1 Unit 1 Basic parts of a sentence (1) 【GRAMMAR】 1. Subject and predicate A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject is the naming part of the sentence, representing the person, place, or thing that performs the action of the verb or expressing the condition or state of the verb. Subjects are nouns and other forms that can function as nouns, such as pronouns, clauses, infinitives and gerunds. A subject usually comes first in a sentence. It is the topic about which the speaker or writer is speaking or writing. For example, 1) My grandfather bought the car many years ago. 2) The car was bought many years ago by my grandfather. The two sentences above are almost similar in meaning, but they have different topics. In sentence 1, the focus of the meaning is “my grandfather”; whereas, sentence 2 is mainly about “the car”. In different contexts, we have a different choice of the two sentences. See if you can put a suitable one of the two sentences above into each space below. In my garage, there is an old car. _______________. It is a Cadillac, a very classical luxury car, manufactured in 1966. The car has 65.000 original miles on it, but sitting in a damp garage for most of its life didn’t do many favors for it. In my garage, there is an old car. It is my grandfather’s gift for my grandmother. _____________. In order to buy this car, my grandfather had been saving his money for quite a few years. He worked as a truck driver for a local grocery chain, and supported a big family on his salary. Needless to say, money was pretty hard to come by that time. According to my grandmother, at the end of the day he would come home and empty his space change into a jar beside the bed. When the jar was full, he would take it to the band. Predicates are verbs. A predicate is the doing or being part of the sentence, expressing the action or state of being of the subject. The predicate, often coming after the subject, is the semantic and grammatical center of a sentence. I bought a house for my parents. Some of the buried workers are still alive. The babies grew nervous from the loud noise. A verb is often made up of more than one word. The verb that expresses the action or state of being of the subject is called main verb. The word that accompany the main verb is called an 2 auxiliary/ helping verb, which helps the main verb express mood or time by forming various tenses. George must be playing basketball with them now. The thief has been caught in a deserted building. Auxiliary /helping verbs can not be used alone in a sentence. It must go together with main verbs. Correct the following sentences:  Tomorrow will surely better.  Our campus will more and more beautiful.  When you opened the window, the room would immediately bright. Verb can be classified into two: action verbs and linking verbs. An action verb expresses an action, such as do, act, make, walk, take, break, react, write, see, say, buy, build and so on. A linking verb links/joins the subject of a sentence (often a noun or a pronoun) with a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that identifies or describes the subject. It does not show action, but express the existence or state of being of the subject. A noun, a pronoun or an adjective that follows a linking verb is called a predictive, which points back to the subject to rename it, to identify it or to describe it further. There are eleven linking verbs which are most frequently used. We can briefly put them into three groups. 1) expressing judgment or change: be, get, turn, prove 2) indicating five senses of humans: look, feel, smell, taste, sound 3) some others, “GRABS”: grow, remain, appear, become, seem Examples: For years her grandfather was one of the town leaders. My coat seemed too large. Pineapple sometimes tastes better with salt. Most students feel disappointed with the result. The time of his birth remains a mystery to us.

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