单元测18 试题答案
    单元测1 试题答案
    ―Could you give us a speech on management functions some day this week
    AThat’ a good idea
    BNoI already have plans
    CI’d love tobut I’m busy this week

    ―I think things have been a bit difficult for us in the last couple of months
    ―_________We’ve been working hardbut still getting behind
    AYou’re right
    BI’m afraid
    CI don’t think so

    ―Is it possible for you to work out the plan tonight
    AI’ll do that
    BI think so
    CI’d love toV

    ―This project is too big for me to finish on time
    APlease do me a favor
    BThat is a daydream
    CI’ll give you a hand

    ―We could let some of the staff work from home_________
    ―That’s a good idea
    ADo you have any good ideas
    BWhat do you think of it
    CIs there anything else

    _________CEO s spend planningthe more profitable their companies are
    AThe more time
    BThe more

    CThe less time

    _________his anger the employees called him MrThunderbut they loved him
    ADue to
    BIn spite of

    _________managers spend most of their time in facetoface contact with othersbut they spend much of it obtaining and sharing information
    ANot only
    BDo not only
    CNot only do

    AT&T found that employees with better planning and decisionmaking skills were______to be promoted into management jobs
    Amore likely
    Bmore like
    Cmore unlikely

    Even the best continually seek ways to_________their skills

    It is through enthusiasm and quiet intensity____we transform creativity and vision into the technologies

    Supervisors should_____their employees in twoway communication so that understanding takes place

    The demands and requirements placed on the CEO of Sony are different from_________on the manager of your local Wendy’s restaurant

    The Human Resource Managing Department at Honda is given specific instructions____employ the best possible workers
    Ahow to
    Bon what to

    Con how to

    The responsibilities in handbook______that managers have to be concerned with efficiency and effectiveness in the work process

    1What kind of role is Melinda taking on for her job
    AHR manager
    BProject manager
    CProject coordinator

    2How long will Melinda be trained for her new role
    AOne month
    BHalf a month
    COne year

    3How often should Melinda report to the board on the progress of the project
    AOnce a month
    BTwice a month
    COnce a week

    4What kind of contract can Melinda sign with outside contractors
    APermanent worker contract
    BStandard temporaryworker contract
    CStandard industry contract

    5Which one does NOT belong to Melinda’s responsibilities
    AFormulate the industry standard of payment
    BManage and coordinate her project team
    CReport the project progress to the board

    Who Killed Nokia

    Nokia executives attempted to explain its fall from the top of the smartphone pyramid with three factors

    (1)that Nokia was technically inferior to Apple(2)that the company was complacent and(3)that its leaders didn’t see the disruptive iPhone coming

    It has also been argued that it was none of the aboveNokia lost the smartphone battle because of divergent shared fears among the company’s middle and top managers which led to companywide inertia that left it powerless to respond to Apple’s game

    Based on the findings of an indepth investigation and 76 interviews with top and middle managersengineers and external expertsthe researchers discovered a culture of fear due to temperamental leaders and that frightened middle managers were scared of telling the truth

    The fear that froze the company came from two placesFirstthe company’s top managers had a terrifying reputationSome members of Nokia’s board and top management were described as extremely temperamental and they regularly shouted at people at the top of their lungsIt was very difficult to tell them things they didn’t want to hearSecondlytop managers were afraid of the external environment and not meeting their quarterly targetswhich also impacted how they treated middle managers

    Top managers thus made middle managers afraid of disappointing themMiddle managers were told that they were not ambitious enough to meet top managers’ goals

    Fearing the reactions of top managersmiddle managers remained silent or provided optimisticfiltered informationThusmiddle managers directly lied to top management

    Worsea culture of status inside Nokia made everyone want to hold onto vested power for fear of resources being allocated elsewhere if they delivered bad news or showed that they were not bold or ambitious enough to undertake challenging assignments

    Beyond verbal pressuretop managers also applied pressure for faster performance in personnel selectionThis led middle managers to over promise and under deliverOne middle manager told us that you can get resources by promising something earlieror promising a lotIt’s sales work

    While modest fear might be healthy for motivationabusing it can be like overusing a drugwhich risks generating harmful side effectsTo reduce this riskleaders should coordinate with the varied emotions of the staffNokia’s top managers should have encouraged safe dialogueinternal coordination and feedback to understand the true emotion in the organization
    1Nokia lost the smartphone battle because its technology is not as good as that of Apple[答案]F
    2Nokia’s middle managers were frank to tell the truthbut the top ones didn’t listen to them[答案]F
    3Nokia’s top managers were too moody to hear anything good but harsh[答案]T

    4Middle managers in Nokia delivered results more than they promised earlier[答案]F
    5Nokia’s top managers should have had better conversation techniques to encourage internal coordination and truth[答案]T
    单元测2 试题答案
    ―_________identify the problems that have been occurring
    ―Wellas you knowthe problems we had with Gary caused a lot of friction among the team
    AWhat would you
    BWill you
    CAre you able to

    ―How can you explain the latest situation
    ―_________I know it is all my fault
    BExcuse me
    CI’m afraid

    ―How did your meeting go yesterday
    ―_________actuallyit was really frustrating
    ANot so good
    BVery good
    CNothing special

    ―If you can’t say what you’ve come to say at the meetingwhat’s the point
    ―_________but I think you might need to change your approach somewhat
    AI am not sure
    BI can see that
    CI know that

    ―Will you go on a picnic with us tomorrow
    AYesbut I’ll have English classes
    BSorryI have an appointment with DrBrown
    CI’m afraid I have no idea

    Creativity especially __________ which takes place across departmental boundaries is likely to suffer hugely as team synergy slips 

    Effective leaders distill complex thoughts and strategies into simplememorable terms______colleagues and customers can grasp and act upon

    Every time I tried to say somethinghe would_________to something else
    Amove off
    Bmove on
    Cmove over

    He’s left nowbut productivity hasn’t_________that much
    Acarried on
    Bcaught up
    Cpicked up

    I think the primary_________factor is there’s been so much absence lately

    If demand is rising but the firm_________from communication failurethen stocks will fall and there will be under staffing
    Ahas been suffering
    Bis going to suffer
    Cis suffering

    In today’s environment_________people are often burned outit’s important for employees to have a personal connection with you and the work you believe in

    What you need to do is to keep things short and sweetjust the_________

    When the message finally reached the Command Centerit_________mutated to becomeSend three and fourpencewe’re going to a dance

    Who was_________the meeting


    What We Have Here A Failure to Communicate

    It is the{weirderweirdestweird}thingThere are more ways than ever to communicate with peopleyet it sometimes seems like it is more difficult to connectand stay{connectingconnectedto connect}with anyone

    Should you{shootmailgive}off an email Tap out a text Post a private message on Facebook Write on their Facebook wall Skypepokeping or conjure them up on a digital tin can phone

    And once you reach someoneyou wonder Is he paying attention How do you know Even with the technoease of{uncountablecountablecountless}communication devicesconversations can still be troublesomeQuestions are asked and answered{outawaywithin}of orderInstructions and directions go halfreadMeetings are botchedFeelings are hurt

    Cto connect




    Habits of Highly Effective Communicators

    It’s no secret that good leaders are also good communicatorsIndeedcommunication and leadership are inextricably tiedHow can you galvanizeinspire or guide others if you don’t communicate in a clearcredible and authentic way Here are 5 essential communication practices of effective leaders

    1Mind the saydo gapTrust is the bedrock of effective leadershipyour behavior is your single greatest mode of communicationand it must be congruent with what you sayIf your actions don’t align with your wordsyou are storing up trouble for the future

    2Make the complex simpleEffective leaders distill complex thoughts and strategies into simplememorable terms that colleagues and customers can grasp and act uponThe most important thing is to clarify what you want to saylook out for technical jargon and avoid business speakwhich add complexitySay what you mean in as few words as possible

    3Find your own voiceUse language that’s distinctly your ownlet your values come through in your communicationCorrect use of language and grammar are importantof coursebut don’t become overly fixated on eloquence for eloquence’s sakeconcentrate on being distinct and realPeople want realpeople respect realpeople follow real

    4Be visible Visibility is about letting your key stakeholders get a feel for who you are and what you care aboutDon’t hide behind a computer and only interact with people electronicallysee them face to face and voice to voiceand interact with them in a realsubstantial wayIn today’s environmentwhere people are often burned outit’s important for employees to have a personal connection with you and the work you believe inShow the people that work for you that you’re engaged and that you care about them and their work

    5Listen with your eyes as well as your earsEffective communication is a twoway processand good leaders know how to ask good questionsand then listen with both their eyes and their earsBecause you are in a position of authorityothers may be reluctant to express their real opinions to you directlyYou won’t always get direct feedbackso you need to also be able to read between the lines and look for the nonverbal cues
    1Communication and leadership don’t always go hand in hand[答案]F
    2The saydo gap happens when people misunderstand their leader’s intention[答案]F
    3Using technical jargon makes a leader convincing[答案]F
    4Communicating sincerely is always the best[答案]T
    5Observation is as important as communication when you want to know what people really think


    Communication Failure

    The meaning of communication goes a lot deeper than people often thinkCommunication is about conceivingsendingreceivingand interpreting messages as well as confirming reception of these messagesA failure at any point in this chain can result in ineffective communication

    Ineffective communication can be disastrousThere is a famous story of a British Army Commander who sent the message Send reinforcementswe’re going to advance back to his Command Centerthrough a long chain of subordinatesWhen the message finally reached the Command Centerit had mutated to becomeSend three and fourpencewe’re going to a dance The reinforcements never arrived

    You can demonstrate this same principlealbeit on a less dramatic scaleby trying to play Chinese Whispers with more than 20 peopleIt is highly unlikely the same message you started with will be the one you end with

    In a businessthere are three main types of communication failureEach has its own indicative signs

    The first type is known as allocative failureThis occurs when a firm is not gathering enough intelligence about its market or(most often)the information is not reaching the right pointsThe firm will not be allocating resources in step with the shifts in demandIf demand is rising but the firm is suffering from allocative communication failurethen stocks will fall and there will be under staffingIf the inverse happensthere will be a surplus of stocks and over staffing

    The second type is executive failurewhere communication to trigger specific eventsactions is either latelacking or in errorThe symptoms of this are a general loss of direction in the company or departmentsa loss of coordination and an increase in complaints from customers as things happen late or not at all

    The final type is human failureThis occurs when the general culture of a business or the relationships between particular individuals or departments do not foster effective communicationThis leads to alienated staffan increase in staff turnoveran increase in absenteeism and general frustration among staffCreativityespecially that which takes place across departmental boundariesis likely to suffer hugely as team synergy slips
    1Confirming reception of the sent messages means________
    Athe messages are sent to right receivers
    Bthe messages are correctly understood
    Cthe messages are correctly understood by right receivers

    2In the famous British Army Commander storywhich step probably did NOT go wrong in the communication chain


    3What is Chinese whispers
    AWho whispers in Chinese
    BA game to pass message around in a whisper
    CChinese people who don’t normally talk very loudly

    4Allocative failure does NOT happen when________
    Athe right information goes to the right place
    Ba company gathers false information
    Cthe correct information is not received by the right department or person

    5According to the passagewhich of the following cases does NOT belong to human failure
    ADecreasing creativity across departments
    BInadequate communication between departments
    CIncreasing customer complaints

    单元测3 试题答案
    ―I’d like to have this film developed
    AWhat’s it
    BMay I help you
    CWhat do you want

    ―Could I borrow your iPad for a few hours
    AYesyou can
    BSurehere you areEnjoy your time
    CIt doesn’t matter

    ―I am sorry for what I have said to you
    ANo problem
    BI’m sure about that
    CDon’t think any more about it

    ―What are your teammates like
    AThey are all warmhearted and helpful
    BThey all like sports and games

    CThey are all good friends

    ―Will you help me arrange a meeting with MrBrownplease
    ANono way
    BNoI can’t
    CSorry I can’tI have to finish my project right now

    How do you get your members to_________as a team
    Apull apart
    Bpull up
    Cpull together

    I believe that I have a lot to contribute______a team environmentand am comfortable in both leadership and player roles

    I have been very lucky to have had_________managers during my career so far

    I like to think ______ I am always the one finding new ways to a situation or challenge
    Ainside of the box
    Bof the box
    Coutside of the box

    If I take the time to talk with my manager at the beginning of a projectwe_________off to a great start on the same page
    Acan get
    Bhave got

    In high schoolI am equally comfortable_________as a member of a team and independently
    Ato work

    Regular and concrete feedback is important_________who is not performing up to her potential
    Awhen to deal with a worker
    Bwhen dealing with a worker
    Cwhen dealt with a worker

    Team members are_________as unique people with irreplaceable experiencespoints of viewand knowledge to contribute

    The majority of these team challenges_________anywhere
    Acan deliver
    Bare delivered
    Ccan be delivered

    The team creates an environment ______ people are comfortable in communicating advocating positions and taking action
    Cin which

    A Teamwork Game

    A team of about 35 employees had come together for a team building eventThey were a youngbright and enthusiastic teamHoweverone of their chief problems was the fact that they wouldn’t share information or solutions with each otherand the team leader thought they were too focused on themselves and not on the teamAs a resultshe brought them all into the cafeteriaAll of the tables and chairs had been stored awayand fun decorations and hundreds of different colored balloons had been placed around the room

    In the center of the room was a big box of balloons that hadn’t been blown up yetThe team leader instructed everybody to pick a balloonblow it upand write their name on itbut they had to be careful not to burst the balloon

    Although they were given a second chance if their first balloon poppedthey were out of the game the second time roundIn the endabout 30 team members wrote their names without their balloons poppingThey were then asked to leave the room andafter five minutesthe team leader brought them back in and asked them to find the balloon with their name on it amongst the hundreds of other balloons in the roomAfter 15 minutes of searchingno one had found their balloonand the team were told that they were then going to move on to the third round of the activity

    In this roundeach team member was instructed to find any balloon with a name on it and then give that balloon to the person whose name was on itWithin two minuteseverybody had their own balloonThe team leader summarized the activity thus We are much more efficient when we are willing to share with each other and much better at problem solving when we are working together

    not individually

    Sometimesmembers of teams create obstacles by focusing solely on their own pursuits and goalsEvery member of the team should ask themselves on a regular basis what they are doing and what they can do for the team
    1This team building event was aimed at_______
    Ahelping these youngbright and enthusiastic employees become more concentrated on their work
    Bmaking the team members know how to share information or solutions and cooperate with each other
    Cbuilding up team morale

    2This event was held in_______
    Aa selfservice restaurant
    Ba coffee shop
    Ca classroom

    3About how many team members were out of the second round of the activity

    4Which statement below is correct
    AIn the second roundevery one of the team had found their balloons after 15 minutes
    BIn the third roundthe team members were asked them to find the balloon with their name on it amongst the hundreds of other balloons in the room
    CIn the third roundeverybody had their own balloon with help from others within 2 minutes

    5What was the event going to teach these employees
    ASharing and cooperating with other team members is more efficient when they are working together
    BFocusing solely on employees’ own pursuits is not allowed in workplace
    CFailure of teamwork is caused by individual

    Tips for Team Building

    When you think of team buildingdo you immediately picture your group off at a resort playing games or hanging from ropes Traditionallymany organizations approach team building in this way butthenthey wonder why that wonderful sense of teamwork that had been displayed at the retreat or the seminar fails to impact long term beliefs and actions back at work

    I’m not averse to retreatsplanning sessionsseminars and team building activitiesin fact I lead them

    but they have to form part of a much larger teamwork effortYou will not build teamwork by retreating as a group for a couple of days each yearinstead you need to think of team building as something you do every single day

    Form teams to solve real work issues and to improve real work processesProvide training in systematic methods so the team expends its energy on the projectnot on trying to work out how to work together as a team to approach the problem

    Hold department meetings to review projects and progressto obtain broad inputand to coordinate shared work processesIf there is friction between team membersexamine the work processes they mutually ownthe problem is not usually their personalitiesinsteadit is often the fact that the team members haven’t agreed on how they will deliver a product or serviceor the steps required to get something done

    Build fun and shared occasions into the organization’s agendahold pot luck lunchestake the team to a sporting eventsponsor dinners at a local restaurantgo hiking or go to an amusement parkHold a monthly company meetingsponsor sports teams and encourage cheering team fans

    Use ice breakers and teamwork exercises at meetingsthese help team members get to know each othershare details about each others livesand have a laugh together

    Celebrate team successes publiclyThere are many ways you could do thisfor instance by buying everyone the same Tshirt or hatputting team member names in a draw for company merchandise and gift certificatesThe only thing limiting you is your imagination

    If you do the types of teamwork building listed aboveyou’ll be amazed at the progress you will make in creating a teamwork culturea culture that enables individuals to contribute more than they ever thought possibletogether
    1Team building event is traditionally related to playing games at resort[答案]T
    2The author claims that playing games together is as important as form teams to solve real work issues and to improve real work processes for team building[答案]F
    3Retreat in the first paragraph means withdrawal of troops after a defeat[答案]F
    4Ice breaking motivates team members compete with each other[答案]F
    5A good teamwork culture enables individuals make more efforts together[答案]T

    单元测4 试题答案
    ―You might as well write a thanksnote

    AHow do you like the rewards
    BWhat do you do with the rewards
    CCould you suggest some ways of the rewards

    ―Can I get you a couple of tea
    AThat’s very nice of you
    BWith pleasure
    CYou canplease

    ―Do you mind if I use vouchers to spend in a restaurant
    BNot at allGo ahead
    CNothank you

    ―Wow This is a fantastic project I’ve never known you’re so creative
    ADon’t mention it
    BGreatI dare to say I am a talent
    CThanks for your compliments

    ―You’d better not push yourself too hardYou can ask the team and listen
    AYou are right
    BNowe can’t do that
    CI think it will kill our time

    ___clearly communicate with and actively listen to employees is essential to improve their performance
    ABe able to
    BBeing able
    CBeing able to

    ___the jobemployers don’t want to hire people who are difficult to get along with
    ADespite of
    CRegardless of

    All the team members tried their bestWe lost the game_________

    An appreciated gift and the gesture of providing it will_________your coworker’s day

    Alook up
    Blight up
    Clift to

    Companies are_________interested in your soft skills_________they are in your hard skills
    Aso… that…

    Fiftyfive per cent of the respondents said that praise and attention from their supervisor would make them feel_________the company cared about them and their wellbeing
    Aas if
    Beven if

    I think a big part of it is_________we know how to have fun on the job

    Learning new things has always been a great_________for me

    Selfesteem needs might include the_________from a workplace

    The leader______at creating opportunities to provide rewardsrecognition and thanks to his or her staff

    1Human resources supported the proposal of giving the business intelligence a pay incent

    ive every three months at the beginning[答案]F
    2Brad from human resources supports Scott’s idea[答案]T
    3Carlotta is the manager of HRD[答案]F
    4Men and women in the business intelligence team who have been selected to get the prize will receive the same rewarding things[答案]F
    5The prizewinner cannot choose the prize that costs more than 5007The prizewinner can only have material awards and no day off[答案]T

    The Right Way to Motivate Employees

    It’s important for a CEO to be passionate and enthusiasticbut there’s a line of professionalism that must always be maintained

    According to a report from the technology website Venture BeatPayPal CEO David Marcus wrote a critical letter to his employees blaming them for not using PayPal products and encouraging them to leave if they didn’t have the passion to use the products they work for

    According to the websitepart of the leaked letter reads

    It’s been brought to my attention that when testing paying with mobile at Cafe 17 last weeksome of you refused to install the PayPal appand others didn’t even remember their PayPal passwordsThat’s unacceptable to meand the rest of my teameveryone at PayPal should use our products where availableThat’s the only way we can make them betterand better

    In closingif you are one of the folks who refused to install the PayPal app or if you can’t remember your PayPal passworddo yourself a favorgo and find something that will connect with your heart and mind elsewhere

    While not obvious at firstthe letter reveals a problem of morale and culture at PayPalAs an executiveyou certainly want your employees to use and promote your productsHoweverwhen faced with a situation where staff isn’t embracing what they makeyou need to investigate the root of the problemnot threaten

    When faced with internal problemsgood executives start by asking whyThey reach out to their executive team first and then to the entire staff to find the root of a problem and how to fix itSending out a onesided note about the problem is not leadingit’s retreating

    Leadership starts by listeningGood executives need to get out among the staff and ask questions and listen without judgment or reactionThe fact that company employees are not embracing and using its products is a failure of leadership that Marcus needs to address by selfreflectionAt the end of the dayif his employees have to be forced to use the app

    how can he expect consumers to want to willingly pay to use it Marcus should have focused on three questions
    Why are you not using the app
    What is it that we can do to ensure you use our app
    What do you need from me
    1A CEO only needs to be passionate and enthusiastic[答案]F
    2It is not professional that PayPal CEO blames his employees not to use PayPal or forget PayPal passwords[答案]T
    3A onesided note refers to the root of PayPal’s problem[答案]F
    4When faced with internal problemsgood executives find the root of a problem in their executive team first[答案]T
    5Good executives need to give feedback immediately when they are listening to the staff[答案]F
    How Google Continues to Keep Employees Happy

    Working for Google is a dream of manynot just because of what this company has achieved in the last 15 yearsbut because of its enviable work cultureWith about 37000 employees in 40 countriesyou might wonder how Google maintains a motivating work experience throughout its entire company

    Working for Google comes with perks that most other organizations can’t providebowling alleysfree haircutsgym membershipsand shuttles to and from workThe company’s secret to success is putting the same amount of time and effort into keeping employees happy as it does into innovating products

    Back when the company was just a startupcofounders Larry Page and Sergey Brin had the goal of making Google a place the most talented people wanted to work atTheir idea was simplecreating a work culture that keeps employees happy will motivate them to do their best and will keep them loyal to the company

    It’s less about the aspiration to be No1 in the worldand more that we want our employees and future ones to love it herebecause that’s what’s going to make us successfulsaid Karen Maythe Vice President of people development at Google

    Google also makes its employees want to work because managers provide tasks that are inspiring and challengingEvery employee at Google has the opportunity to spend 20 of his or her working time on a project they chooseThis freedom takes employees out of their routine and away from the mundane tasks that often make workers feel uninspired about their jobs

    LastlyGoogle shows each employee just how important he or she is to the companyEach employeeregardless of her spot on the totem polehas an influence on how Google performs

    If you value peopleand care about them as whole peopleone thing you do is giving them a voiceand you really listenMay said

    Google does just that by hosting employee forums every Fridaywhere they discuss the 20 mostasked questionsEmployees have access to all company informationadding a sense of trustand employees and leaders work together to solve problems
    1How would you describe Google
    AMediumsized international company
    BLarge global enterprises
    CLarge American company

    2Which one does NOT belong to the methods that Google motivate its employees
    APromoting the employee who has more influence on Google the higher job position
    BShuttling the employees between home and office
    COffering entertaining equipment in workplace

    3Who founded Google
    ALarry Page and Sergey Brin
    BKaren May
    CSergey Brin

    4If you are a normal employee of Googlewhat could you do EXCEPT
    AKnow all information of Google and discuss questions with your leaders
    BOnly work for the project you choose
    CPlay bowling with your colleagues and get away from mundane errands

    5What is Google’s secret to success
    AInnovating hitech products
    BPaying high salary to the employees and practicing strict management
    CValuing the happiness of its employees as much as innovating good products

    单元测5 试题答案
    ―Do you know where I can repair my motorcar
    AIt’s cheap to repair a motorcar
    BAround the street corner
    CYou drive too fast to damage it

    ―Haven’t seen you for agesWhat are you busy doing now
    AYeslong time no see
    BYeahthanks for coming
    CI am working part time in a bookstore

    ―I think I have made a great mistake
    AI don’t think soYou really made an error
    BI don’t think soIt’s really terrible
    CI don’t think soIt’s not your fault

    ―Overthetop You mean…
    AWellsometimes your coworkers feel that you are too loud
    BNoI don’t
    CThanks a lot

    ―Why didn’t you come to my birthday party yesterday
    AExcuse memy friend sent me a flower
    BSorrybut my wife had a car accident
    CFineI never go to birthday parties

    A child’s character is greatly influenced by his home__________

    At a rough__________we will take another four weeks to finish this plan

    Good work_________good pay

    Linda walked at the head_________by her colleagues
    Cto follow

    My leather shoes cost me_________the last pairs I bought
    Athree times as

    Bthree time as
    Cthree times as much as

    Please ask the solicitor what his_________would be to take the case to court

    The workmen want to_________the number of working hours and to increase pay

    They have come to the conclusion_________this winter will be even colder than before

    Wendy suggests that we_________tomorrow
    Ashall go
    Bshould go
    Cwill go

    Without his assistanceI_________the research last month
    Awould not have completed
    Bcould not finish
    Cshould not finish

    Performance Management and Performance Appraisal

    Performance management aims to acknowledge employee achievementssupport their personal and professional developmentand motivate and empower them to perform their work effectivelyPerformance management helps employees to develop their understandingknowledge and skills so that they can contribute to the achievement of the enterprise’s goals and gain personal and job satisfactionIt is a vital part of any quality human resource system

    Every enterprise wants and should expect high performance from each employeeThe elements of a competencybased performance management system willif implemented wellenable high performance which will define enterprise and personal successUsing performance management processesan enterprise can be better placed to meet competitive challenges

    This is done by

    ●identifying the critical positions

    ●determining the most important competencies for those positions

    ●providing the educationtraining and feedback required by employees

    ●holding each person accountable for their results

    The key to the performance management process is ’performance appraisal’Performance appraisal is simply an evaluation of how well an employee performs his or her job compared to a set of predetermined standardsIt is a systematic process of feedback on an employee’s work performanceand agreement to future training plansjob goals and job aspirations

    To be effectivea performance appraisal needs to have a set of agreed criteria that will be the basis of feedback as well as of setting future goalsUnits of competency provide a very effective tool for setting benchmarks or criteria for work performanceThe performance criteria within units of competency can be used as measures to assess against in a performance appraisal or review
    1Performance management is a very important part of any quality human resource system[答案]T
    2The aim of performance management is to punish the unqualified employees[答案]F
    3An enterprise can be better placed to meet competitive challenges by providing the educationtraining and feedback required by employeesfor example[答案]T
    4Every enterprise can expect high performance from each employee[答案]F
    5Performance management is also called performance appraisal[答案]F

    How to Handle a Bad Performance Review

    Getting a bad performance review can make you feel angryunappreciateddefeatedand hopelessBut it’s not the end of the worldRemember that the way you respond to this appraisal can make all the difference in the next oneEven if you believe that the review is inaccurate and that your boss is completely wrongyou will benefit by reacting in a matureadult mannerHere are some suggestions

    Stay calmRelaxBreatheDo not overreact and be objectiveEspeciallydo not say things that will likely be regretted laterBesidesthe person giving the performance review may or may not be the one who has written the bad review


    It’s best to listen attentivelyAnd make comments or remarks only when asked for themBesidesduring the performance reviewyou will be given the chance to respond and may disagree


    Don’t be intimidated by the bad performance review and want to quit the jobinsteadlearn from itAlsoif the organization allows their employees to make a written statement on their own behalfdo make oneIt is important for the worker to show why she does not agree with the bed performance reviewfor instancean employee may express their different understanding andat the same timea willingness to comply with any constructive suggestions


    A way to improve a bad performance review is to set selfreviewsthat isestablish performance standardsAnother way to improve a bad review is to learn more about what the managersupervisoror boss wants or expects from hisher employeesLearning what it was that caused a bad performance review helps to improve professional growth and encourages as well as motivates the worker to do better in order to receive a good review next time
    1What should you do when you are given a bad performance review
    AArgue with your boss
    BMake immediate remarks
    CStay calm and listen carefully

    2What should you do after you are given a bad performance review
    AQuit your job immediately
    BInsist on making comments
    CLearn from the review

    3What should you do if you do not agree with the bad performance review
    ATell the boss directly that you do not agree with the review
    BMake a written statement on your own behalf if it is allowed
    CDo not express your different understanding in a written statement

    4How do you improve a bad performance review
    AUnderstand the established performance standards
    BLearn more about what the employee wants or expects
    CLearn what the person who gives the review may think

    5Why should we understand the cause of a bad performance review
    ABecause it helps the employee to get promoted immediately
    BBecause it encourages and motivates the worker to do better

    CBecause it prevents the employee from professional growth

    单元测6 试题答案
    ―Can I have three days off next weekMrSmith
    ―__________I can manage without you
    AI’m afraid not
    BOf course
    CIt depends

    ―Don’t worryMumThe doctor said it was only a common cold
    AWhat a relief
    BHow surprising
    CI’m so sorry

    ―If you don’t believe in yourselfno one else will
    ―_________Confidence is really important
    AThat’s not the point
    BI don’t think so
    CI couldn’t agree more

    ―Which of these hats do you want
    ―_________Either will do
    AI don’t mind
    BNo problem
    CGo ahead

    ―I’m going to Beijing for a few days
    ―__________I wish I could go with you
    AIt doesn’t matter
    BForget it
    CI really envy you

    ______the deepening of China’s economic reformsthere is greater cooperation
    BAs well as
    CFor the sake of

    All_________glitters(闪闪发光)is not gold

    By the end of the yearthe sales plan for the next year_________
    Awill be made
    Bwill have been made
    Chave been made

    He ordered that nothing_________until the police arrived
    Awas touched
    Bshould be touched
    Chad been touched

    On hearing the news of_________the major exam againthe girl burst into tears
    Aher having failed
    Bshe failed
    Cher being failed

    Redundancy happens when employees need to_________their workforceAnd as a result

    She is very adaptive and soon adapted_________to the campus life

    There is no_________the fact that he is the best student in the class

    They depend on each other to surviveIn other wordsthey are_________for survival

    To build the reservoir(水库)thousands of people have to be_________ 


    On May 271995our life was suddenly changedIt happened a few minutes past threewhen my husbandChrisfell from his horse as it jumped over a fenceChris was paralyzed(瘫痪)from the chest down{ableunablesuitable}to breathe normallyAs he was thrown from his horsewe entered into a life of disability with lots of unexpected challengesWe went from the haves to the havenotsOr so we thought

    Yet what we discovered later were all the gifts that came out of sharing difficultiesWe came to learn that something{terriblepracticalwonderful}could happen in a disasterAll over the world people cared for Chris so much that letters and postcards poured in every dayBy the end of the third week in a medical center in Virginiaabout 35000 pieces of{newspapermail}had been received and sortedAs{patientsa familynurses}we opened letter after letterThey gave us comfort and became a source of strength for usWe use them to encourage ourselvesI would go to the pile of letters marked with funny if we need a laughor to the disabled box to find advice from people in wheelchairs or even in bed living happily and{successfullybitterlyweakly}These letterswe realizedhad to be sharedAnd so here we offer one of them to you



    Ba family


    Jack Welch Leading Organizational Change at GE

    When Jack Welchthe Chairman and CEO at General Electric(GE)retired in 2001he could look back at a very successful careerHe became CEO in 1981 at the age of 45

    At that timeGE had a very complex organizational structure with considerably bureaucratic rules

    One of his first changes was to initiate a strategy formulation process with the guideline that each of the businesses should be number 1 or 2 in their respective areasIf this was not the casemanagers had the options of fixing the problemselling their particular businessor closing itIn an effort to streamline the organizationWelch removed the sector level and eliminated thousands of salaried and hourly employee positions

    The restructuring was followed by changing the organizational culture and the managerial styles of GE’s managersOne such program was the WorkOut(群策群力)Groups of managers were assembled to share their views openly in threeday sessionsAt the beginning of the meetingsthe superior presented the challenges for his or her organizational unitThen the superior had to leaverequesting the groups to find solutions to the problemsFacilitators(会议持)helped these discussionsOn the last daythe superior was presented with proposed solutionsHe or she then had three choicesto accept the proposalnot to accept itor to collect more informationThis process put great pressure on the superior to make decisions

    Another program to improve effectiveness and efficiency was Best PracticesThe aim was to learn from other companies how they obtained customer satisfactionhow they related to their suppliersand in what ways they developed new productsThis helped the GE people to focus on the processes in their operations that would improve the company’s performance

    Jack Welch was personally involved in developing managers at GE’s training center in CrotonvilleLeadersWelch suggestedare not only those who achieve results but also those who share the values of the company
    1Jack Welch retired at the age of 65[答案]T
    2Jack Welch insisted that each of the businesses should be at least number 3 in their respective area[答案]F
    3If the business could not meet Welch’s change requirementsits manager had 3choices[答案]T
    4The restructuring went before changing the organizational culture and the managerial styles of GE’s managers[答案]T
    5The Work Out lasted a week[答案]F

    How to Adapt to Change in the Workplace

    If there’s one word that captures the essence of what is occurring in the world todayit’s changeDownsizingreorganizingand cutting costsare now the norm for survival

    No industry is exemptEven the most conservative institutions are undergoing significant change just to survive

    Change management has always been an issue of debate amongst scholarshow can employers create suitable conditions for a successful change process And what can employees do to get through it

    Tips for dealing with change in the workplace

    ●Make yourself aware that change happensit happens in personal lifeit happens in your professional lifeYou cannot live in the pastso denying that change could occur only makes things more complicated for you

    ●Stay alert in the workplaceknow what is happening around youWhen you come across clues that hint change is on the wayacknowledge them

    ●Maintain open communication channelsDon’t lay back and expect things to pass you by smoothlyYou need to get acquainted with the occurring changesSeek more details from your management and peers to form an accurate understanding of the matterBe transparent and honest about your fearsdealing with the unknown is often resented and dauntingMake the picture as clear as you can

    ●Assess yourselfChange is a time when one’s confidence about one’s skills and capabilities gets shakyRecognize your strengths and where you could bring them into playAt the same timestay aware of your developmental areas and work on improving those

    ●Don’t be stiffIt will make the change process much harder if you are rigidBe flexible enough to look at the different angles of the change and see where you could apply your existing skills and knowledgeand what news skills you need to acquire

    ●Stay optimisticKeep a positive attitude and don’t let yourself drown in uncertaintyInvolve yourself in the new processlocate yourself properly in the new scenarioAdjust

    You can’t get to the top of Everest by jumping up the mountainYou get to the mountaintop by taking incremental stepsStep by stepyou get to the goalsays Robin Sharmaone of the world’s mostsoughtafter leadership and personal success experts
    1Enterprises carry out downsizingreorganizing and cutting costs in order to______
    Acut down on the number of workers
    Breshuffle the organization

    2No industry is exempt means______
    ANo industry is an exception
    BNo industry is an example
    CNot every industry can be exempted

    3The following questions are often discussed among scholars EXCEPT______
    AHow can bosses create favorable conditions for change
    BHow can productivity be increased
    CWhat can workers do to get through change

    4How many suggestions does the author put forward

    5From the passagewe know that Robin Sharma is ______
    Aan expert on leadershipand personal success
    Ba great leader
    Csomeone who likes to play the game of Hide and Seek

    单元测7 试题答案
    ―Have you already paid What’s my share of the bill
    ―_________It wasn’t very much
    AIt’s my share
    BNone of your business
    CDon’t worry about it

    ―Sorry for being lateI should have called you earlier
    ―_________I’ve just arrived
    AThat’s no trouble
    BYou are welcome
    CThat’s all right

    ―Terribly sorry to interruptbut may I use your dictionary
    Aof course
    Bit doesn’t matter
    Cno hurry

    ―The Auto Show in the City Stadium has been canceled
    AWhat a pity
    BIt doesn’t matter
    CIt’s not interesting at all

    ―The trip ought not to take more than an hour
    ―__________It is at least two hours

    AI guess so
    BYou must be joking
    CIt depends

    _________on the hilltopyou could enjoy the scenery of the city bathed in the sun

    _________the importance of Englishwe should put more effort into it and try to learn it well

    _________there is smokethere is fire

    After days of investigationthe police were_________reality
    Alooking into

    All the_________guests are seated in the front row

    An agreement was reached on the_________of mutual respect and mutual interest

    Compared_________EnglishChinese is generally believed to be more difficult to learn

    The reason_________he was absent from class yesterday was that he was ill and hospitalized

    Their economy is export_________

    What can we expect__________him

    1Two different corporate cultures are discussed in the dialog[答案]T
    2Melinda’s company also has a creative culture[答案]F
    3According to Jackthe important thing is to hire the right employees in the first place[答案]T
    4In a creative culture teamwork is not encouraged[答案]F
    5A creative culture is better than a collaborative culture[答案]F

    What is museum
    A museum is a good place to keep old and beautiful thingsA museum may be a place to learn about scienceA museum can be a place{foronabout}art of Indians or animalsWhat is inside a museum Some museums have old cars and airplanesMany museums have pictures and statues(雕)Others have rocks and old bonesOne museum even has{theaan}coal mine inside Many cities have museumsSome very small{townshomescountries}have museumstooIndianapolis has a{child’schildchildren’s}museumChildren do not have to pay to get inChildren go to the museum oftenThey like to look at the dinosaur bonesThey see a white bear ten feet tallThey go inside an old log cabin(木屋)On SaturdayIndianapolis children can{listento hearhear}talks about animals and treesThey see movies





    Bto hear

    Create a Positive Workplace Culture

    In competitive marketsleaders are under increased pressure to maintain a positive work cultureA positive work culture cultivates greater employee satisfactiongreater employee satisfaction contributes to higher performancehigher performance impacts improved client outcomesimproved client outcomes contribute to service excellence

    Positive work cultures are built over time and need constant attentionSuch cultures are dependent on leadership vision and values

    An effective leader sets the tone for the teamencourages a positive workplace culture and is able to bring about cultural change

    Workplace culture is made up of the shared attitudesbeliefsbehaviorsvalues and expectations that influence the way people work in the workplaceIt is the way we do things around here

    Some cultural aspects are understood by all and are obvious such as turning up for wok on timewhile others may be unwritten rules that are not so obvious for example how personal issues are resolved with work colleagues

    Many factors that influence whether a workplace has a positive outlook are within the control of people who work in a workplaceThere are also factors out of their controlsuch as slumps in global prices or a change in demand and supplyThe company canhowevercontrol how they respond to these factors

    Those companies that do create positive workplace environments develop a reputation in their community as being ’good to work for’ and have a competitive edgeNot only are these companies more able to attract and retain peoplethey tend to be more stable as they proactively deal with issues and adapt to change

    Teams work best when they are clear about what is expected of themThey are more able to deal with difficult issues if they feel the values of the organization are supportive of them

    For a workplace culture to be positivethe direction and actions of the business must be consistent with the core values of the people in the workplaceThe people must trust each other and be able to openly express and exchange ideas

    Working through these steps will help with developing a positive business culture
    1A positive work culture will give workers more satisfaction[答案]T
    2Positive cultures have a lot to do with leadership vision and values[答案]T
    3The direction and actions for the business must differ from the core values of the employees in order for a workplace culture to be positive[答案]F
    4In competitive marketsleaders are under more and more pressure to keep a positive work culture[答案]T
    5Positive work culture can be built in a short period of time[答案]F
    单元测8 试题答案
    ―Actually I prefer working on my own
    ACould I use this dictionary
    BMay I open the window to let in some fresh air
    CDo you prefer teamwork or working individually

    ―I’d like a wakeup call at 700 amplease
    AYou will certainly make it
    BI’ll make sure you get one
    Cjust do what you like

    ―It’s about a successful businessman’s management experienceisn’t it
    AMy pleasure
    BThat’s right
    CIt’s up to you

    ―ScottI’d like to have your opinions about my written report
    ―________________But I have one suggestion
    AThat’s a good idea
    BYou are too modest
    CIt looks fine to me

    ―Who should be responsible for the accident
    ―The bossnot the workersThey just carried out the order_________
    Aas are told
    Bas told
    Cas they told

    ―You have to believe in yourselfNo one else willif you don’t
    ―_______________Confidence is really important
    AIt’s not my cup of tea
    BI don’t think so
    CI couldn’t agree more

    _______we can’t compete in terms of size I do believe we hold an advantage in terms of dedication to customer service

    He will write to me as soon as he_________home
    Awill have returned
    Cwill return

    How do we expect to compete with a company that has such a huge_________and huge resources

    Please________your hand if you have any question at all

    This is the man_________last night
    Awhom I saw him
    Bwhom I saw
    Cwhat I saw

    The key______successful implementation is clearly communicating the strategy to the whole company


    We_________with achievement
    Bare obsessed
    Ccatch up

    We need___communication skillslisten carefullythink before you speak and manage conflicts diplomatically

    When people are surrounded by_______communication and encouragementthey can find the courage to tryfailredoand try again

    This evening I met a friend at a local barShe brought her laptop{alongaroundforward}so she could show me some of her latest digital art designsAs we looked through her artworkthe laptop suddenly started making an unhealthy noisethen the screen twinkled on and off and then cut off{normallycompletelysuddenly}And as we both stared at one another surprisinglythe terrible smell of fried computer circuits appeared

    I grabbed the laptop off the bar to inspect it and the problem instantly arose itselfThe bottom of the laptop was completely wet and emptyspilt water glass rested against the side of her purse just behind where the laptop was sittingWhile we were chatting and shifting the laptop’s 17 inch screen{up and downback and forthin and out}we somehow spilt a glass of water that the waiter had inadvertently(意)placed behind the screenwhich was out of our view

    When life throws id some troubles like thisit typically doesn’t make any sense to usand our natural emotional reaction might get extremely{upsetexcitedsurprised}at the top of our lungsBut how does this help our dilemma Obviouslyit doesn’t

    The smartest and hardest thing we can do in these kinds of situations is to be more tempered in our reactionYou’d be much wiser and more disciplined than scream extremely

    You should remember that emotional rage only makes matters worseAnd please remember that once it happensthat will give us an opportunity to grow stronger

    Every difficult moment in our lives is accompanied by an opportunity for personal growth and{creativityrespectactivity}But in order to attain this growth and creativity


    Aup and down
    Bback and forth
    Cin and out



    Vision and Execution Two Sides of a Successful Strategy

    A strategic plan is not the end goal of the strategic planning processit is the framework for successfully implementing a strategyUntil a strategic plan is put into effectit has no real value

    There are several keys to successful implementationFirstpeople directly involved in executing the strategy must be included in the planning processStrategic planning is no longer a topdown directiveWithout the input and feedback of the people responsible for executing on the strategya seemingly solid strategy is likely to fall apart when implementation is attempted

    The next key to successful implementation is clearly communicating the strategy to the whole companyThe communication should ensure that everyone in the company understands and accepts the strategy as the best path forwardand not simply the leadership’s latest ideaWithout clear communicationemployees lack a sense of ownership and clarity of purpose

    When a strategy is not understood or embracedit usually results in misunderstanding and uneven commitments to implementation

    Another key to the successful execution of a strategic plan is the clear and straightforward description of the plan and its operationsEven the most brilliant strategy faces failure if it cannot be explained clearly and concisely
    1The final goal of the strategic planning process is a strategic plan[答案]F
    2A strategic plan is valuable if it is executed[答案]T
    3There are four keys to successful implementation[答案]F
    4A good strategy is likely to fall apart if without the input and feedback of the people responsible for executing on the strategy[答案]T
    5Leadership’s idea determines all[答案]F

    How Do You Create a Culture of Innovation

    Have you noticed the courage buried in the word encourage To create a culture in which innovation flourishes takes courageDetermined innovators are always courageous enough to establish a culture in which innovation is greatly encouraged and rewardedHere are three ways to do that

    Put innovation at the heart of strategyand persist it in every messageThink of innovation strategy as a pyramidbig bets at the topa few projects in development in the middleand a broad base of continuous improvementslasting contributionsand earlystage new ideas at the bottom

    Define jobs around innovationMake it a job prerequisiteConsider 3M’s move to become one of the first companies to tell professionals that they could spend 15 percent of their time on projects of their own choosingNow many hightech companies know that they can’t get the best talent without providing this kind of flexibilityAnd some of those selfselectedselforganized projects might even result in a blockbuster product or line of businessFor 3Mit was the Postit note

    Recognize innovation in every part of the companyTo build a culture of creativity and innovationGillette developed an innovation fair in which every unit could show off its most promising new conceptsIt shows that everyone has a role to play in a culture of innovation

    To go from idea to successful innovation requires a great deal of support and collaborationWhen people are surrounded by constant communication and encouragementthey can find the courage to tryfailredoand try again
    1What is necessary in creating innovation culture


    2How does 3M create its innovation culture
    APut innovation at the heart of strategyand persist it in every message
    Bdefine jobs around innovation
    CRecognize innovation in every part of the company

    3The word prerequisite in Make it a job prerequisite means_______
    Arequired as a prior condition
    Bgoing after
    Cprior to request

    4How does Gillette create its innovation culture
    APut innovation at the heart of strategyand persist it in every message
    Bdefine jobs around innovation
    CRecognize innovation in every part of the company

    5The formation from idea to innovation needs_______
    Adiscussion and revise
    Bfailure and courage
    Csupport and cooperation




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