• 1. Continuous ImprovementGMS持续改进员工参与标准化制造质量缩短制造周期持续改进
  • 2. 32 GMSContinuous ImprovementBuilt-In QualityShort Lead TimePeople InvolvementStandardizationContinuous ImprovementHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessControlled External TransportationManufacturing Process ValidationProduct Quality StandardsQuality System ManagementScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementValuesVision /MissionShop Floor ManagementInternal Pull / DeliveryAndon ConceptProblem SolvingSimple Process FlowIn-Process Control & VerificationStandardized WorkSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material StorageQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessLean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive Maintenance Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order Parts
  • 3. Continuous Improvement Company持续改进的公司Small, steady improvements to constantly improve The Standard!! 从细小、稳定的改进到 标准的不断提高No Company Today Can Survive Without Having All Employees Focused on Continuous Improvement 没有改进就难以生存
  • 4. Continuous ImprovementWhat Is Absolutely Necessary Before Continuous Improvement Can Occur? 在能够进行持续改进前什么工作是绝对必要的?Stability Through Standardization! 通过标准化获得稳定发展
  • 5. StandardizationImprovement 改进StandardizationStandardizationStandardizationImprovement 改进Improvement 改进Continuous ImprovementStandardization Before Continuous Improvement! 在进行持续改进前的标准标准化标准化标准化标准化
  • 6. Plan 计划Do 实施Check 检查Action 运作Grasp the Situation 掌握情况The PDCA CyclePDCA
  • 7. The PDCA Cycle is One Of The Most Important Concepts In A Company…PDREACTPPoor companies do little planning, mostly doing, do not check their status and then react to everything… 没有远见的公司很少做计划,大多数情况是直接实施,从不检查实施情况,此后对每件事都是如此…… DCAWorld-Class companies do excellent planning, always perform checks that enable to take corrective action and stay on schedule… 世界级的大公司会做非常周详的计划,对每件工作进行跟踪检查以便及时采取纠正措施并按进度表运行……BADGOOD
  • 8. Let’s go to Kyong Ju!!! Plan 计划Prepare for the tripTwo days before leaving, check engine – OIL LEAK!Fix oil leak & leave on timeOur Family Has Not Had A Vacation In A Long Time!PDCA Can Be Used For AnythingDo 实施Grasp the Situation 掌握情况Check 检查Action 运作
  • 9. Manufacturing Process ValidationProduct Quality StandardsQuality System ManagementIn-Process Control & VerificationQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardStandardized WorkVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationControlled External TransportationScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementInternal Pull / DeliverySimple Process FlowSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material Storage Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order PartsHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessValuesVisionShop Floor ManagementContinuous ImprovementAndon ConceptProblem SolvingEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessLean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive MaintenanceAndon ConceptProblem SolvingEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM/DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessLean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive Maintenance暗灯概念TPM业务计划实施解决 问题持续改进的过程早期管理及综合设计 (DFM/DFA)厂房,设备,工具及布置的精益化设计
  • 10. Manufacturing Process ValidationIn-Process Control and VerificationProduct Quality StandardsQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardStandardized WorkVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationAndon ConceptProblem SolvingContinuous Improvement ProcessBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive MaintenanceControlled External TransportationScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementInternal Pull / DeliverySimple Process FlowSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material Storage Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order PartsHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessValuesVisionShop Floor ManagementContinuous ImprovementBusiness Plan Deployment业务计划实施Quality System ManagementEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Lean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and Layout
  • 11. A common process which enables our Global Organization made up of multiple parts, to act in unison to achieve company wide goals in five key categories:DefinitionBusiness Plan Deployment定 义Safety People Quality Responsiveness CostBPD是一种共有的方法,它能使多个部分组成我们的全球团队,通过五个核心范畴统一行动以达到公司的总体目标:安全 员工 质量 响应 成本
  • 12. ?Division Director?different directionsno ownershipconflicting goalsMISSION????duplicationBefore BPD…部门主管通过不同的途径没有落实责任目标向冲突任务重复ONLY HE KNOWS THE GOALS…
  • 13. MISSIONTRACK PERFORMANCEDEPLOY RESOURCESGME-BPD GuideFOCUSTARGETSCLEAR DIRECTIONCOMMON GOALS任务对工作进行跟踪调动资源关注目标思路清晰共同目标Division Director部门主管EVERYONE KNOWS THE GOALS…After BPD…
  • 14. Concrete GOALSRegular and Consistent ReviewsCoordinationVision/Mission Achieving Our VisionIn Order for GMDAT/DIMC to Achieve Its VISION, we have to achieve our goalsSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESCLEAR & MEASURABLE TARGETSA METHOD TO RESEARCH THE TARGETS为了实现GMDAT/DIMC的宗旨,我们必须实现我们的目标宗旨/任务定期坚持审议协调具体目标明确目标清晰的,可量化的目标有搜寻目标的方法我们的宗旨
  • 15. Safe working environment for all employeesRegular and Consistent ReviewsCoordinationVision/Mission Achieving Our VisionIn Order for GMDAT/DIMC to Achieve Its VISION, we have to achieve our goalsNo safety incidents 零事故Φ Lost Work Day 没有损失工作日事故Increase Compliance of PPE 增加对PPE的使用定期坚持审议协调我们的宗旨宗旨 / 任务为所有员工创造安全的工作环境为了实现GMDAT/DIMC的宗旨,我们必须实现我们的目标
  • 16. Why Engage the Workforce? 为何要雇佣工人?Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?1-66-1010-2020-4040-10050%40%30%20%10%% of People Involvement% of Possible Improvement 员工的参与率参与的可能性为什么?为什么?为什么?为什么?为什么?Who is involved in BPD? – Everyone!!! 那些人与BPD有关?——每个人!!!
  • 17. Division ManagersMission/Strategy Goals & Objectives Clear Targets Action Plans Review Process 任务/对策 目标 实施计划The Cascading Process (catch balling 抓住要点)Level 2Level 3Level 4Level 1Detailed Action Plans and CountermeasuresCascading Strategies and Objectives详细的实施计划及应急措施层层实施计划并实现目标Group LeaderAction Plans Clear Targets Review Process 实施计划 目标清晰TeamClear Targets Review Process 目标清晰 回顾流程层层递进的流程Department ManagerGoals & Objectives Clear Targets Action Plans Review Process 目标 目标清晰 实施计划
  • 18. Each Level of Leadership Must Hand Down Targets to Their Team…Bupyung – 100Press - 10 Body - 30 Paint - 15 G.A. - 45For Example, Defects Per Hundred Vehicles (DPHV)…Trim 1 - 10 Trim 2 - 15 Trim 3 - 10 Trim 4 - 10Production DirectorShop ManagerPlantShopGroupTeamTeamsGroup LeaderTeamsTeams
  • 19. But The Targets Don’t Always Have To Measure The Same Thing, But Something That Will Affect the Next Level Up… 对于同一目标中相同的事情不需要都量化,但有些事情却会影响到下一层次的改进 S.M.A.R.T. Targets: Specific, Measurable, Aligned, Realistic & Timed 目标是:特定的, 可测量的, 校正的, 现实的 定时的Targets Have To Have Meaning To People!! 目标对员工必须有意义! Team LeaderI have to achieve 0.000135 Hours/Vehicle???
  • 20. GMDAT/DIMC Cost per VehicleTEAM - COCKPIT INSTALL Top Scrap Item (# of Gloves Consumed)GROUP LEADER TRIM 1 Top 3 ScrapSHOP MANAGER G.A. Budget AccountsCHANGWON PLANT Total Manufacturing CostI understand my piece of the pie? 我知道自己应得的馅饼有多大班组-驾驶座安装 主要耗材(手套)GMDAT/DIMC 每辆车的成本大宇昌原整车厂 总制造成本总装车间主任 预算调整一工段工段长 三种主要耗材Target Cascade - ExampleEveryone Gets A Piece Of The Pie That Is Easy To Bite Into!!!S.M.A.R.T. Targets: Specific, Measurable, Aligned, Realistic & Timed 指定的, 可测量的, 校正的, 现实的 定时的
  • 21. Targets Are A Good Start, But We Need Good Methods To Achieve Them…目标是个好开端,但需要好方法才能达到。GOAL = Lead a Healthy Lifestyle 以一种健康的生活方式生活OBJECTIVE – Maintain a Light Weight 保持苗条TARGET – 65 kgMETHODS - Exercise Regularly (3x/week) 有计划地锻炼 (每周3次) - Cut Down On Fast Food (1x/week) 减少吃快餐的次数(每周1次)The Concept Can Be Applied To Anything In Life!!
  • 22. GOAL = OBJECTIVE = TARGET = METHOD(S) = BPD Exercise Think of an example at work or at home where you can establish a Goal, Objective, Target and at least one Method 想想工作或生活中设立的目标及实现方法。 Discuss as a team and report – Take 10 minutes 团队讨论及汇报---十分钟
  • 23. Plan 计划Do 实施Check 检查Action 运作Grasp the Situation 了解情况PDCA is the foundation of BPDPDCA是 BPD的基础
  • 24. Below Expectations Needs Improvement Meets ExpectationHow does it work?ActionsAnnual Business PlanX Activities 行动 PLANDOPROBLEM SOLVING 问题解决CHECKACTPDCA如何运作?未完成 需要改进 完成Regular ReviewsGoals, Objectives, Targets, MethodsCountermeasures对策 Open, Team Discussion Coaching & Learning Get Support & Resources Go To See
  • 25. BPD – We Will Be Successful When Everyone Focuses On What They Can Control! 当每个人都集中力量做事,我们就一定能成功做到BPD。Why can’t they design better cars??What can I do in my area to improve?Ask Not What Others Can Do – Ask What Can You Do On Your B.P.D.!!! 不追问别人做的,关键在你的自己BPD能做的。
  • 26. Visual Management … Status at a Glance 可视化管理……让信息容易读取 - Makes out of standard condition highly visible. 突出超标的情况。 Open Communication/Team Concept - Enables all to focus on action plan/countermeasures and discuss as a team. 让所有人像一个团队一样共同关注某个行动的计划或对策并参与讨论。KEY BPD CONCEPTS BPD的核心理念BPD a critical tool to achieve Continuous Improvement. BPD是评定是否获得持续改进的工具 - Achieve targets and then “raise the bar”. 达到了目标,接着制定更高的目标。PDCA - Discipline & Follow-up 一种规则并需要持续进行“Go-To-See” Leadership Style “Go-To-See” 领导模式 - Don’t just sit at desk and receive reports. 不要只是坐在办公室等待别人来汇报。
  • 27. Manufacturing Process ValidationQuality System ManagementQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardStandardized WorkVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationAndon ConceptProblem SolvingEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive MaintenanceControlled External TransportationScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementInternal Pull / DeliverySimple Process FlowSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material Storage Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order PartsHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessValuesVision/ MissionShop Floor ManagementContinuous ImprovementAndon Concept暗灯 概念Lean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutIn-Process Control and VerificationProduct Quality Standards
  • 28. What is an Andon System? 什么是暗灯系统?The ANDON System allows team members to pull the cord and call for help when there is a problem or out of standard situation. The ANDON System is an enabler to control quality while keeping the line running by pulling in support to address problems before they stop the line 暗灯系统允许员工在出现问题或有超标情况时拉绳索以寻求帮助 暗灯系统可以在保持流水线继续运行的情况下,员工拉下绳索寻求支持人员在停线前到出现问题的工位解决问题,以满足对质量的控制。
  • 29. Always Remember The Priorities… Safety (安全) People (员工) Quality (质量) Responsiveness (响应) Cost (成本)Importance 重要性For Example, Sometimes We Have To Sacrifice Responsiveness to Achieve Quality比如,有时我们为了达到质量要求而不得不放弃响应
  • 30. 10131211FPSFPSFPSZone 2Step 1 - Andon cord is pulled, station light goes on and music begins 第一步:拉暗灯控制绳索, 工位的指示灯会亮起并伴随着音乐When there is a problem or out of standard situation which can not be fixed by the team member, then … 当员工不能单独解决出 现的问题或超标的情况 时……Andon Steps
  • 31. Andon Steps (Cont’d)Step 2 - Zone light on main Andon board turns yellow, Team Leader responds to the Andon 第二步: 在暗灯系统主看板上相应区域的指示灯变成黄色,班组长对暗灯系统的信号做出反应
  • 32. Step 3 - Help comes immediately and problem solving begins. Team Leader takes the Andon responsibility 第三步:支持人员立刻到达并开始解决问题,班组长对此负责Andon Steps (Cont’d)
  • 33. Step 4 - Line continues to move to fixed position stop 第四步:生产线继续运行直到定点停10131211FPSFPSFPSFPSZone 2Andon Steps (Cont’d)
  • 34. Step 5 - Problem is addressed, Andon is deactivated by Team Leader to keep the line running. 第五步:问题解决,班组长解除暗灯信号以保持生产线继续运行。SHORTCONVEQUIPFULL54123TRIM 1EQUIPQ1Q2Q3Andon Steps (Cont’d)
  • 35. Step 6 – If Andon is not deactivated by Team Leader when vehicle reaches FPS, line stops and board flashes red - Downtime clock begins 第六步:如果车辆到达定点停时班组长仍然没有解除暗灯信号,生产线停止并且主看板上红灯开始闪烁,停线铃开始响起Downtime ClockSHORTCONVEQUIPFULL54123TRIM 1EQUIPQ1Q2Q3Andon Steps (Cont’d)
  • 36. FPSFPSFPSSet Line at 70% of Takt or Cycle Time & Relate to Specific Step in Standardized WorkPull the Andon as Early As Possible (at or before 70% Line) to Address Problems Before They Stop the Line!!! 在线停之前,尽早拉动暗灯线宣告出现问题。(在70%线位或之前),Purpose of “70% Line”70% LineReaction Time
  • 37. MgrGroup LeaderTeam LeaderTeam MemberDecisionDecisionDecisionPull AndonSupportSupportSupportNeeds helpFunction of everyone including managers and staff is to support production team members. 主管及所有人员都有职责支持生产一线的员工班组成员班组长工段长主管寻求帮助支持支持支持决定决定决定拉下暗灯拉索
  • 38. Andon Concept Role of Team Member Follow Standardized Work Actively Watch for Out-of-Standard Situations If an Abnormality or Defect Is Discovered That Cannot Be Immediately Corrected, Pull the Andon, and Continue With Rest of Cycle Until Support Arrives. Support Team Leader With Problem Solving As Required. 班组成员的职责 按照标准化要求作业 主动查找超标情况 如果发现了异常状况或缺陷但无法及时解决,拉下暗灯拉索,并继续做自己的工作直到支持人员到达。 支持的班组长按要求解决问题Focus On Standardized Work!
  • 39. Andon Concept Role of Team Leader: Team Leader goes immediately to area of Andon call to investigate and support. Team Leader begins immediate correction of the problem. Team Leader releases the Andon when TL has determined a correction can be made. TL begins problem solving with support of TM. Team Leader manages the Andon system 班组长职责 在暗灯信号发出后立刻赶到发生问题的区域查明原因并实施支持 到达问题区域后立刻开始解决问题 当班组长认为可以把问题解决时解除暗灯信号。班组长与班组成员共同开始解决问题。 班组长管理暗灯系统Address Non-Standard Conditions!
  • 40. Andon Concept Role of Group Leader Support Team Leader if (s)he is not able to countermeasure the problem, and get the line running as soon as possible. Call additional support as needed (i.e. maintenance, quality, etc.) Work with team leader to make sure root cause is identified and countermeasures implemented. Monitor downtime, identify problem areas and work with all available resources to eliminate problems. 工段长职责 当班组长不能解决问题时要提供支持并尽快让生产先运转起来 如果需要可以寻求外部支持(如:维修,质量等部门人员) 与班组长一起确定问题的起因是否已经被确认出来并且保证解决措施得到实施 在停线时进行监控,确定问题区域并调动一切可利用资源解决问题Support The Team!
  • 41. Andon ConceptTeam Concept Small Team Size Standardized Work Clear Quality Standards Problem Solving Process Employee Training Mutual Trust/Respect Constant Takt Time Fixed Position Stop Decouplers/Buffers Process CapabilityENABLERSIrreversible correction action Quality in station Inspection and Feedback Open Communication Teamwork Improved ProductivityBENEFITSMotion Correction Waiting51 2 3456PROCESS NO.33O.D. Reference 4团队概念 缩小团队规模 工作标准化(FPS) 明确质量标准 职员培训 相互信任/尊重 保持单件工时 停线点 缓冲架 加工能力好处实施的纠正措施不能复原 在工位控制质量 检查和反馈 开放式交流 团队合作 提高生产力
  • 42. Why is Andon Part of C.I.?Use Andon Data to Continuously Improve by Identifying Bottlenecks and Issues Affecting Throughput 使用暗灯数据通过确定瓶颈及影响产出的问题来达到持续改进TRIM 1 GROUP Andon Report 2003/1/24 Station 001R – 10’ Station 003L – 4’ Station 004R – 2’Analyze Reports 分析报告Discuss Countermeasures 讨论对策Improve!! 改进
  • 43. Andon Is Not Just a System Of Wires and Lights 暗灯系统不仅仅是一个由电线和灯泡组成的系统It is a Concept of Calling For Help 它是一种寻求帮助的理念Pull Your Andon!!! 在需要帮助时拉下拉索!!!EVERYONE HAS AN “ANDON CORD” 每个人都有一根“暗灯拉索”
  • 44. Manufacturing Process ValidationProduct Quality StandardsQuality System ManagementIn-Process Control & VerificationQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardStandardized WorkVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationAndon ConceptProblem SolvingEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessLean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive MaintenanceControlled External TransportationScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementInternal Pull / DeliverySimple Process FlowSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material Storage Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order PartsHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessValuesVision/ MissionShop Floor ManagementContinuous ImprovementProblem Solving问题 解决
  • 45. What Is a Problem? 什么可称为问题? A Problem Is Defined As a Discrepancy Between an Existing Standard or Expectation and the Actual Situation 问题定义为现行的标准或期望与实际情况之间的差异StandardActualDiscrepancyTIMELEVEL标准实际差异水平时间Problem Solving 问题解决
  • 46. Problem Solving 问题解决Problems Are the Seeds for Improvement! 问题是进行改进的萌芽! Problems Are Positive Opportunities! 问题绝对是改进的机会! If There Are No Problems, Then Something Is Wrong! 没有问题才是最大的问题!成长Growing
  • 47. Problems Are Not About Blaming People! Blame The Process – Not the People!! 需要责备的是工艺,不是员工!! Problems Occur Because of Failures in the System. Problem Solving 问题有问题不意味这要责备员工!由于系统失效才产生问题。
  • 48. Guiding PrinciplesEveryone is responsible for Problem Solving 每个人都对解决问题负有责任TeamMemberTeamLeaderGroupLeaderMaterialEngineerManagerSection Leader指导原则班组成员班组长工段长部门领导物流工程师主管
  • 49. 5-Phase Problem Solving 问题解决的五个阶段12345Problem DefinitionImmediate FixRoot Cause AnalysisCorrective Action Follow-Up Verification跟踪确认确定问题立即维修纠正措施分析根源
  • 50. 5-Phase Problem Solving54Direct CauseCauseCauseCauseRoot CauseBasic Cause /Effect Investigation5 Why Investigation to Root CauseProblem Definition/ Initial Problem Perception1Immediate Fix (Containment)Root Cause Analysis 23Corrective ActionFollow -Up VerificationWhere the problem first occurs?问题解决的五个阶段确定问题/ 最初对问题的理解立即维修Cause Investigation起因 调查问题 根源纠正措施持续确认分析 问题 根源直接原因起因起因起因问题首先在哪发生?基本起因/结果的调查对问题根源调查的5个为什么Why?Why?Why?Why?Why?为什么为什么为什么为什么为什么Grasp the Situation掌握情况
  • 51. 5-Phase Problem SolvingWhen is Problem Solving appropriate … 什么时候需要解决问题…… - Safety Incident 安全事故 - Major Quality Issue 主要的质量问题 - Major Downtime Occurrence 造成停线的主要原因 - Reoccurring Downtime 重复造成停线 and any other abnormal situations at anywhere 无论何处只要发生了异常情况都需要进行问题解决问题解决的五个阶段
  • 52. 15-Phase Problem SolvingProblem Definition 问题的定义 A Statement which describes the current status or situation. 对现状的一段描述Grasp the Situation掌握 情况State the problem that is occurring (Break down the problem into smaller ones & specifically define the situation) 陈述已经发生的问题(将大问题化为小问题并明确指明情况) Deviation and standard 偏差的大小与标准 Quantity of occurrence 数量与发生的问题 Frequency and percentage 发生的频率及百分率 The time period 发生的时间 Worker or machine related to 与此相关的员工或设备 Point of occurrence 问题的起点点
  • 53. 1Problem Definition(cont.) 问题的定义 (续) Locate Point of Cause/ Point of Occurrence (Where is the problem first observed) 查找出现问题的起点/问题的起点(哪里首先出现问题) 5-Phase Problem SolvingProcess 3 Is the Point of Cause!Observation: Go Back to 3654321Problem in 6Can SeeCan SeeCan SeeCan Not SeeStart backtrackProcess flow direction第3道工艺造成出现问题!观察 : 第 3 阶段工艺流程方向在第6道工艺发现问题能够看见能够看见能够看见不能看见开始追溯
  • 54. Apollo 13 阿波罗13号 What is Problem Description/Initial Problem Perception? 问题的描述/初期对问题的理解是什么? What is the Point of Cause? 什么是出现问题的起点?Problem Solving Exercise
  • 55. 25-Phase Problem Solving Immediate Fix (Containment) 立即维修 Immediate fix is the action taken to contain the problem spread立即维修措施是为了防止问题扩散 Immediate fix is any extraordinary action as following examples to prevent passing on problem to the next customer (internal and/or final) 立即维修是下列各例都采取用来防止问题流向下一客户(内部和/或最终客户)的特别措施 Stop the line 停线 100% inspection and repair 100%的检查并修好 Sorting / Rework 分类/返修 It is to protect the customer 这是为了保护顾客利益 It is not the root cause and solution! 这不时最后的解决方案!
  • 56. 35-Phase Problem SolvingRoot Cause Analysis分析问题 根源Root Cause Analysis 分析问题根源 Investigate the identified cause 调查已确定的起因 Five why investigations 调查时应用“五个为什么” Cause and effect diagram 起因和结果图 Process diagnostic sheet 工艺诊断表 Summarize analysis results 总结分析结果 State which seem to be the most significant cause(s) and how you reached that conclusion 记录看起来最重要的原因并写明你的结论是如何得到的 List main cause(s) 罗列主要原因
  • 57. Root CauseCauseCauseCauseSymptoms Five Why Investigation
  • 58. 45-Phase Problem SolvingCorrective Action 纠正措施 Establishing & Implementing a short or long term countermeasure to elimination root cause(s) 制定并执行一个短期或长期的措施来解决问题的根本原因 Identify best possible solutions in term of identified causes 根据确定的愿意制定最理想的解决方案Prioritize potential solutions 对潜在方案进行优先性排序 Implement solution 执行方案 Establish a schedule with target completion dates 制定一个有问题解决期限的计划表
  • 59. 5-Phase Problem Solving5Follow-up Verification 跟踪确认 Follow-up Verification is activity to confirm whether problem is correct or not 跟踪确认是确定问题是否已经纠正的活动 Frequent check of the correction result 对更正的结果定期检查 to implement according to predetermined corrective action plan 按预定的纠正措施计划执行 to reach the goal of corrective action 达到纠正措施的目标 Standardize problem solving methods to prevent occurrence of similar problem 将问题解决方法标准化以防止相似的 问题再次发生MARCH3월
  • 60. Why is 5 Phase Problem Solving Part of C.I.?Traditional Companies Stop at Phase 2 – They Just Contain the Problem and Put on a Band-Aid World-Class Companies Find The Root Cause and Put in Steps to Prevent It From Happening AgainThat’s Not Real Improvement – It is Just Getting Back to Standard!Now, THAT is Continuous Improvement!!!
  • 61. GO ALL THE WAY TO PHASE 5!!!If We Really Want To Be Successful and Beat Hyundai…
  • 62. Manufacturing Process ValidationProduct Quality StandardsQuality System ManagementIn-Process Control & VerificationQuality Feedback/ Feed- forwardStandardized WorkVisual ManagementManagement by TAKT TimeWork- place OrganizationAndon ConceptProblem SolvingEarly Mfg. and Design Integration (DFM / DFA)Continuous Improvement ProcessLean Design of Facilities, Equipment, Tooling and LayoutBusiness Plan DeploymentTotal Productive MaintenanceControlled External TransportationScheduled Shipping / ReceivingLevel Vehicle Order SchedulesSupply Chain ManagementInternal Pull / DeliverySimple Process FlowSmall Lot PackagingTemporary Material Storage Fixed Period Ordering System/ Order PartsHealth and Safety PriorityQualified PeopleTeam ConceptPeople InvolvementOpen Communication ProcessValuesVision/ MissionShop Floor ManagementContinuous ImprovementContinuous Improvement Process持续 改进的 过程
  • 63. Continuous Improvement CultureSet hurdles, conquer them, then raise the bar!! 设置障碍,克服障碍, 不断提高!Create an Environment where People are driven to Continuously seek Improvement through the Elimination of Waste 创造一个 持续改进的文化氛围,让员工在消除浪费中提高。
  • 64. Improvement Is the Relentless Pursuit of the Elimination of the Enemy - WASTE!! 改进是与消除浪费不断作斗争的过程!Safety 安全 Quality 质量 Cost 成本 Productivity 生产力 Improve7 Types of Waste Continuous Improvement Culture七种浪费改进
  • 65. When You Climb to the Top . . . 当你爬到山顶时。。。 . . .You Can See the Next Target! 你将会发现下一个目标! Continuous Improvement Culture
  • 66. Die Change Exercise更换模具练习
  • 67. Die Change ExerciseDie Change Exercise - Round 1 模具更换练习:第一轮 Objective: Change the die in minimal amount of time. 目的 : 在最短时间内更换模具 Die Change Standardized Work: 模具更换的标准化作业: 1) Remove the (2) nuts. 卸下螺母 2) Remove the (2) washers. 拆下垫圈 3) Exchange the Die (Center Piece). Verify Die is flush at ends. 调换模具(主要工作) 确定模具四角已经对齐. 4) Reassemble. Verify Die is flush at ends. Verify that the nuts are tight. 重新装配 确认模具四角已经对齐 确认螺母正确对位
  • 68. Die Change ExerciseInstructions: 说明: Each person in the group will perform the Die Change once. 工段中每个人都要进行一次更换操作。 A member of the group should time the Die Change. 工段中要有一人对更换工作进行计时。 A member of the group will inspect the reassembled Die for the following 工段中要有一人在重新装配模具时进行下列两项检查 Verify ends are flush. (add 1 minute to individual time for violation 确认模具边角对齐。(如果发现未对齐要在个人时间上加1分钟) Verify nuts are secure. (add 1 minute to individual time for violation) 确认螺母已经拧紧。(如果发现有违反的在个人时间上加1分钟) Calculate the average Die Change time for the group. 计算整个工段更换模具的平均时间
  • 69. Die Change ExerciseDie Change Exercise - Round 2 模具更换练习:第二轮 Objective: Change the die in minimal amount of time. 目的: 在最短时间内更换模具 Die Change Standardized Work: 模具更换的标准化作业: 1) Loosen the (2) nuts. 拧松螺母 2) Exchange the Die (Center Piece). Verify Die is flush at ends. 调换模具(主要工作)。确认模具四个角已经对齐. 3) Reassemble. Verify Die is flush at ends. Verify that the nuts are tight. 重新装配。确认模具四角已经对齐。确认螺母正确对位。
  • 70. Die Change ExerciseInstructions: 说明: Each person in the group will perform the Die Change once. 工段中每个人都要进行一次模具更换操作。 A member of the group should time the Die Change. 工段中要有一人对模具更换工作计时。 A member of the group will inspect the reassembled Die for the following 工段中要有一人在模具更换时进行下列两项检查 Verify ends are flush. (add 1 minute to individual time for violation 确认模具边角对齐。(如果有违反在个人时间上加1分钟) Verify nuts are secure. (add 1 minute to individual time for violation) 确认螺母已经拧紧。(如果有违反在个人时间上加1分钟) Calculate the average Die Change time for the group. 计算工段更换模具的平均时间。
  • 71. 1) Grasp the Current Situation 掌握现有的情况 2) Imagine the Ideal Situation 设想理想状况 3) Compare Current Situation to Ideal - See the Gap 将现有状况与理想状况进行对比-找出差距 4) Define Strategy to Achieve the Ideal 确定达到目标的方法 5) Implement CIPs 实施持续改进工作 6) Follow-Up 跟踪Gap 差距Ideal 目标Now 现状What is the CIP Method?
  • 72. Observe Standardized WorkObserve the “Wall”Takt TimeOperator 1Continuous Improvement Process1) Grasp the Current Situation掌握当前形势观察标准化的工作작업자 1单件工时观察平衡墙上的结果
  • 73. Continuous Improvement Process2) Imagine the Ideal Situation 设想理想状况 Safer? Better Quality? Lower Cost? Better Productivity? 更安全? 质量更好? 成本更低? 生产力更高?
  • 74. Continuous Improvement Process3) Compare Current Situation to Ideal - See the Gap 将现状与目标进行对比-找出差距 4) Define Strategy to Achieve the Ideal 确定达到目标的方法GAPCIP Idea #3CIP Idea #1CURRENTIDEAL差距现状目标第3个持续改进方案第一个持续改进方案
  • 75. Continuous Improvement Process5) Implement CIPs - Get agreement from team and all shifts - Communicate change to all customers 6) Follow-up - Be patient! Give the change time to work - Change standard to reflect new process 实施持续改进措施 跟踪
  • 76. Plan 计划Do 实施Check 检查Action 运作Grasp the Situation 掌握情况Use PDCA for CIP
  • 77. How does Continuous Improvement apply to other GMS Principles? 持续改进如何应用到其它GMS原则中?Built-In-Quality: 内建质量 Improves quality 提高质量 Constantly reduces the waste of variation 持续减少因变更造成的浪费 People Involvement:: 员工参与 Everyone is responsible for continuous improvement 每名员工都有责任开展持续改进工作Short Lead Time: 缩短制造周期 Reduces lead time 减少制造用时 Reduces in-process stocks 减少库存 Reduces the time of operations 减少操作时间 Eliminates waste 杜绝浪费Standardization: 标准化 Stabilizes the process so that continuous improvements can take place 有稳定的工艺才能保证持续改进的开展GMS标准化缩短制造周期持续改进员工参与制造质量