英语人教版高一必修一unit5 定语从句2基础版


    授课主题 专题复习之必修一定语从句〔2〕的讲解 教学目的 通过对本节知识点的学习使学生: 1.理解并熟练掌握重点单词的分类 2.掌握词组及句型的用法 重、难点 重点单词及句型的掌握 教学内容 上节课复习与回忆 必修一定语从句1 课程导入 什么是限定性定语从句,什么是非限定性从句呢 知识讲解 定语从句(Ⅱ) 概念引入 The lab where the chemist often does experiments is not far from here. 化学家做实验的那个实验室离这儿不远。 I've always longed for the days when I should be able to be independent. 我非常渴望我能够独立的那天。 There are moments when I forget all about it. 那个时候我忘记了所有的一切。 He wanted to know the reason why I was late. 他想要知道我迟到的理由。 观察这些句子可以发现,句子所包含的定语从句的引导词是where、when和why,那么这三个连接词的用法是什么呢?这就是本单元我们要学习的内容。 语法点拨 【高清课堂:定语从句二 】 where引导的定语从句 1. 根本用法 领先行词在定语从句中的成分是地点状语时,连接词用where。而且先行词通常是place, house, city, country等等。 1〕The hotel where we stayed wasn’t clean. 我们住的那家旅馆不干净。 分析从句的成分:主语为we, 谓语为stayed,并且stay为不及物动词,从句不需要宾语。where代替先行词the hotel在定语从句中作地点状语,相当于we stayed in the hotel。 2〕The building where he lives is very old. 他住的这栋建筑很老旧。 把从句的含义补全应该为:he lives in the building,先行词building加上介词in在从句中作状语,关系词用where或in which。 3〕Put it at the place where you have found it. 把它放在你发现它的地方。 分析从句的句子成分,主谓宾齐全,结构完整,先行词在从句中充当地点状语。 4〕The city where we spent our holidays is very beautiful. 我们度假的那座城市很漂亮。 分析先行词和从句的关系,“我们在这个城市度假〞,where相当于in the city,作从句的地点状语。 2. where可以用“介词+which〞代替 先行词为名词,加上介词后可以在从句中充当地点状语,此时作介词宾语的先行词可以用which或that代替,如果把介词放在定语从句前,连接词只用which。 Shanghai is the city where (=in which) I was born. 上海是我出生的从城市。 I visited the farm where (=on which) a lot of cows were raised. 我参观了那个养了很多奶牛的农场。 This kind of plant grows best at the places where (=in which) it is warm and wet. 这种植物在温暖潮湿的地方长得最好。 3. 几个特殊的词 定语从句修饰job, point, situation, stage, condition和case, position 等表示抽象意义的词,常用where或“prep + which〞引导,意思是“到了某种地步,在某种境况中〞。 We will start at the point where we stopped. 我们从上次停止的地方开始吧。 This is a job where you are doing something serious but interesting. 这是一份你做着严肃而有趣的事情的工作。 It’s helpful to put children in a situation where they can see themselves differently. 把孩子们放在一个他们能以不同方式看待自己的地方是很有帮助的。 when引导的定语从句 1. 根本用法 领先行词在定语从句中作时间状语时,连接词用when,而且先行词通常是time, day, night, moment等等表示时间的名词。 1〕He was born in the year when the earthquake took place. 他出生在地震发生的那一年。 分析从句句子成分:主语the earthquake,谓语took place,无需宾语,先行词the year在从句中只能加上介词in充当从句的时间状语,所以用表示时间状语的when/ in which。 注意:the year前的介词in为主句中的介词,跟从句无关,从句中的in是分析先行词和从句的逻辑关系而得出的。 2〕She looked fine at the time when I saw her. 我看到她的时候她看起来不错。 分析从句的成分可知,从句主谓宾语都不少,先行词the time在从句中表示“我看见她〞的时间,即时间状语〔在那个时间 at the time〕,所以用when引导从句。 2. when可以用“介词+which〞代替 表示时间的名词,加上介词后在从句中充当时间状语,而这个名词可以which或that代替,是介词的宾语,但是如果把介词放在定语从句前,连接词只用which。 July is the month when (=in which) the weather is usually the hottest. 七月通常是天气最热的一个月。 He lived in a time when (=during which) the blind couldn’t get much education. 他生活在一个盲人不能得到很多教育的时代。(2021 重庆高考) Please let me know of the day when (on which) you will arrive in Beijing. 请告知我们你将到北京的时间。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于来到了。 She’ll never forget her stay there when she found her son who had gone missing two years before. 她永远都不会忘记那次停留,那时他找到了两年前失踪的儿子。 Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, when (during which) the audience can buy ice-cream. 音乐会两局部之间有中场休息,观众在那时可以买点冰淇淋。 3. 特殊用法:表示“次数〞的time 假设time 是作“次数〞讲时,应用关系代词that引导的定语从句,that可以省略。 This is the second time (that) the president has visited the country. 这是总统第二次访问这个国家。 I could hardly remember how many times (that) I’ve failed. 我几乎记不住我失败了多少次。 why引导的定语从句 1. 根本用法 领先行词在定语从句中的成分是原因状语的时候,连接词就是why,而且先行词通常是reason。 That is one of the reasons why I hate you. 这是我讨厌你的原因之一。 先行词the reasons加上介词for在从句中作原因状语,介词for是从句的逻辑关系补充的。从句补全为:I hate you (for) the reasons. The reason why he changed his mind is not clear. 他改变主意的原因还不清楚。 同理,the reason在从句中作原因状语,用why引导定语从句,相当于“因为这个原因〞。 2. why可以用“for which〞代替 for the reason 意思是“因为这个原因〞,why引导定语从句修饰reason时,相当于for the reason,因为reason是for的宾语,所以why也可以用for which代替。 Do you see any reason why (=for which) he refused to help? 你明白他拒绝帮助的理由吗? I want to know the reason why (=for which) he left so early. 我想知道他这么早离开的原因。 定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的选择 有同学一看到先行词是表示地点的名词,选择where;看到先行词为表示时间的名词,选择when;看到先行词为reason,选择why;这种做法是不对的,选什么关系代词或关系副词关键是看先行词在从句中做哪种成分。 比拟下面句子: March 22 is the day when I was born. 3月22号是我出生的那一天。〔先行词the day在从句中作时间状语:I was born on the day.〕 March 22 is the day (which/that) I will never forget. 3月22号是我永远不会忘的一天。 〔先行词the day在从句中作forget的宾语:I will never forget the day.〕 Would you please tell me the reason why you are late again for work? 你能告诉我你又一次迟到的原因吗? Would you please tell me the reason which/that at least sounds true this time? 你能告诉我这次听起来更真实点的原因吗? I saw them in the park where a lot of people were singing. 我在那家有很多人唱歌的公园里看到他们。 I saw them in the park which/that was built 10 years ago. 我在那家十年前建好的公园里看到他们的。■ 1. 明确关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中的作用不同: 1) 关系代词which, that, who在定语从句中作主语或在及物动词和介词后作宾语。 2) 关系副词when, where, why在定语从句中作状语。 The old town has narrow streets and small houses which are built close to each other. 那座老城有狭窄的街道和彼此建的很近的低矮的房子。 (从句局部缺主语,填入关系代词) This is the house where I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 〔从句中不缺少主语和宾语,the house在从句中加上in作地点状语,用关系副词where引导从句〕 I just heard the bank where Dora works was robbed by a gunman wearing a mask. 我刚刚听说多拉工作的银行被一个带着面具的持枪歹徒抢劫了。〔2021 重庆高考〕 〔从句局部的谓语works是不及物动词,不带宾语,填入关系副词where,相当于in the bank〕 A bank is the place where they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain. 〔从句局部的谓语lend和ask for为及物动词,但都已经带了宾语,填入关系副词 where,相当于at the place〕 2.选择关系代词或关系副词的方法: 1〕分析句子结构,明确语法成分:关系词在定语从句中作主语、宾语还是作状语。 2〕关键在于从句的谓语动词是否及物动词,如果是及物动词,如缺宾语那么选择关系代词;如不缺宾语或谓语动词为不及物动词,那么选择关系副词。 3〕如果从句缺少主语,而先行词正是从句谓语的主语,用关系代词。 I still remember the year when/ in which I joined the army. 我仍然记得参军的那一年。 〔先行词the year在从句中作时间状语〕 I’ll never forget 1976 that / which was full of sadness. 我永远也忘不了那充满了悲伤的的1976年。 (先行词1976在从句中作主语) I can see the desk where / on which there is a book. 我能看见上面有一本书的那张桌子。 〔先行词the desk在从句中作地点状语〕 The Science Museum, which we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London’s tourist attractions. 我们上次去英国参观的科学博物馆是伦敦的旅游景点之一。 〔先行词the Science Museum 在从句中作主语。〕 (2021 北京高考) Last year, I spent all my time looking for a job where,without dealing with the public,I could work alone,but still have a team to talk to. 去年,我花了我所有的时间找个工作,这个工作不需要应付公众,可以单独工作,但是还有一个团队可以交流。 〔先行词a job在从句中表示抽象的地点,即“在工作中〞,所以用where〕 The reason that you gave me just now was just an excuse. 你刚刚给我的理由只是一个借口。〔先行词the reason在从句中宾语。〕 The reason why he didn’t come was that he was ill. 他没有来的原因是他病了。 〔先行词the reason在从句中作原因状语〕 特殊定语从句: 1. 分裂式定语从句 有些定语从句和先行词之间插入一个词组、短语或别的成分,这称为“分裂式定语从句〞。 I have an aunt in London, who I have never seen. 我有一个姑姑在伦敦,我没有见过。 Occasions are quite rare when I have the time to spend a day with the kids. 我有时间陪孩子们的情况很少。 2. 带有插入语的定语从句。 This is my uncle, Mr. Wang, who, I guess, will help you finish the job in three hours. 这是我的叔叔王先生,我认为他会帮你在三个小时内做完这个工作。 He often helps the students who he thinks are not quick at their studies. 他经常帮助他认为在学习上反响不太快的学生。 Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, which, of course, make all the others upset. 玛丽对杰克比对其他人善良得多,这当然使其他人不快。 巩 固 练 习 二、句子改错 1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in? 3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada. 4. July 1, 1999 is the day when we’ll never forget. 5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with them. 6. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me. 7. Those that haven’t been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate. 8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your friend. 9. This is the last time when I’ve given you lessons. 10. Soon they came to a farm house, and in front of which sat a small boy. 11. We heard the news which our team won the game. 12. The reason which he explained it sounds reasonable. 13. Those at the desk want to buy tickets write down your names. 14. That was the reason because she looked old. 15. Miss Chen is the only one of the few teachers who give us wonderful English lessons in our school. 本知识点小结 对定语从句2做个总结。 做题目的时候有什么启发? 能否有个知识框架呢? 课 堂 检 测 三、比照选择 1.a. I’ll never forget the days ___ we studied together. b. I’ll never forget the days ___ we spent together. A. that B. / C. when D. on which E. A and B 2. a. This is one of the most interesting films ___ shown last week. b. This is the only/very one of the most interesting films ___ shown last week. A. which was B. that was C. which were D. that were 3.a. This is the only way ___ you can find. b. I don’t like the way ___ he spoke to his mother. A. that B. / C. in which D. A, B and C E. A and B 4. a. He has two sons, ____ are college students. b. He has two sons, and ___ are college students. A. both of which B. both of whom C. both of them D. both of it 5.a. Galileo collected facts ___ proved the earth and all the other planets moved around the sun. b. Galileo collected facts ___ the earth and all the other planets moved around the sun. A. that B. which C. / D. A and B 6. a. He still lives in the room ___ window faces to the east. b. He still lives in the room, the window ___ faces to the east. c. He still lives in the room ___ is in the north of the city. d. He still lives in the room ___ there is a beautiful table. A. which B. whose C. where D. of which 7.a. Is this museum ___ they visited last month? b. ___ cleans the blackboard is to be praised. A. that B. the one C. which D. the one who 8.a. ___ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. b. ___ who leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. c. ___ who leave the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone B. Who C. Those D. Whoever 9.a. It was eleven o’clock ___ they went out of the cinema. b. It was at eleven o’clock ___ they went out of the cinema. A. which B. that C. when D. on which 课堂总结 句子所包含的定语从句的引导词是where、 when Why 这就是我们要学习的内容。 家庭作业 四、单项选择 1. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _______ the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 2. The English play _______ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 3. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _______ they can talk frequently. A. who B. which C. about which D. with whom 4. In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m. _______ time many people have gone home. A. whose B. that C. on which D. by which 5. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 6. There are two buildings, ________ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 7. (2021 江苏宿迁期末) Students in that school are enthusiastic about community activities ______ they can gain experience for growth. A. that B. when C. which D. where 8. (2021 北京东城期末) We have put off the meeting till next week, ________ we will be all here. A. that B. which C. who D. when 9. (2021 北京高考) Opposite is St. Paul’s Church, _______you can hear some lovely music. A. which B. that C. when D. where 10. 〔2021 陕西高考〕As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time _______ he should be able to be independent. A. which B. where C. whom D. when 11. (2021四川德阳高三二诊) To pay for her son s education, she has to work three-jobs a day, ________ she does street cleaning, babysitting and writing as well. A. that B.which C.when D.where 12. (2021 北京西城期末) After living in Paris for fifty years, he returned to the small town _________ he grew up. A. which B. that C. when D. where 13. The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those _______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 14. Finally he reached a lonely island _________ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom 15. He wrote a letter ______ he explains what had happened in the accident. A. what B. which C. where D. how 五、把下面句子组合成含定语从句的句子。 1. He grew up in the small town. After graduation, he returned to the small town. 2. I work in a business. Almost everyone is waiting for a great chance there. 3. The factory fell down in the earthquake. My father used to work in the factory. 4. I will never forget the day. I met him on that day. 5. Many things are done on computers these days. We live in the days. 6. I usually played hide-and-seek with my friends in my childhood. I still remember my childhood. 本文档由香当网(https://www.xiangdang.net)用户上传

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