专题 英语人教版高一必修一第一单元直接引语和间接引语I基础版


    授课主题 专题复习之必修一直接引语和间接引语的讲解 教学目的 通过对本节知识点的学习使学生: 1.理解并熟练掌握重点单词的分类 2.掌握词组及句型的用法 重、难点 重点单词及句型的掌握 教学内容 上节课复习与回忆 必修一重点单词及词组 课 程 导 入 知 识 讲 解 直接引语和间接引语 概念引入: 我们先看下面的句子: 1. John said, “I’m going to London with my father.〞 约翰说:“我要和父亲到伦敦去。〞 2. She said, “Do you often come here to read newspapers?〞 她说:“你经常来这儿看报吗?〞 3. I asked him, “Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?〞 我问他:“你今晚是待在家还是去看电影?〞 4. “Why don’t you take a walk after supper?〞 he asked. 他问:“饭后干嘛不出去走走呢?〞 从上述四个例句看出:引号内是直接引用别人的原话,这种句子为直接引语。 再看这一组句子: 1. John said that he was going to London with his father. 约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。 2. She asked me if (whether) I often went there to read newspapers. 她问我是否经常去那儿看报。 3. I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night. 我问他那天晚上是待在家还是去看电影。 4. He advised me to take a walk after supper. 他建议我晚饭后出去走走。 从第二组的四个例句看出,都是别人的原话进行了转述,这就是间接引语。在转述中,人称、时态、代词、时间状语的表达都有所变化。 那么从直接引语变成间接引语,都有哪些局部需要变化呢? 课文原句回放 首先请看下面几个句子,这几个句子来自课文,分别是直接引语和间接引语。请大家看看这些句子,看看这些直接引语和间接引语有什么区别。其实,我们从形式上就可以看出它们的区别: 1. “I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,〞 said Anne. (Direct speech) 安妮说:〞我不想在日记中记流水账。〞 Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. (Indirect speech) 安妮说她不想在日记中记流水账。 2. Anne’s sister asked her what she called her diary. (Indirect speech) 安妮的姐姐问她怎么称呼她的日记。 “What do you call your diary?〞 Anne’s sister asked her. (Direct speech) 安妮的姐姐问她:〞你怎么称呼你的日记?〞 从上述例句可以看出,第一句话是引用别人的话;第二句是转述别人的话。第三句也是转述别人的问话,第四句话是直接引用别人的问题。由此可知,引述别人的话有两种方式。 我们看看直接引语和间接引语的定义: I. 引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出别人的原话,被引用的句子叫直接引语;一是用自己的话转述别人的话,被转述的局部叫做间接引语。 直接引语和间接引语的一个重要的判断标准是有无引号,一个是引述原文,一个是转述,在转述的过程中会有一些相应的变化。 请根据定义判断下面哪些是直接引语,哪些是间接引语。 1. “I never eat meat,〞 he explained. 〔直接引语〕 他解释说:〞我从来不吃肉。〞 2. Kitty said she would wait another day. 〔间接引语〕 基蒂说她会再等一天。 3. “Who is it?〞 Wilson shouted. 〔直接引语〕 威尔逊喊道:〞这是谁啊?〞 4. I objected that she was too young for the position. 我表示反对,她对于这个职位来说太年轻了。 〔间接引语,object意为“反对〞,没有用said,但同样是引出这个人所说的话。〕 5. “I presume,〞 he commented, “that she will learn how to do it in time.〞 他评价道:“我认为她会及时学会怎么做这件事的。〞 〔直接引语,comment意为“做出评价〞。〕 直接引语和间接引语在形式上是不同的,他们之间相互转换的话,有哪些方面需要变换呢?总体如下: — 各种句式变换 — 从句时态变化 — 人称变化 — 指示代词、地点副词、少数动词和时间状语变化 陈述句及人称的变化 直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,原句变为用连词that引导的宾语从句〔that在口语中常省略〕,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应变化。在这一方面,汉语和英语有很多相似之处,因此,在做直接引语和间接引语转换练习时,要特别注意句子的意义。主句的引述动词主要有say, tell, repeat, explain, think等。 1. She said, “Our train will arrive in five minutes.〞 他说:“我们的火车五分钟内到。〞 →She said (that) their train would arrive in five minutes. 他说他们的火车五分钟内到。 2. He said, “I’m very hungry.〞 他说:“我饿了。〞 →He said (that) he was very hungry. 他说他饿了。 3. He added that Jason lost money because he would not tell a lie. (2021 湖北高考) 人称的变化 直接引语变间接引语时人称的变化可以归纳成:一随主,二随宾,三不更新。 “一随主〞是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰,从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称来变化。 She said, “My brother wants to go shopping with me.〞 她说:“我兄弟想跟我一起购物。〞 →She said her brother wanted to go shopping with her. 她说她兄弟想跟她一起购物。 “二随宾〞是指直接引语变间接引语时,假设从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称或被第二人称所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称。 I said to him, “You’ve left your book in my room.〞 我对他说:“你把书落在我的房间里〞。 →I told him that he had left his book in my room. 我告诉他,他把书落在我的房间里。 “第三人称不更新〞是指直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰,从句中的人称一般不需要变化。 Mr. Smith said,〞Jack is a good worker.〞 史密斯先生说:“杰克是个好工人。〞 → Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker. 史密斯先生说杰克是个好工人。 注意:一般情况下,连词that引导的宾语从句往往可以省略that,但是在以下情况下,往往要保存that。 1. that 的省略会产生歧义。 Linda said disappointedly that when she arrived at the station, the train had already left. 琳达很失望地说,她到达车站时火车已经开走了。〔如省略that,when状语从句既可以理解为修饰said, 又可以理解为修饰had left。〕 2. 当动词后面跟多个that引导的从句时,从第二个从句开始that不能省略。 He said (that) he was leaving for Europe the next week and that he would stay there for half a year. 他说他下周要到欧洲去,并在那里呆半年。〔第二个that不能省略〕 时态的变化 直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。 1) 一般现在时→一般过去时态; Mother said, “Jack is a good boy.〞 妈妈说:“杰克是个好孩子。〞 → Mother said that Jack was a good boy. 妈妈说杰克是个好孩子。 (2021 浙江高考) I said I couldn’t stand it one minute longer.〔can→could〕 2) 现在进行时→过去进行时; She said, “I am reading a book.〞 她说:“我正在看书。〞 →She said she was reading a book. 她说她正在看书。 3) 现在完成时→过去完成时; “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,〞 said Mary. 玛丽说:“这些日子我没有收到父母的来信。〞 →Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days. 玛丽说那些日子她没有收到父母的来信。 4) 一般过去时→过去完成时 They said, “We caught the thief in the street.〞 他们说:“我们在街上抓到贼了。〞 →They said that they had caught the thief in the street. 他们说他们在街上抓到贼了。 5)一般将来时→过去将来时; She said, “I will go to see my friend.〞 她说:“我将去看我朋友。〞 →She said she would go to see her friend. 她说她将去看她的朋友。 6) 过去完成时不变。 She said, “I had called him before I came here.〞 她说:“我来这儿前给他打 了。〞 →She said that she had called him before she went there. 她说她去那儿前给他打 了。 注意:在以下几种情况下,在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。 1〕直接引语是客观真理、引用格言时。 “The earth moves around the sun,〞 the teacher told us. 老师告诉我们:“地球绕着太阳转。〞 → The teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. 老师告诉我们地球绕着太阳转。 2〕直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。 Jack said, “John, where were you going when I met you in the street?〞 杰克问:“约翰,我在街上碰到你的时候你去哪儿啊?〞 → Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street. 杰克问约翰在街上碰到他的时候他正要往哪儿去。 3〕直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。 Xiao Wang said, “I was born on April 2l, 1980.〞 小王说:“我生于1980年4月21日。〞 → Xiao Wang said he was born on April 21, 1980. 小王说他生于1980年4月21日。 4〕直接引语如果是一般现在时,表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。 He said, “I get up at six every morning.〞 他说:“我每天早上六点起床。〞 → He said he gets up at six every morning. 他说他每天早上六点起床。 5〕如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式〔例如ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时〔例如could, should, would, might〕,时态不再变。 Peter said, “You had better come here today.〞 彼得说:“你最好今天来这儿。〞 → Peter said I had better go there that day. 彼得说我最好当天去那儿。 (2021 天津高考) I told her she shouldn’t swim after a whole night’s coughing,but she refused... 我告诉她她咳嗽了一整夜不应该游泳,但是她拒绝了…… 指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化 时间状语:now → then; today → that day; this evening/ tonight → that evening/ that night; yesterday → the day before; three days ago → three days before; next week → the next week; tomorrow → the next day; the day after tomorrow → in two days’ time; the day before yesterday → two days before/earlier 地点状语:here → there 指示代词:this → that; these → those 方向性动词:come → go;bring → take 记忆口诀:直引变间引,变化应遵循:时状今变昔,地状近变远,指示这变那,动作来变去 注意:如果在当地转述,here不必改为there, come不必改为go;如果在当天转述,yesterday, tomorrow等时间状语也不必改变。 The lawyer said, “I will come this morning.〞 →The lawyer said that she would go that morning. 律师说她那天上午会去。 He said, “These books are mine.〞 →He said that those books were his. 他说那些书是他的。 She said, “It is nine o’clock now.〞 →She said that it was nine o’clock then. 她说那时九点了。 Bob said, “My sister was here three days ago.〞 →Bob said that his sister had been there three days before/earlier. 鲍勃说他妹妹三天前已经到哪里了。 David said, “I haven’t seen her today.〞 →David said that he hadn’t seen her that day. 大卫说他那天还没有看见她。 She said, “I went there yesterday.〞 →She said that she had gone there the day before. 她说她前一天已经去了那里。 She said, “I will go there tomorrow.〞 →She said that she would go there the next/following day. 她说她第二天会去那里。 The captain said, “They will arrive the day after tomorrow.〞 →The captain said that they would arrive in two days’ time. 船长说他们两天后会到达。 She said, “I came here to see the doctor the day before yesterday.〞 →She said that she had gone there to see the doctor two days before/earlier. 她说她两天前去那里看了医生。 疑问句 直接引语如果是疑问句,变为间接引语时,要把疑问句的语序变为陈述句语序〔主语在谓语的前面〕,句末用句号,主语的人称、时态和状语也要作相应的变化。 一般疑问句: 直接引语如果是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,谓语动词是say或said时,要改为ask或asked,原问句变成由连词if或whether引导的宾语从句。没有间接宾语的可以根据情况加上。 “Do you think a diary can become your friend?〞 the writer says. 作家说:“你认为日记能成为你的朋友?〞 →The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend. 作家问我们是否我们认为日记能成为我们的朋友。 He said, “Are you interested in English?〞 他说:“你对英语感兴趣吗?〞 →He asked (me) if I was interested in English. 他问我是否对英语感兴趣。 She said, “Did you see him last night?〞 她说:“你昨晚看到他了吗?〞 →She asked (me) whether I had seen him the night before. 她问我是否前一个晚上看到他了。 “Has he ever worked in Shanghai?〞 Jim asked. “他在上海工作过吗?〞吉姆问。 →Jim asked whether/if he had ever worked in Shanghai. 吉姆问他是否在上海工作过。 “Can you tell me the way to the hospital?〞 The old man asked. 那个老人问:“你能告诉我去医院的路吗?〞 →The old man asked whether I could tell him the way to the hospital. 那个老人问我是否能告诉他去医院的路。 特殊疑问句 直接引语如果是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的疑问词引导。注意要用陈述句语序。 “What do you want?〞 he asked me. 他问我:“你想要什么?〞 →He asked me what I wanted. 他问我想要什么。 “What do you call your diary?〞 Anne’s sister asked her. 安妮的姐姐问她:“你称呼你的日记为什么?〞 →Anne’s sister asked her what she called her diary. 安妮的姐姐问她称呼她的日记为什么。 “When did you go to bed last night?〞 Father said to Anne. 父亲对安妮说:“昨晚你什么时候睡觉?〞 →Father asked Anne when she went to bed the night before. 父亲问安妮前一晚什么时候睡觉。 “Which room do you live in?〞 He asked. “你住哪个房间?〞,他问我。 →He asked me which room I lived in. 他问我住哪个房间。 “What do you think of the film?〞 She asked her friend. 她问:“你怎么看这部电影?〞 →She asked her friend what she thought of the film. 她问她的朋友怎么看这部电影。 Also I’m not going to ask you what words mean. (2021 浙江高考) 我也不会问你词是什么意思。 选择疑问句 选择疑问句变间接引语时,把问句局部变为whether…or引导的宾语从句。 I asked him, “Will you stay at home or go to see a film tonight?〞 我问他:“你今晚待在家还是去看电影?〞 → I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to see a film that night. 我问他那个晚上将呆在家还是去看电影。 “Is it your bike or Tom’s?〞 Mum asked. 妈妈问:“这是你的自行车还是汤姆的?〞 →Mum asked whether it was my bike or Tom’s. 妈妈问这是我的自行车还是汤姆的。 “Does your sister like blue dresses or green ones?〞 Kate asked. “你妹妹喜欢蓝色的裙子还是绿色的?〞凯特问。 →Kate asked whether my sister liked blue dresses or green ones. 凯特问我的妹妹喜欢蓝色的裙子还是绿色的。 巩 固 练 习 将以下句子变为间接引语: 1. “You should be more careful next time,〞 his father said to him. 2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children.〞 3. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.〞 4. “Where are you going?〞 the father asked his son. 5. “Write your names on your papers first,〞 the teacher said to us. 6. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,〞 said the teacher. 7. Jack said, “I was doing chores when Tom came to see me.〞 8. She said, “I will come here this evening.〞 9. The teacher said to us, “Knowledge is power.〞 10. Mary often says, “I want to be a doctor when I grow up.〞 11. “I’m checking your homework now,〞 his mother said. 12. “We will come here again tonight,〞 the students said to the teacher. 13. He said, “I repaired the watch yesterday.〞 14. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,〞 he said. 15. The children said, “We’ll be back tomorrow.〞 16. Bob said to Mary, “I saw the film two days ago.〞 17. The teacher said, “Can you hear me, children?〞 18. “We’re going to study in the USA next month,〞 they said. 本知识点小结 对直接引语和间接引语做个总结。 做题目的时候有什么启发? 能否有个大纲呢? 课 堂 检 测 单项选择: 1. He asked ________ for the violin. A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid 2. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see _________. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 3. Can you tell me ________? A. how good is his spoken English B. how well his spoken English is C. how well he speaks English D. how good he can speak English 4. He said that he had bought the jacket ________. A. before three days B. three days before C. three days ago D. last week 5. Did you say_________? A. that what he said was true B. that it was true that he said C. what did he say was true D. what he said it was true 6. Please tell me ________ from. A. where do you come B. where you come C. where you will come D. there you come 7. Ask her ________ come with us. A. if she will B. if or not she will C. that if she will D. whether will she 8. She said what a lovely day it _________. A. is B. was C. has been D. will be 9. —What did she ask you? —________ she could get to the zoo. A. Why B. That C. Where D. How 10. John _______ me he was going to help me with my English. A. explained B. spoke C. told D. said 11. —Mother,the boy is very naughty. —What did the girl say just now? —She ________very naughty. A.said her mother that the boy was B.said to her mother that the boy is C.told her mother that the boy was D.spoke to her mother that the boy was 12. —Fred, you’ve already got well,haven’t you? (No answer.) —Fred, Mrs. White asked ________. A.if you have already got well, hadn’t you B.whether you had already got well C.have I already got well D.had I already got well 13. Looking at me up and down, he asked me________. A.am I a music teacher or a singer B.was I a music teacher or a singer C.whether I was a music teacher or a singer D.whether was I a music teacher or a singer 14. The young man asked me ________ with me. A.what the matter is B.what the matter was C.what’s the matter D.what was the matter 15. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him. A.how would I like B.if or not would I like C.whether I would like D.which I would like   课 堂 总 结 总结 直接引语改间接引语 “过四关〞:去掉引号后,被转述局部事实上是一个含宾语从句的主从复合句〔祈使句除外〕:主语+谓语+引导词〔that/ whether/ if/ wh-〕+作宾语的句子。 1. 引导词〔判断句子类别,选择引导词:that/ whether/if /特殊疑问词〕 2. 语序〔陈述语序;注意人称变化:一主二宾三不变〕 3. 时态:主句〔过去时〕+从句〔相应的过去时〕; 主句〔现在/将来时〕+从句〔不变〕 注意无需变化的特殊情况〔真理、虚拟、局部情态动词、过去进行〕。 4. 细节〔指示代词、地点副词、少数动词和时间状语的变化规那么〕 注意:除了say, 间接引语中主句的谓语动词可根据转述时的情景选择其它动词。 “I did it,〞 he said. →He admitted that he had done it. 他成认他做了这件事。 “He was rude to me,〞 she said. →She complained he’d been rude to her. 她抱怨他对她粗鲁。 “You are late,〞 he said. →He whispered that I was late. 他小声嘀咕着我迟到了。 “I can speak six languages,〞 he said. →He boasted he could speak six languages. 他吹牛说他能说六种语言。 “You had better hurry, Bill.〞 he said. →He advised Bill to hurry. 他建议比尔快点。 “Shall we meet at two?〞 he said. →He suggested meeting at two. 他建议两点集合。 “Shall I do it for you?〞 he asked. →He offered to do it for me. 他主动提出替我做。 “Could you help us?〞 he said. →He asked me to help them. 他叫我帮帮他们。 家 庭 作 业 根据括号中所给的词的提示用适当的形式填空。 1. He told me there ________ (be) a basketball match that afternoon and asked if I wanted to watch it. 2. I asked the teacher whether Gauss __________ (be born) in 1777, but he made no answer. 3. Everyone assumed (认为) I (make) a large amount of money and that this was one of many things I spent the money on. 4. Tom’s mother asked him ____________ (为什么他犯了) so many mistakes in his homework that time. 5. (2021 湖北高考) We must act as quickly as possible now. Just tell us ________ (你能否) undertake (承当) the task or not. 6. She told me she had seen a letter on my desk __________ (昨天). 单句改错 以下句子中只有一处错误。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 1. (福建福州八县一中期中) The old man asked my brother what he had done there two days ago. 2. (2021 宁夏银川一中期中) The girl said that she will arrive in two days’ time. 3. Bob said I would never forget the visit to Yanan. 4. Did you say that he said was true? 5. Ask her that she will come with us. 本文档由香当网(https://www.xiangdang.net)用户上传

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