四级5套听力强化练习 听力原文


    5 套听力强化练习听力原文 Model Test One Section A 1. W: I hear that your brother is planning to transfer to another university. M: Not if I can talk him out of it. And believe me, I’m trying. Q: What does the man imply? 2. W: We should probably think about selecting someone to lead our study group you know, somebody really organized. M: Then you can count me out. Q: What does the man mean? 3. W: I’m sorry. I need to work late tonight. So you should probably cancel our reservation at the restaurant. M: Oh, actually I’ve never got round to making one in the first place. Q: What does the man mean? 4. M: How do I look in this new sweater I bought yesterday? I was in a hurry, so didn’t have a chance to try it on. W: Well, I really like the style. But it looks a little tight. You might want to take it back and get the next size up. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 5. M: You were also wearing a blue scarf when you came in, weren’t you? I think I grabbed yours by accident. W: No, you didn’t. Mine’s still hanging by the door. I can see it from here. Q: What does the woman mean? 6. W: Hey, Dan, do you think you might hurry up just a bit? You’ve been standing in front of that sandwich counter forever. And you know, I got class in ten minutes, and so do you, by the way. M: Sorry, oh, I just wish they didn’t give me so many choices. Q: What does the man imply? 7. M: You know that summer internship I’m applying for. They want an official copy of all my grades. But the records office charges 20 dollars for an official grade report. That’s a lot, don’t you think so? W: It really is. I only had to pay six for mine last year. Q: What does the woman mean? 8. M: I’d think twice about taking a history class next year. There’s not a single good professor in the whole history department. W: Look, that’s what you said last term about the sociology department and I’m very glad I didn’t pay any attention to what you said. Q: What does the woman mean? Conversation One M: What’s that you’re eating, Samantha, not a piece of steak, is it? I thought you were vegetarian! W: It is steak. But it’s organic. I was never vegetarian. I just like eating natural food. M: How can meat be organic? W: It means the animal don’t eat things that have been genetically modified or sprayed with pesticides. M: And I suppose it has had a good time walking around the fields, not shut inside all its life. W: That’s right. M: But can you taste the difference? W: I think so. Anyway, I’m not filling myself with all sorts of chemicals that might give me cancer. M: Yes, but there’s no proof that pesticides give you cancer. W: So why do the scientists who monitor these things prefer to eat organic food too? Pesticides are only tested on animals. Companies don’t have to spend millions on trials with human volunteers. Small quantities of chemicals do get into your food. M: Some food. Look, if the newspapers found a company was deliberately selling an unsafe product, their share price would crash and they’d be out of business in no time. W: They may go out of business soon if they don’t start selling organic food themselves. They say sales of organic food have risen by 25%. M: It’s still more expensive. You’ve got to compare the price, which is at least double, with the risk you’re running, which is absolutely minimal if you ask me. W: Well, this is prime organic beef from the Scottish Highlands. So if you don’t mind, I’d like to finish my lunch! 9. Q: What can we learn about the woman’s eating habit? 10. Q: What is said about organic animals? 11. Q: How do companies test pesticides? 12. Q: What is the man’s opinion on organic food’s price? Conversation Two W: Professor Bevan, how important is motivation for a manager? M: Oh, motivation is extremely important. I’d say it’s the most important aspect of a manager’s job. A manager’s job is to get the job done. So he has to motivate the workers—as a team and also on an individual basis. W: So how do managers go about doing this? It doesn’t sound very easy. M: No, it is a complicated issue. But managers have special tools. They are trained to use them to boost motivation and increase production to a maximum. W: Tools? M: Yes, such as praise, approval, recognition, trust and expectation. W: And money? What about money? M: Yes, money is a factor but you might be surprised to learn that it comes out last on the list of these tools. W: What are more important for workers? M: Well, all of the things that I have already mentioned, and then job enrichment and good communication. W: And have you got any examples of real life situations to back up your claims? M: One good example is the firm Western Electric. When managers started to talk to the workers and encouraged them to get involved in decision making, workers began to feel that their contributions were important. And it paid off. W: Productivity increased? M: Yes, hugely. W: So, let’s get this straight. Are you saying that workers are not interested in earning more money? M: I’m saying they’re not just interested in money. There are other things that are just as important. 13. Q: What is extremely important for a manager to do? 14. Q: What does the man think of money? 15. Q: In what way did motivation work in the example of Western Electric? Section B Passage One Have you ever heard of tobacco toothpaste? That’s just one of many tobacco products that are popular in India, the world’s second most populous nation. Cigarettes are the most widely used form of tobacco, of course, but Indians also are fond of a wide selection of smokeless, chewable varieties—despite the fact that India has the world’s highest rate of tobacco-related diseases such as cancer and emphysema. Because many children and adolescents chew tobacco from morning till night, the incidence of mouth cancer has skyrocketed. Leading a campaign to warn India’s youth of the dangers of tobacco is Ruby Bhatia, who gives many speeches and television interviews. Bhatia was born in Alabama, grew up in Canada, and majored in philosophy at the University of Toronto. She moved to India a few years ago, already fluent in Hindi and English (two of India’s major languages), and quickly became one of India’s most popular TV talk-show hosts. Bhatia says that her TV experience helps her create anti-tobacco speeches that are short and persuasive. “If you give a lot of ideas that are only loosely tied together, you won’t win your case. Your ideas must have a logical sequence.” TV reports—which she says are a good model for public speakers to follow—often use a chronological, story-telling pattern or a problem-solution pattern. 16. Q: What’s the result of many Indian children’s chewing tobacco from morning till night? 17. Q: What contributed to Ruby Bhatia’s becoming one of India’s most popular TV talk-show hosts? 18. Q: What suggestions did Bhatia give in creating speeches? Passage Two For many years now we have been referring to English as a global language. Everybody seems to be learning English and it isn’t uncommon to see English being used as a means of communication between, let’s say, a German and an Italian. Very soon English will be the second language of all the people in the world. We can see evidence of changes in this all the time. Let’s take the Eurovision Song Contest as an example. Whatever we might think of the contest itself, one thing that has changed recently is that now countries can opt to sing in English. In the last festival fourteen of the twenty five competing countries asked for the rules to be changed to allow them to sing in English. They argued that singing in their own language would put them at a disadvantage. And what exactly does all of this mean for native speakers of English? Well, we are already in a minority. In the future, majority speakers—that are non-native English speakers—might outnumber native English speakers by four to one. The two most important Englishes won’t be British English and American English. They’ll be Native English and Majority English. So native English speakers will be the only people in the world who speak just one language. Because there won’t be much of a reason for native English speakers to learn a second language. As more and more people speak English, it makes sense that they will become more competent. It’s us, not the Majority English speakers, will be the disadvantaged. 19. Q: What kind of people are often seen communicating in English as mentioned by the speaker? 20. Q: Why did many competing countries ask to be allowed to sing in English in the contest? 21. Q: What is the speaker concerned about the most? Passage Three At the beginning of a speech, student speaker Kathie Aquila posed a question: “On what form of entertainment do Americans spend the greatest amount of money? I’ll give you some hints. It’s not recorded music, nor sports events, nor rock concerts, nor theme parks.” Then she revealed the answer: legalized gambling, on which Americans each year spend $340 billion—more money than they spend on all other forms of entertainment combined. In the body of the speech, Aquila tried to persuade her audience that gambling is a waste of money and time. Then she closed the speech with a quotation by Mark Twain: “‘There are two times in your life when you should not gamble: when you can’t afford it and when you can.’” Aquila’s speech was lively and impressive, partly because she used an interesting introduction and a memorable conclusion. Some speakers make no plans for the beginning and end of a speech, preferring to wait until speech time to let the mood of the moment determine what they say. This strategy is a mistake. If you don’t have a lively introduction, you can lose your audience. “People have remote controls in their heads today,” says Myrna Marofsky, a business executive. “If you don’t catch their interest, they just click you off.” And a conclusion that is weak or clumsy can damage the effectiveness of what otherwise might have been a good speech. Since the introduction and conclusion are extremely important, devote as much time and energy to them as you give to the body of the speech. 22. Q: What did Aquila do at the beginning of her speech? 23. Q: How did Aquila conclude her speech? 24. Q: What mistake do some speakers make when they prepare a speech? 25. Q: What does the speaker suggest speechmakers do at the end of the passage? Model Test Two Section A 1. M: I’ve been running a mile every afternoon for the past month. But I still haven’t been able to lose more than a pound or two. I wonder if this is worth it. W: Oh, don’t give up now. It always seems hard when you just start out. Q: What does the woman mean? 2. W: I just found out the registration of the creative writing class was full. Now I have to wait another whole year to get in. M: Why don’t you check back after the first week? Somebody might drop it. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do? 3. W: John, I really can’t afford any more interruptions right now. I’ve got to finish this assignment. M: I’m sorry Cathy. Just one more thing, I forgot to ask you if you could give me a ride to school tomorrow. Q: What can be inferred about the man? 4. M: Excuse me? Could you direct me to Customer Service? I need to have this gift wrapped. W: We can take care of that right here sir, and no charge. You can choose either silver or gold with the matching bow. Q: What will the man probably do next? 5. W: Oh, no! I just picked up the pictures I took at Dan and Linda’s wedding and looked at them and none of them came out. M: They are dark, aren’t they? What a shame. Oh, well, I’m sure the professional photographer got everything. Q: What does the man mean? 6. M: I have to give an oral presentation in history next week. I’m really nervous about speaking in front of everyone. W: Try making a tape of yourself while you practise. That might help you feel more comfortable. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 7. W: I’m amazed that you are still driving that old car of yours. I thought you would have gotten rid of it years ago. M: It runs well and I’ve actually grown quite attached to it. Q: What does the man mean? 8. M: I was going to get something to eat at the cafeteria, but it seems to be closed. W: Oh, that’s because it’s Sunday. Why don’t you come with me to a place I know on Canal Street? Q: What does the woman suggest they do? Conversation One M: Hi, Sis. I just came over to drop off the DVDs you wanted. Wow!? Where did you get all of this stuff? W: I bought it. So, what do you think of my new entertainment center? The widescreen TV and new DVD player. M: But where did you get the money to buy all this? You didn’t borrow money from mom and dad again, did you? W: Of course not. I got it with this! It’s a student credit card. M: A student credit card? How did you get one? W: I got an application in the mail. M: Well, why did you get one in the first place? W: Listen. Times are changing, and having a credit card helps you build a credit rating, control spending, and even buy things that you can’t pay with cash. Like the plane ticket I got recently. M: What plane ticket? W: Oh yeah, my roommate and I are going to Hawaii over the school break, and of course I need some clothes. M: I don’t want to hear it. How does having a student credit card control spending? And the interest rates of student credit cards are usually sky-high, and if you miss a payment, the rates, well, just jump! W: Ah. The credit card has a credit limit. M: Yeah. Oh, don’t tell me. Listen. Hey, I don’t think having a student credit card is a bad idea, but this is ridiculous. And how are you going to pay off your credit card bill? W: Um, with my birthday money. It’s coming up in a week. M: Hey, let’s sit down and talk about how you’re going to pay things back, and maybe we can come up with a budget that will help you get out of this mess. That’s the least I can do. 9. Q: According to the woman, which items were purchased with credit card? 10. Q: Why did the woman get a student credit card? 11. Q: What does the woman plan to do with her credit card problems? 12. Q: What is the man going to do to help the woman out? Conversation Two M: Honey, the basketball game is about to start. And could you bring some chips and a bowl of ice cream? And a slice of pizza from the fridge. W: Anything else? M: No, that’s all for now. Hey, you know, they’re organizing a company basketball team, and I’m thinking about joining. What do you think? W: Humph. M: Humph? What do you mean “Humph”? I was the star player in high school. W: Yeah, twenty-five years ago. Look,I just don’t want you to have a heart attack running up and down the court. M: So, what are you suggesting? Should I just abandon the idea? I’m not that out of shape. W: Well, you ought to at least have a physical plan before you begin. I mean, it has been at least five years since you played at all. M: Well, okay. W: And you need to watch your diet and cut back on the fatty foods, like ice cream. And you should try eating more fresh fruits and vegetables. M: Yeah, you’re probably right. W: And you should take up a little weight training to strengthen your muscles or perhaps try cycling to build up your heart function. Oh, and you need to go to bed early instead of watching TV half the night. M: Hey, you’re starting to sound like my personal fitness instructor! W: No, I just want you to be around for a long, long time. 13. Q: What does the man want to do? 14. Q: What is the woman’s main concern? 15. Q: What does the woman advise about the man’s diet? Section B Passage One You have probably noticed that many speakers at business and professional meetings start off by saying something like this: “I’m glad to have a chance to speak to you today.” They are giving an icebreaker—a polite little prologue to “break the ice” before getting into their speech. When you give speeches in the community, an icebreaker is helpful because it eases your nervous tension and it lets the audience get accustomed to your voice. You don’t need an icebreaker for classroom speeches because your audience has already settled down and is ready to listen. I don’t like “Hello, how are you?” as an icebreaker. It leaves a question as to whether the speaker wants the audience to roar a response like “Fine, thank you!” It is much better to say, “I appreciate the opportunity to speak to you tonight.” But, you might object, phrases like this have been used so often, they are meaningless. Nevertheless, they are valuable aids to smooth social relationships. Such expressions are dull but they are necessary because they lubricate the wheels of human discourse. In addition to expressing appreciation for the invitation to speak, you can include a thank-you to the person who introduced you or a reference to the occasion. Some speakers also use the icebreaker to formally greet the audience. This custom, however, has fallen out of fashion. An icebreaker should be very brief—just a sentence or two. If you are too slow getting into the attention material of your introduction, you may cause some listeners to tune you out. 16. Q: Why is an icebreaker helpful according to the speaker? 17. Q: Why doesn’t the speaker like “Hello, how are you?” as an icebreaker? 18. Q: What warning does the speaker give at the end of the passage? Passage Two Honesty may well be the policy, but it often deserts us when no one is watching, psychologists report today. Experiments with an honesty box to collect payments for hot drinks show that people are better at paying up when under the gaze of a pair of eyes. The surprise was that the eyes were not real, but photographed. Researchers at Newcastle University set up the experiment in secret. They attached a poster to a cupboard of mugs above an honesty box alongside a kettle, with tea, coffee and milk. Over 10 weeks, they alternated each week between images of eyes and pictures of flowers. Dr. Bateson, a biologist and leader of the study, said that even though the eyes were not real they still seemed to make people behave more honestly. The effect may arise from behavioral characteristics that developed as early humans formed social groups that increased their chances of survival. Individuals had to co-operate for the good of the group, rather than act selfishly. “If nobody is watching us, it is in our interests to behave selfishly. But when we think we’re being watched we should behave better, so people see us as co-operative and behave the same way towards us, ” Dr. Bateson said. “We thought we’d get a slight effect with eyes, but it was quite striking how much difference they made. Even at a subconscious level, it seems people respond to eyes, and that might be because eyes send a strong biological signal we have evolved to respond to.” 19. Q: What is this passage mainly about? 20. Q: Why do people behave honestly under the watch of eyes? 21. Q: Before the experiment, what did the researchers expect about the result? Passage Three Before children go into a hospital for surgery, their parents need to know how to prepare them emotionally and intellectually. What should they tell the children about pain and recovery? How can they ease fears and provide comfort? To help parents with this task, the pediatrics department at a large metropolitan hospital asked Jessica Trujillo, a student nurse, to prepare a presentation and deliver it once a week to parents. Trujillo knew some information from her experiences working with children in the “peds” ward, but she realized that her presentation would be much stronger if she researched the topic. She interviewed children who had undergone surgery, and she talked with parents and health professionals. She read books and journal articles, and she explored the Internet. “I came up with some insights that I never would have discovered without doing research,” she said. Her most surprising find: Many children think they are being sent to the hospital as punishment for bad behavior. “This just blew my mind. I wouldn’t have guessed this in a hundred years. So, of course, in my presentation I emphasize to parents that they should reassure their kids that they’ve done nothing wrong and aren’t being punished.” Trujillo’s experience illustrates the value of research in speechmaking. Even if you already know a lot about a topic, research can yield valuable information and insights. 22. Q: What do parents need to do before sending their children to a hospital for surgery? 23. Q: What did Trujillo do to make her presentation stronger? 24. Q: What is the most surprising find in Trujillo’s research? 25. Q: What do we learn from Trujillo’s experience? Model Test Three Section A 1. M: I’m trying to find someone to come with me to the spring fashion show in the art museum on Saturday. Want to come along? W: Well, I’m not too crazy about fashion, but what about Lora? She’s taking a fashion design course and seems to be enjoying it. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 2. W: I walk past the coffee house every day, and I always see Leo there, either playing a game or reading the paper. M: Well, Leo knows more ways to kill time than anyone. Q: What does the man say about Leo? 3. M: Can you believe I can’t get a plane ticket for the Christmas holidays? I mean, it’s only November. W: Well, I wouldn’t worry about it too much. You know, people cancel their reservations all the time. Q: What does the woman imply the man should do? 4. W: It’s a long time since you left the company. Where are you working now? M: In a fast food restaurant. It’s a real pain. But I can’t complain. Many people are out of work these days. Q: What do we learn about the man? 5. M: Look, the trees on our campus are really beautiful. W: Yeah, and they are useful too. They cut down on our needs for air conditioning, don’t you think so? Q: What does the woman mean? 6. M: Jenny, would you like to go to the concert with me this weekend, or do you have to prepare for your finals? W: In fact, I still have a lot to do for the exams, but maybe a break would do me good. Q: What will the woman probably do? 7. W: What do you think of my new hat, honey? It’s bright, but awfully simple, don’t you think so? M: Well, if you really want my opinion, I should not say awfully simple, but simply awful! Q: How does the man feel about the woman’s hat? 8. M: Has Larry finished his term paper for chemistry? It will be due the day after tomorrow, and Professor Johnson has never been happy with late papers. W: As far as I know, he seems to put everything off until the last minute. Q: What do we learn about Larry from the conversation? Conversation One M: You like living in the city, don’t you? W: Oh, I love it. It’s so convenient. I can take the bus to work, or the subway, or the taxi. And there’s so much to do. M: I know what you mean. I’d like to live in the city, too, but living in the suburbs is better for children. W: Well, there are a lot of good things about suburban living. But, as a working woman, I think a city has all the conveniences, including the best food and latest news. M: But there are more trees, grass and fresh air in the suburbs. W: You can take them to the suburbs on the weekends. Living in a city, you’ll have so much fun. Movie houses, theatres, museums and so many great places. M: Yeah, children are the right age. There are lots of things for them here. W: You’re right. Today is the perfect example. They are at the aquarium in Brooklyn now. They come back home for lunch, and then go uptown to the Museum of Natural History. There’s so much for young people to see and do. It’s just incredible! M: Not just for young people. What about me? I’ve never been to the aquarium or the Museum of Natural History. W: Neither have I. When I was a child, I used to go to the Museum of Arts. M: I’ve been there several times. Twice with children. W: Well, I have an idea. Next weekend, we go to the Museum of Natural History. M: OK, that’s really a very good idea. 9. Q: What are the two speakers mainly talking about? 10. Q: What does the man think of living in the suburbs? 11. Q: What is the man’s opinion of the city? 12. Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation? Conversation Two M: Right, I guess you’ve got some ideas for our product promotion. W: Well, first we must win over the medical circle, so I thought we should launch a campaign in all the specialist medical journals to promote our drugs, antibiotics and so on. M: That’s a very good idea. W: Then TV commercials. M: Just a moment, are you sure we’re allowed to advertise medicines on TV? W: Oh yes, provided they are not drugs which need a prescription. You can advertise over-the-counter products. We can get users of our products to recommend them, like “It cured my disease in six days.” M: Now, hold on. It is forbidden to claim any positive cure for a disease. And we mustn’t offer any drugs for illness which should be treated by a doctor. W: OK. What about this? A series of full page newspaper ads with the message that most doctors consider our products the best. M: That depends on whether it’s true. W: Sure it is. But here is another suggestion. We could offer to return the purchase price to anyone who’s not satisfied with one of our products. It’s possible to do that, isn’t it? M: No, I’m afraid not. Manufacturers of medical products are not allowed to promise a return for a price in their ads. W: Well, it looks as though I’ll have to come up with something else. I never realize the regulations were so rigid. 13. Q: What are the two speakers talking about? 14. Q: Which suggestion of the woman’s is possible according to the man? 15. Q: What can we learn about the woman from the conversation? Section B Passage One Throughout history, people have been the victims of pickpockets. Today pickpocketing is one of the most rapidly increasing crimes. Pickpockets are increasing in number and developing better methods to practice their skill. About one million Americans lose money to pickpockets every year, and no one is really safe from a skilled pickpocket. His victims can be rich or poor, young or old. During the 18th century, pickpockets were hanged in England. Large crowds of people would gather to watch the hanging, which was supposed to be a warning to other pickpockets. However, in time the practice was discontinued. The reason: while people were attentively watching the hanging of a pickpocket, other pickpockets skillfully stole the money of the spectators. Police officials say that most efficient pickpockets come from South America. Many of them are trained in special schools called “Jingle Bell School”. A pickpocket graduates from a J.B.S. when he is able to steal a wallet from a dressed model that has bells inside its pockets! Even the most well-dressed, respectable person may be a pickpocket. Some of the favorite places of pickpockets are banks, airports, supermarkets and train and bus stations. Another kind of pickpocket works outside or inside bars and specializes in stealing from persons who have had too much alcohol. To avoid being the victim of pickpockets, it is important to be very cautious and alert in the midst of large gatherings of people. 16. Q: What is the characteristic of the pickpockets today? 17. Q: Why did the hanging of pickpockets come to an end? 18. Q: Where do most expert pickpockets come from? 19. Q: How to avoid being the victims of pickpockets? Passage Two In the north of Scotland, there is a deep, dark lake surrounded by mountains. This is Loch Ness—loch is the Scottish word for “lake”. A big and mysterious creature was said to live there. Although no one ever got a good look at it, local people believed in this creature. They thought it must be some kind of fish, since it lived in the lake. Before the 1930s, few outsiders had heard of the beast. Then a road was built along Loch Ness. Many visitors began seeing the loch and hearing about the beast. Some believed they had caught sight of it. Many papers printed stories about the monster. These stories made the monster famous. But many readers thought it was a joke. To them, a monster was a make-believe animal, something they might see in a movie. Accounts of the Loch Ness monster also sounded like jokes. Many people thought they had seen part of it. The parts added up to a very strange creature indeed. It was said to be 20 or 30 or 50 feet long. The body was thick in the middle but it thinned out toward the ends. There was a long neck with a small head. Sometimes the back looked like a boat turned upside down. At other times it had one, two, or three humps like a camel. Some people saw two or four flippers. The monster seemed shy. It never attacked boats or people. Any noise causes it to disappear. 20. Q: What does the word “loch” mean in English? 21. Q: Which of the following best describes the creature in Lake Ness? 22. Q: What can we infer from the passage? Passage Three For teenagers, it can seem very important to “fit in”. Teens are very concerned about their images, and they are worried about what others think about them. As a result, peer pressure is very influential in many teens’ lives. Peer pressure is basically the influence that people of your age have on you. For teenagers, it is the influence that other teens have on their behavior, dress, attitude and practices. Often, teenagers do what others are doing so that they can fit in—or at least not stand out. Teens like to do what their friends are doing, and be accepted. Peer pressure may be fairly straightforward, with some teens pressuring others to take part in certain activities. In some cases, though, peer pressure is a little more subtle, with clues given to teens that they won’t be “cool” if they don’t participate, even without the deliberate pressure to do what everyone else is doing. Peer pressure, though, can lead to undesirable behaviors, which may not be healthy, physically or emotionally, for the teenagers. While some teens choose some behaviors when they are ready, many feel rushed into decisions that they are not quite ready to make. Many end up overwhelmed by the consequences of their efforts to fit in with their peer group. Teens naturally want to project the “right” image. However, parents can reduce the influence that peer pressure has on their teenagers. It is vitally important that parents help their teenagers develop the self confidence to withstand peer pressure, and make their own decisions. 23. Q: Why is peer pressure very influential on teen’s lives? 24. Q: What is the reason for teens to do the same as their peers? 25. Q: What should parents do to reduce the influence peer pressure has on their teenagers? Model Test Four Section A 1. M: If you are in a hurry, you are suggested to take a taxi, or else you can take the bus. W: The meeting won’t be held until 2:00 p.m. There’s no need to be hurry. Q: What will the woman probably do? 2. W: Did you see Mary’s performance in the party last night? It’s her debut. M: How she could be so calm in front of such a large audience is really beyond me. Q: What does the man imply? 3. W: I’m having trouble making ends meet. It looks like I have to get some help from my parents. M: I think you can manage it well if you just cut down your expense on clothes. Q: What does the man imply? 4. M: The fabric is comfortable, and the style is fashionable, but the sleeves are really too long for me, don’t you think so? W: The sleeves are not a problem. I can alter them for you. Q: What does the woman imply? 5. W: The term paper is due soon, but all the books I need are checked out! M: There are tens of thousands of books but I can never get the one that I need most. Q: What can we learn from the conversation? 6. W: Did you have different opinion with the group arrangement? M: I do not feel like working with Jane in the discussion group. If she is in the group, other members just couldn’t have the opportunity to get a word in. Q: What does the man think about Jane? 7. W: I’m moving to a new apartment, but I have too much luggage. So could you do me a favor? M: Sure. Why not go and see if your roommates are free too? Q: What does the man imply? 8. W: Could you give me a ride to the class tonight? M: I’d love to, but I’m meeting Jack tonight so maybe I have to skip tonight’s class. Q: What does the man mean? Conversation One W: Steve, you look pale. Do you get ill? M: No, I’m not ill. I just didn’t sleep a wink last night. W: Oh! Did you have something on your mind? You look so concerned! Tell me what happened and maybe I can help you. M: Well, I’m under a lot of pressure. My boss is very pushy. He assigned me three projects. Now the deadlines are near and I still haven’t finished all of my projects. W: Three projects? It’s a lot of work load. Is there anything I can do to help you? M: Well, I guess no one can help me but myself. For the moment, I just need someone to talk to so that I can relieve my stress. W: I’d like to listen to you if that can make you feel any better. M: You’re really considerate. I appreciate your help. W: Nothing serious. I think you’d also need to have a talk with your boss. It’s not a good idea to take all the workload by yourself silently. It’s not fair, you know. M: It’s totally in vain to talk to my boss. He only cares his own profits rather than the employees’. W: Then I think you’d better change your job. It’s not wise to work for such a selfish boss. M: Maybe you are right. I’d better call the headhunters. W: Don’t worry. It’s not difficult for you to find a new job since you have been in this line for such a long time. 9. Q: Why does the man look pale? 10. Q: Why does the man feel stressful? 11. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 12. Q: Why does the woman think the man can easily find another job? Conversation Two W: Hey! You got a new television. M: Yeah! It was delivered yesterday. What do you think of it? W: It’s huge. It practically takes up the entire side of the room. M: I know. I know. You don’t think it’s, well, excessive, do you? W: I didn’t say that. I mean, if you enjoy it, why not? What happened to your old TV, anyhow? M: It just stopped working last Friday. It was pretty old and didn’t work well. I thought I can afford it. Why not get a new one? W: It must be expensive. M: Well, not as much as you might think. I got it on sale for 50% off. W: Really? Where? M: At the Stereo City on Route 20. You know at first I just wanted to replace what I had. A TV of about the same size and quality, but the salesman was pushing these because they were 50% off. W: Yeah. But 50% off what? M: $2,400 dollars. W: You spent $1,200 on a TV? M: It’s got a lot of special features. Look at this remote control. W: I am sure. But that’s still a lot of money for a television. I didn’t think you watched TV that much. M: Well, I don’t. Do you think I ought to return it? If I do it within a week of purchase, I can get my money back. W: Honestly, yes and you know that. I think you ought to read the catalogue first and choose the model you want before you go to the store. That way you will get what you want. M: I think you are right. 13. Q: What is the woman’s attitude towards the man’s new television? 14. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 15. Q: What will the man probably do as a result of the conversation? Section B Passage One Of the many people who supported systems of efficient production, the most influential was Frederick W. Taylor. As a foreman and engineer for the Midvale Steel Company in the 1880s, Taylor observed that the company—in fact, all companies—would always have fixed costs of taxes, insurance, interest on loans, and depreciation of buildings and equipment. He concluded that the only way to lessen the impact of fixed costs and thus increase profits was to base production on scientific studies of “how quickly the various kinds of work ... ought to be done.” The “ought” was crucial because it signified the goal of producing more for a lower cost per unit—meaning reducing labor costs by eliminating unnecessary workers. The “how quickly” meant that time and money were equivalent. In 1898 Taylor took his stopwatch to the Bethlehem Steel Company, where he undertook a five-month study to illustrate how his principles of scientific management worked. His experiments, he explained, involved identifying the “elementary operations of motions” used by specific workers, eliminating “all useless movements,” selecting better tools, and devising a series of motions which can be made “quickest and best.” Applying the technique to the shovelling of ore, Taylor eventually designed fifteen kinds of different tasks and prescribed the proper motions for using each shovel. As a result he reduced a crew of 600 men to 140 and cut company costs in half. The remaining shovelers received higher wages. 16. Q: What do we know about Frederick W. Taylor? 17. Q: What was the purpose of Taylor’s study at the Bethlehem Steel Company? 18. Q: How did Taylor cut half of the company costs? Passage Two Are electric cars the way of the future? Automobile manufacturers are under pressure to develop cars that do not pollute. One powerful motive is a California law requiring that by the year 2012 ten percent of new car sold in the state be so-called zero-emission vehicles. These cars must put no pollutants whatsoever into the atmosphere. California is a huge market for the automobile companies, so they are working hard to meet these standards. So far the electric car seems to be the best alternative. So the big advantage of electric cars is that they don’t pollute. However they will be in competition with gas-powered cars and that’s where the weaknesses come out. The big problem is that the batteries that power electric cars weigh a lot relative to the amount of power they deliver. For example, in one prototype electric car, the batteries weighed 400 kilograms. And they provide enough energy to go 250 kilometers before recharging, which takes eight hours. Compare that to a moderately fuel-efficient conventional car, it can go 600 to 700 kilometers on a tank of gas and refilling takes just minutes. If there are other drains on an electric car’s batteries besides the motor, headlights, air-conditioning or a heater, its already limited range will be significantly reduced. So automobile engineers are trying to make more powerful batteries that would increase the cars’ range and make them more attractive to buyers. 19. Q: What promotes the development of electric cars in California? 20. Q: What is the main advantage of electric cars over gas-powered cars? 21. Q: Which of the following is not one of the drawbacks of the electric car? Passage Three Vitamin D helps bones and muscles grow strong and healthy. Low levels of vitamin D can lead to many diseases. Research in the last several years has shown that low levels of vitamin D may increase the risk of heart attacks in men and deaths from some cancers. The easiest way to get vitamin D is from sunlight. The sun’s ultraviolet rays react with skin cells to produce vitamin D. But many people worry about getting skin cancer and skin damage from the sun. As a result they cover their skin or wear sunblock or stay out of the sun. Also, darker skinned people produce less vitamin D than lighter skinned people. Production also decreases in older people and those living in northern areas that get less sunlight. Not many foods naturally contain vitamin D. Foods high in this vitamin include oily fish such as salmon and fish liver oils. Boston University researchers reported last year that farmed salmon had only about one-fourth as much vitamin D as wild salmon. Small amounts of D are found in beef liver, cheese and egg yolks. And some people take dietary supplements containing the vitamin. But most of the vitamin D in the American diet comes from foods with D added, like milk. More doctors are now having their patients tested for their vitamin D levels. But as research continues, some experts worry that if people take too much vitamin D, it might act as a poison. 22. Q: What is the easiest way to get vitamin D? 23. Q: Which kind of people produce the most vitamin D? 24. Q: How did researchers in Boston University report about salmon? 25. Q: Where does most of the vitamin D come from in American diet? Model Test Five Section A 1. W: I was sorry I had to leave early. How did the rest of the meeting go? M: You missed the best part. Things got really hot between Jim and Mr. Kendrick. Q: What does the man mean? 2. M: Can you come to the lake with me this weekend? You’ll find great fun there. W: Let me see if I can get out of helping my brother paint his house. Q: What does the woman want to do? 3. W: The department store on Center Street is having a sale. They’re advertising discounts of up to 80% on a lot of their goods. M: Yeah. I was there when they opened this morning. It was so packed I didn’t even go inside. Q: What does the man mean? 4. W: James, did you hear Richard talk about the landing on the moon? M: Yeah. To hear him say it, you would think that he was part of the operation. Q: What does the man mean? 5. W: Robert, do you know the local residents have been protesting against the oil spill since last week in front of the City Hall? M: Yes, I heard about that. But I don’t know how much good it will do. Q: What does the man imply? 6. W: Steve called to see whether we can give him a lift to the beach this weekend. M: Well, I’ll see to that, but whether or not we’ll have any room for him is unclear. Q: What does the man mean? 7. M: I can’t believe how much work professor Garcia assigns! I don’t see how I can possibly get it all done. W: Oh, but he’s great, isn’t he? You’ll learn so much in his class! Q: What can be inferred about Professor Garcia? 8. W: What a fascinating speaker! It was really good for thought. M: Oh, I’m not sure I’d go along with you there. I kept dozing off quite a few times. Q: What did the man think of the speaker? Conversation One W: Hey Taxi! M: Where to? W: Well, I’m going to the National Museum of Art, and... M: Sure. Get in. Hang on. W: Uh. Excuse me. How long does it take to get there? M: Well, that all depends on the traffic, but it shouldn’t take more than twenty minutes for the average driver. And I’m not average. I have driving down to an art, so we should be able to get there in less than twelve minutes. W: Thanks. M: Er...This is your first time to the city, right? W: Yeah. How did you know? M: Well, you can tell tourists from a mile away in this city because they walk down the street looking straight up at the skyscrapers. W: Was it that obvious? M: Well... W: Oh, before I forget, can you recommend any good restaurants downtown that offer meals at a reasonable price? M: Umm... Well, the Chinese restaurant, Quanjude, is fantastic. It’s not as expensive as other places I know, but the flavor is very authentic, and the portions are larger than most places I’ve been to. W: Sounds great! How do I get there from the museum? M: Well, you can catch the subway right outside the museum. There are buses that run that way, but you would have to transfer a couple of times. And there are taxis too, but they don’t run by the museum that often. W: OK. Thanks. 9. Q: How long will it take the driver to get to the destination? 10. Q: How does the driver figure out that the passenger is a first-time visitor to the city? 11. Q: What is one item the driver did not mention about the restaurant? 12. Q: Which is the best way to get to the restaurant from the Museum? Conversation Two W: Hi! Welcome to Rental Property Management. How may I help you? M: Hi, yes. I’m interested in renting a two-bedroom apartment. W: Okay. So that we will be able to match your needs better, I would like to ask you a few questions before I show you what we have available. First, what price range are you interested in? M: Somewhere between $400—$450 a month. W: Okay. Did you have a specific location in mind? M: Well, I would like to live somewhere near the campus. Or at least on a bus line. W: And when would you like to move in? M: On the first of the month. W: Okay. Are there any other amenities which you would like to have? For example, a dishwasher, a balcony, a swimming pool or central air conditioning? M: I would definitely like to have a dishwasher, and with summers like these, central air! A balcony is not that important. Oh, yes, and two bathrooms would be nice. W: Okay. Here are photos of the apartments we have available which fit your preferences. M: Thank you. This one on Broadway Avenue looks nice. I would like to see that one. And the one on Main Street. W: Sure. Let me get the keys and we will go look at them. If you choose to rent one of them, we will need a damage deposit of $250. You will be responsible for all the utilities. You can sign a lease today, if you like. M: Great! Thank you. 13. Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place? 14. Q: Where does the man prefer to live? 15. Q: Which of the following is not important for the man in choosing an apartment? Section B Passage One If you have a friend who can imitate anybody, he can’t compare with a parrot. Wild parrots developed highly flexible vocal organs over thousands of years. They can imitate any sound from a leaky tap to an opera singer. But do they understand what exactly they’re saying? Scientists used to assume what parrots said amounted to no more than repetition. But a scientist named Irene Pepperberg has spent the last 20 years disapproving old myths about parrots. She does so by training and observing parrots and her work has suggested something interesting indeed. “It’s as if parrot brains are IBMs and our brains are Macs,” she says. “They may be organized differently, but the same information comes out.” Alex, an African parrot, who is Irene’s best student, speaks and responds to 100 words. Experiments show he can name 5 shapes and 7 colors and knows the difference between bigger and smaller, same or different. “How many blue keys?” Irene asks, showing a tray of red and blue keys and blocks. “One,” Alex answers correctly. Alex has to process an amazing amount of information to come up with the right answer. Alex learns the way young children do. He practices new words in private before using them in conversation, just like any 2-year-old child. Most impressive of all, Alex can make his own wishes known. When he is tired of Irene’s exercises, he says, “I want to go away.” 16. Q: What was scientists’ assumption of parrots? 17. Q: Why does Irene compare human’s and parrot’s brains to computers? 18. Q: What is the most impressive act of Alex? Passage Two Millions of dollars are spent every year in fighting tooth decay. Despite better education and a higher standard of living, the number of people needing dental treatment increases every year. A British dentist, Mr. R. V. Tait, has thought about why this is the case, and has made some suggestions about what could be done to improve the situation. He has pointed out that our thirty-two teeth evolved in the past to deal with a much tougher diet than we have now. Our ancestors ate tough gritty food, and so they needed many teeth. Our teeth, however, do not have to cope with such a diet, because we eat much softer food. Unless, therefore, we are prepared to eat the diet of our ancestors, we should get rid of some of our teeth. Instead of thirty-two teeth, it would be better if we had a well-spaced set of twenty to twenty-four. This would force the rest to work harder and make them healthier. Another advantage would be that with larger spaces between our teeth, caries could not develop, as it does now, between teeth that are very close together. Furthermore, most extractions would be done during childhood when teeth can be extracted easily, and sockets heal with little pain. Mr. Tait’s theory is original and convincing. It is a remarkable piece of work, because most dentists believe we should keep as many of our teeth as possible. It is unlikely, unfortunately, that they will be persuaded by his ideas. 19. Q: Why don’t we need so many teeth as our ancestors? 20. Q: What is Mr. Tait’s suggestion to fight tooth decay? 21. Q: Which of the following is not an advantage of a well-spaced set of twenty to twenty-four teeth? 22. Q: What do most dentists think of Mr. Tait’s theory? Passage Three In every major city, young men, and sometimes young women, try to earn a living by driving taxis. London has the most knowledgeable taxi drivers. Paris, the most political. Sydney has the most modern taxis. None, however, are more famous than the men who drive the yellow and black taxis of New York. Movies, TV shows, books and songs about New York city must include something about its taxi drivers. New York taxi drivers come from over 80 countries; about 40% of them are from India. Many others come from the West Indies, Russia, Israel and, increasingly, from China. A mere 10% of the city’s taxi drivers were born in America. One thing that makes New York drivers different from those in other major cities is their cultural creativity. Besides their constant appearance in the media, taxi drivers have written books about their work and lives. Many sing songs and write poetry using their own vivid and distinctive speech. Much of their art is about loneliness, sadness at personal failures or arguments with customers. There are large social gaps between New York taxi drivers and their passengers. Conflicts frequently arise. For instance, the taxi drivers are often rude to middle-class women. Sometimes the conflicts are made worse by a language barrier as quite a few immigrant drivers have trouble with basic English. The conflicts that arise over unimportant matters often reveal the driver’s anger at the social gaps. 23. Q: Where does the largest group of New York taxi drivers come from? 24. Q: What makes New York drivers different from those in other major cities? 25. Q: What is the major reason for the conflicts between New York taxi drivers and passengers?

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