and the main demand will be grasped by the multinational enterprises Because cultural differences lead to the diversification of consumer behavior the continuous development and integration of culture will also directly lead to the change of consumer behavior With the change of the times their needs and pursuit will also be changed accordingly Therefore the localization strategy is that the marketing enterprise not only needs to understand the local cultural history and its past background but also needs to carry out the research and the analysis to the current cultural change as well as the consumer behavior change tendency Enterprises should have a comprehensive understanding so as to develop more suitable sales strategies for marketing development and promote the stable development of international marketing
    53 Leveraging Third Parties
    When transnational companies enter unfamiliar markets they will face many difficulties especially the obstacles brought by cultural differences Therefore enterprises need to spend more time and manpower conducting investigation analysis and research collecting data and information so as to develop marketing strategies in line with local consumption habits Therefore with the help of the third party enterprises can quickly solve these problems reduce the risk understand the changes and characteristics of the market complete marketing tasks improve efficiency effectively use the corresponding resources and reduce unnecessary waste Generally the third party has professional quality and ability and has indepth research on the market of a certain industry or channel It also plays an important role in the marketing of the international companies
    54 Creating Marketing Campaigns
    Culture is changing with the development of society and human beings so cultural differences may become larger or decrease to some extent But marketing enterprises need to pay attention to the cultural changes timely grasp the technology and market changes Cultural changes also bring about changes in consumers’ concepts aesthetic tastes behaviors etc Enterprises should adjust the direction of enterprises according to the needs of consumers formulate appropriate strategies and eliminate the marketing barriers caused by cultural differences Of course cultural changes are likely to bring more opportunities to international marketing activities Only by paying more attention to the needs of consumers can the enterprises open the international markets successfully







    6 The International Marketing Strategic Mix of Multinational Enterprises
    To better understand international marketing enterprises need to understand the strategic mix in international marketing First of all it is the product innovation Product innovation helps enterprises to maintain competitiveness The second is the corporate image A good corporate image is easier to win the trust of consumers and bring better profits to the enterprise The next is resource integration Resource integration can help enterprises optimize resource allocation realize rational use of resources and minimize waste The last one is information communication which can improve work efficiency and realize information sharing
    61 Product Innovation
    Product Innovation is the creation of a new product or the innovation of the function of a new or old product This strategy can be divided into two scenarios It could mean relaunching products suitable for an earlier period in a particular country Product innovation as a basic enterprise behavior its concrete manifestation is various involving all aspects of enterprise activity Enterprise development has a longterm strategy product innovation plays a key role in the strategy
    The innovative marketing concept requires on the one hand that the production of enterprises must conform to the changes in consumer demand the rules of consumption in the international market and better meet the needs of consumers on the other hand it requires that the production of enterprises should go ahead of consumers to guide consumer demand and create consumer demand that is to say the enterprise’s international marketing concept must move from adapting to consumption to creating consumption from sharing market to creating market In the international market innovative and fastgrowing new companies are springing up to replace those that lack innovation and efficiency
    In the international market first of all marketing should be innovative marketing such as green marketing cultural marketing Then product innovation such as product service innovation product price innovation The third is method innovation such as online marketing offline marketing For example the production of green and highquality products can meet the changing consumption needs of consumers On the other hand a buyer’s market can be transformed into a seller’s market Because of the great demand of consumers for green products and few green products are produced Therefore there are huge business opportunities for green products in the international market The idea of constant innovation can make the multinational enterprises getting involved in international marketing look far and high and open up a broader world
    62 Corporate Image
    The corporate Image refers to the social public and the enterprise staff to the enterprise overall impression and the appraisal(Martin Heinberg et al 2018 p259) Corporate image can be established by improving the quality of products and services improving the quality and image of employees and standardizing corporate system and corporate culture Corporate image is the overall image of an enterprise and the core of corporate culture construction This impression is transmitted through the body’s senses
    Internationally product image equals product quality product quality equals product value product value equals subproduct price(Gronroth personal communication November 2010) A good corporate image is helpful to enhance the international competitiveness of multinational enterprises to gain the trust of consumers and to establish brand effect Under the condition of modern international competition it is difficult to take advantage of international market only by quality and service because of the general improvement of product quality technology and the increasing variety of products
    In the international market only those enterprises with good corporate image and good product image have lasting vitality and will be favored by consumers and the public If an enterprise does not have its own advantage brand and good popularity it will not have any international competitive power at all Finally it will be eliminated in the international competition The competition between enterprises is the competition of enterprise image A good enterprise image can create good conditions for international competition Establishing a good corporate image can improve the competitiveness of enterprises increase the trust of consumers on enterprises and ultimately bring profits for enterprises
    Enterprises should use a variety of strategies to establish their own image For example making use of certain events in society public welfare activities and celebrities to build up their image some reference organizations or concept leaders can also be used to build the image of the business or product of the transnational company etc In a word with the rapid development of the international economy enterprises must be able to maintain competitiveness in the fierce competition in the international market and their marketing plans must conform to the market law
    63 Resources Integration
    Resource integration refers to the identification and selection absorption and configuration activation and organic integration of resources from different sources different levels different structures and different contents it has a strong flexibility organization systematicness and value and can create a new resource of a complex dynamic process Resource integration is a means of strategic adjustment in international market competition Resource integration is the decision of optimal allocation It is to reallocate the related resources according to the enterprise’s development strategy in order to highlight the core competitiveness of the enterprise and to seek the best combination point of the resource allocation and the customer demand The purpose is to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises and establish a good image in the minds of consumers through systematic arrangement and management
    International marketing integration includes internal integration and external integration Internal integration refers to reorganizing enterprise behavior and market behavior with consumers as the core using all kinds of forms or communication methods synthetically and coordinately transmitting consistent product information with unified goal and unified image realizing twoway communication with consumers quickly establishing the status of product brand in consumers’ mind and establishing the longterm close relationship between product brand and consumers(Chen 2008) The external integration of international marketing means that enterprises should abandon the traditional concept of shopping malls as battlefields The success of competition is not based on the concept of international marketing which is based on the failure of competitors but a winwin strategic alliance which combines with competitors to carry out complementary marketing joint marketing actual resource sharing and complementary advantages A business no matter how big it is it can not produce a product that meets the needs of all consumers
    With the transition from the seller’s market to the buyer’s market consumers will become more rational people’s consumption more and more pursue green and health and customers will pay more attention to practical consumption rather than blind consumption The target market of enterprise marketing has also evolved from all consumers into the consumer groups in each market segment The development and changes of modern consumption law urgently require enterprises not only to take consumers’ demand as the starting point but also to guide and create demand that is to say the enterprise regards the concern of human the release of human’s individuality and the satisfaction of human’s individuality demand as the core of developing international market In order to establish trust relationship with consumers keep up with the development of the international market and the needs of customers enterprises at home and abroad should carry out cooperative marketing and specialized production Through cooperation multinational enterprises can meet a variety of customer needs improve their production scale and ultimately improve customer satisfaction with their products Of course cooperative marketing can also reduce waste and improve productivity
    64 Information Communication
    In traditional marketing enterprises are oneway communication to consumers Generally enterprises will introduce information about enterprises and products to consumers through traditional media advertisements mails and newspapers Consumers passively accept such information and the information of consumers cannot be timely fed back to enterprises The oneway flow of information between enterprises and consumers hinders multinational enterprises from timely and accurate understanding of consumers’ individualized needs Through the twoway communication of information consumers can also base on their own needs and preferences to design their own products or propose changes to meet their special requirements and then transmit the information to the manufacturer the manufacturer is quick to tailor the product to the consumer In this way whether in the production or sales or advertising links consumers can participate to a greater extent not only from the psychological selfesteem and pride but also to show their unique personality This kind of marketing is in full accordance with the modern consumption law
    At present more and more international marketers will invest money and energy to establish their own customer information files analyze customer needs improve the quality of their products and service level and eventually enterprises can retain old customers and attract new customers Enterprises can also disseminate their product information on the Internet in a multimedia way enabling consumers to search for information about their companies and products and make prepurchase assessments In this way companies can use twoway communication to create new market demand for personalized marketing thereby winning the favor of target consumers It is foreseeable that information marketing and customer relations will become the mainstream concept of international marketing To gain a foothold in the fierce international market transnational companies must collect information about target consumers understand their consumption patterns and finally develop effective marketing strategies So for them nothing is more important than having information about consumers’ buying behavior




























    Conclusion
    Currently international marketing activities are very popular more and more enterprises began to go into the international market and explore the overseas marketing Therefore multinational enterprises should pay attention to the cultures of different countries and make relevant strategies according to the cultural differences so as to broaden the way for the development of the enterprises in overseas markets In addition these multinational enterprises need to know more about the strategic elements of international marketing and international marketing mix in order to ultimately develop their own development strategies At the same time they should correctly recognize this kind of cultural difference further carry out the crosscultural research making the corresponding marketing strategy rationally As a result they will be able to break through the marketing obstruction caused by cultural difference and constantly improve their international competitiveness













    References
    [1] A S Hornby (2010) Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary Oxford Oxford University Press
    [2] Jenny Darroch et al (2004) The 2004 AMA definition of marketing and its relationship to a market orientation An extension of Cooke Rayburn and Abercrombie Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 12(04) 2938
    [3] Martin Heinberg et al (2018) Do corporate image and reputation drive brand equity in India and China Journal of Business Research 86(03) 259268
    [4] Vern Terpstra (2006) International marketing Beijing Peking University Press
    [5] 陈露晓 (2018) 营销整合基础 [M] 北京北京邮电学出版社
    [6] 郭净 许晖 纪春礼 (2011) 中国企业国际营销动态力维度构建研究——基三家企业国际营销实践理探索 [J] 济理 (33)
    [7] 李芝 (2017) 华跨国企业中中国雇员跨文化交际研究 [J] 中国商 (05)
    [8] 易晶 (2018) 选择确定目标市场 [OL] httpswenkubaiducomvi
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    [9] 张月 (2018) 国际市场营销中袭击文化差异应研究 [J] 现代交际 (04)
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    Acknowledgments
    Here I would like to express my heartfelt thanks and great respect to all my tutors especially Wang Qingmei This paper is completed under the careful guidance of Ms Wang She impressed me with her keen insight profound knowledge rigorous academic attitude and excelsior work style which made me benefit a lot It is because of her help and support I was able to overcome the difficulties and doubts one by one until the smooth completion of this paper

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