Unit 2grammar


    1 Unit 2 Basic parts of a sentence (2) 【GRAMMAR】 1. Object and complement The basic parts of a sentence include subject, predicate, object, complement, attribute and adverbial. As we have seen, any sentence is made up of a subject and a predicate. Predicates are verbs. Generally, verbs can be put into two: linking verbs and action verbs. Both of them require a word to complete their meaning. We can call such a word complement. The complement of a linking verb is called a predicative or a subject complement, which describes or renames the subject. For example: 1. My favorite playwright is William Shakespeare. 2. Mark Twain became a pilot on a steamboat. 3. She felt uneasy in the crowd. The complement of an action verb is called an object. Subject is the doer of the action, and the object is the receiver of the action. 1. The old man caught a big fish. 2. Her husband frequently beat her. 3. My uncle eventually gave up smoking. Sometimes action verbs have two different objects: direct object and indirect object. Direct object is the receiver of the action while an indirect object is the receiver of the direct object. For instance: Harry bought his son a new school-bag. “a new school-bag” is the receiver of the verb “bought”, so it is the direct object; “his son” is the receiver of the direct object “ a new school-bag” and it is the indirect object. Usually, a preposition “to” or “for” can be put in front of the indirect object. For example, 1. The old man left his daughter a large house. (The old man left a large house for his daughter.) 2. Jim presented his girl friend a bunch of flowers. (Jim presented a bunch of flowers to his girl friend.) Different from the indirect object, an object complement is used to complete the meaning of the direct object. In general, it comes immediately after the direct object, to identify or describe it. Some verbs usually have object complements, such as appoint, make, consider, call, elect, name, think, choose, find, and prove and so on. 1. The committee appointed Franklin a general manager. 2. No one considered him an expert. 2 3. The bunch of flowers made her girlfriend happy. Adverbials indicates time, place, manner, and reasons. They answer questions such as when, where, how and why. Adverbials can be adverbs, prepositional phrases, or adverbial clauses. As a rule, a long adverbial are placed at the end of a sentence, while short adverbials are flexible to locate: at the beginning, in the middle or at the end may be all right. For instance 1. The train will arrive next morning. 2. He carefully drove his car to the station. 3. Very soon, she knew the full story. 2.Basic sentence structures There is a set of five basic sentence structures in English. As we have learnt, any complete sentence will include some combination of a number of common elements: subject, predicate, predicative/ subject complement, object, object complement, and adverbial. Now, let’s have a look at the possible combination of these elements. Structure 1: Subject- predicate (S-P) The S-P sentence structure is made up of a noun, pronoun, or other nominal as the subject of the sentence and an intransitive verb or verb phrase as the predicate. Time flies. Dead dog don’t bite. Money talks. The large yellow bus has stopped. Structure 2: Subject- linking verb- predicative/ subject complement (S-IV-C) The words acting as a predicative may be a prepositional phrase to show the place of the subject, or a noun to identify or rename the subject, or an adjective to indicate the state of the subject. Speech is the picture of mind. Every beginning is hard. The firemen are inside the building. The corn grows tall. Structure 3: Subject-Predicate-Object (S-P-O) The verb acting as a predicate in the S-P-O sentence structure is a transitive verb, which may take a direct object or both a direct object and an indirect object. Poverty tries friends. Many hands make light work. Nature taught the boy the meaning of fear. The Liberian handed me a Spanish dictionary. Structure 4: Subject-Predicate-Object-Adverbial (S-P-O-A) The words acting as an adverbial can be adverbs, prepositional phrases, or adverbial clauses, providing information about time, place, manner, and reasons. 3 You never miss the water till the well runs dry. No man can make a good coat with bad cloth. My child finished his homework quickly. Structure 5: Subject-Predicate-Object-Object Complement (S-P-O -OC) Different from an indirect object which is the receiver of the direct object, an object complement is to complete the meaning of the direct object. The words acting as an object complement can be nouns, adjectives or prepositional phrases. The villagers found their bedrooms ankle-deep in water. The captain named his small boat “Flying fish”. The friendly mood makes us comfortable.

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