英语试析地理环境影响下中英成语的文化差异


     Contents 目录 Contents 1 Chinese Abstract 2 English Abstract 3 1. The Relationship Between Language and Culture 4 2. English Idioms and Chinese Idioms 4 2.1 Chinese Idioms 4 2.2 English Idioms 5 3. The Correspondence Between English and Chinese Idioms 6 3.1 The Basic Corresponding English and Chinese Idioms 6 3.2 Semi-basic Corresponding English and Chinese Idioms 7 3.3 Non-corresponding English and Chinese Idioms 8 4. Geographical Environment Affecting Factors 9 4.1 Different Terrains 9 4.2 Different Climates 9 4.3 Different Mode of Productions 10 4.4 Different Meaning of Directions 11 4.5 Different Natural Resources 11 5. Conclusion 12 References 13 试析地理环境影响下中英成语的文化差异 摘 要 英语和汉语两种语言中都含有丰富的成语。成语是语言文化的高度凝练,突出反映了民族文化的特点。汉语成语和英语成语产生于不同的地理环境,来源于不同的民族文化,因此在结构、风格、意义等方面都差别巨大。 本文选择富有文化内涵的英汉成语,通过对比分析其所产生的不同地理环境,探析其中的文化差异。从英汉成语各自的特点和他们的对应关系入手,着重分析地理环境影响因素中地形地势、气候条件、生产方式、方向意义及自然资源这五个方面的异同,总结出不同地理环境影响下英汉成语的文化差异,以便读者了解中英成语文化的深层含义。 关键词:地理环境;成语;文化差异 An Analysis of Cultural Differences Between Chinese and English Idioms under the Influence of Geographical Environment Abstract There are ample idioms in both English and Chinese. Idioms are highly condensed in language and culture, which highlight the characteristics of national culture. Chinese and English idioms originate from various geographical environments and national cultures, so they differ greatly in structure, style and meaning. This paper selects English and Chinese idioms with rich cultural connotations, and explores the cultural differences between them through the comparative analysis of different geographical environments. Starting from the characteristics of English and Chinese idioms and their corresponding relations, this paper focuses on the analysis of the five factors affecting the geographical environment: topography, climatic condition, mode of production, meaning of direction and natural resources, subsequently sums up the cultural differences between Chinese and English idioms under the influence of diverse geographic environment, so that readers can understand the deep meaning of the two idioms. Key words: geographical environment; idioms; cultural differences 1. The Relationship Between Language and Culture Edward Burnett Tylor defines culture in his Primitive Culture (1871): Culture is a complex whole, including knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, customs and any other abilities and habits acquired by human beings as members of society. Language, as an essential part of culture, is also a prerequisite for the formation and development of culture. On the other hand, cultural development also promotes linguistic richness and perfection. It can be said that language indicates the characteristics of a country, for the reason that it includes not only the historical and cultural background of the country, but also the way of life and thinking of the nation. Language and culture bear each other and they are inseparably. The development of language and culture promotes and influences each other, they do not restrict each other, on the contrary, they influence and integrate each other in parallel development. The natural geographical environment influences the formation of culture and creates specific cultures and expressions. Due to the different geographical conditions, the terrain climate and economic production methods in various regions are also distinct from each other, therefore the language vocabulary and its connotative meaning generated on this basis will also differ in expression. Idioms are the condensation and crystallization of language. Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar & Karunakaran, 2013). What’s more they are an indispensable part of language, which reflecting the national culture. These idioms reflect the cultural characteristics, living habits, customs of the nation from all aspects. Chinese and English national culture is deeply influenced by their respective history, geography and customs. The degree of this influence is also engraved in the language, so a large number of idioms have rich cultural characteristics. 2. English Idioms and Chinese Idioms 2.1 Chinese Idioms What is a Chinese idiom? The New Modern Chinese Dictionary defines idioms as: “phrases or short sentences that have been used by people for a long time, with simple forms and brilliant meanings.” (罗琦,周丽萍,2003) It can be seen that the structure of idioms has been relatively fixed up to now, most of which are four-character idioms. Chinese idioms are mostly derived from ancient classics, famous historical stories, people’s oral or myths and fables. (陈玉霞, 2001) They have brilliant meanings, which are often implied in literal meaning. Instead of simple addition of constituent meanings, they have integrated meanings. It has a tight structure, and generally cannot change the word order arbitrarily, replace or increase or decrease its components. It is not a simple combination of words, but a stereotyped phrase with special meaning, rich in grammatical functions and profound cultural connotations. Chinese idioms are short, concise, and rich in content, and often have a strong emotional color. There are many idioms derived from historical stories, for example, 指鹿为马 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “zhi lu wei ma”, which means intentionally confuse right and wrong) from the Historical Records of the First Emperor Qin Shihuang by Sima Qian of the Western Han Dynasty. In addition to the history of Zhao Gao pointing at the deer as a horse and murdering a minister, it also uses metaphor to intentionally reverse black and white and confuse right and wrong. 望梅止渴 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “wang mei zhi ke”, which means wish cannot be realized, comfort oneself with dreams) is from the Southern Dynasties Liu Yiqing’s New Words of the World - False Treachery. It is about Cao Cao’s story of stimulating morale and deceiving a plum tree in front of soldiers. As a result, morale increased greatly. Later, it compared metaphorically to wish, and comforted oneself with dreams. Idioms derived from fable stories: 东施效颦 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “dong shi xiao pin”, which means impersonate others) is a parable in Chuang Tzu - Fortune, which tells the story of Dongshi’s failure to imitate Xishi and spurned by others. It is now used to ridicule impersonal behavior and advise people not to imitate blindly. 守株待兔 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “shou zhu dai tu”, which means hold on to a narrow experience and won’t change) is a parable from Han Feizi - Five Kinds of Evils, about an ancient peasant who saw a rabbit slammed into the root of a tree and died. Since then he put down his hoe and waited for the rabbit to be killed by the tree every day. It is now used to ridicule those who want to succeed without effort. 天衣无缝 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “tian yi wu feng”, which means things are well-rounded and flawless) is a mythical story from Ghost Record · Guo Han. It originally refers to the heavenly dress worn by the fairy in the myth which is not made by needlework and not sewn. Now metaphorical things are perfect and natural, without any traces or flaws. 开天辟地 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “kai tian pi di”, which means unprecedented) is a legend from The Historical Records of the Emperor in the Middle and late Primitive Society, which tells the story of Pangu created heaven and earth in ancient times. The latter is often used as a metaphor for an unprecedented phenomenon that has not occurred since ancient times. 2.2 English Idioms The definition of idiom in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary is:“a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words” (赵翠莲,邹晓玲,2016). Longman English Dictionary defines idiom as “a group of words that has a special meaning that is different from the ordinary meaning of each separate word” (Net 1). In Cambridge Advanced English Idioms, idiom is a kind of stylized language, which is a fixed combination of words. Its meaning is not only the sum of the meanings of words (O’Dell &McCarthy, 2014). To sum up, “idioms are usually semantically opaque, metaphorical rather than literal” (Ren Chi & Yu Hao, 2013: 78). There are also many idioms in English that originate from ancient myths, historical allusions, religious classics, and literary works. For example, in “Achilles heel”, Achilles is a hero in ancient Greek mythology, and heel is his only weakness. “The sword of Damocles” is derived from a historical story of ancient Greece. In the fourth century BC, Dionysius I, the ruler of Syracuse on Sicily, let Damocles sit on the throne. When he looked up and saw a sword hanging with his hair on his head, it would fall down at any time and scared him to leave. People use the “The sword of Damocles” to describe the murderous opportunities and dangers behind peace and tranquility (樊艳萍, 2010). There are also English idioms in the classic Christian Bible. For example, “Forbidden Fruit” is the fruit of the tree of good and evil in the Garden of Eden, and was eaten by Adam and Eve in violation of God’s will. People have accepted many famous quotations in literary works, such as George Orwell’s “Big Brother” in 1984. 3. The Correspondence Between English and Chinese Idiom 3.1 The Basic Corresponding English and Chinese Idioms Basic correspondence means that English idioms and Chinese idioms are basically the same in meaning, material selection, structure and usage (岳鹏, 2016). This is only because there are similar natural living environment or similar things between the two cultures, people’s cognition of things is almost the same (Shi Wenjuan, 2015). This similarity reflects certain commonality in language. For example, the meaning of Chinese idiom 殊途同归 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “shu tu tong gui”, which means take different approaches to get the same result) is to obtain the same result by taking different methods. “All roads lead to Rome” in English means going from different roads to the same destination. Therefore, the two idioms are very similar in image and meaning. “Kill the goose that lays the golden egg” corresponds to 杀鸡取卵 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “sha ji qu luan” which mean covet the immediate interests and disregard the long-term interests), while “鸡” in Chinese corresponds to “goose” in English (郭倩倩, 2015). Although the reference of animals is different, the meaning is the same. That means the practice is urgent. “flash in the pan” corresponds to 昙花一现 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “tan hua yi xian”, which means good things appear for a short time), Chinese “昙花” corresponds to “flash”. Although the objects are not the same, the opening time of the flower is as short as a flash of fire. The basic corresponding idioms are as follows: Seeing is believing眼见为实 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “yan jian wei shi”) An eye for eye and a tooth for a tooth. 以牙还牙,以眼还眼 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “yi ya huan ya yi yan huan yan”) as light as a feather轻如鸿毛 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “qing ru hong mao”) Love me, love my dog.爱屋及乌 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “ai wu ji wu”)   Constant dropping wears stone. 水滴石穿 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “shui di shi chuan”) to pour oil on the flame火上浇油 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “huo shang jiao you”) A slow sparrow should make an early start.笨鸟先飞 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “ben niao xian fei”) Chinese and English have different social and cultural backgrounds, but due to the similarity of human mindset and cognitive ability, there are many identical aspects in human social life, which will inevitably make language have commonality. Therefore, many idioms have the same or analogous meaning and image. 3.2 Semi-basic Corresponding English and Chinese Idioms The different origins of Chinese and English idioms affect the language forms. The proportion of complete correspondence between Chinese and English idioms is very small, because most of them are partially or inappropriately corresponding. Partial correspondence refers to Chinese and English idioms that are not completely unified in meaning or usage and have common connotations (郭倩倩, 2015). Some idioms with similar literal meaning may have different connotations, while some idioms with similar practical usage and meaning may have different expressions. For example, 半斤八两 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “ban jin ba liang”, which means the same as each other) and “six of one and half a dozen of the other” are partial correspondences. Although “Six of one and half a dozen of the other” is similar to the image and metaphor of 半斤八两, its usage in Chinese emphasizes its derogatory meaning, and English idioms are more neutral. 小题大做 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “xiao ti da zuo”, which means improperly treat small things as big things) is a metaphor for treating small things as if they were impossible,which means that you don’t have to work hard to do it. “Make a mountain out of a molehill” has the meaning of regarding small things as big events, including exaggeration, exaggeration of difficulties or obstacles. It also means to be worried or excited about minor matters. The first two meanings of this idiom are similar to 小题大做, but the third meaning is different. The Semi-basic corresponding idioms like the above are: birds of one feather一丘之貉 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “yi qiu zhi he”) like a duck to water 如鱼得水 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “ru yu de shui”) spend money like water 挥金如土 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “hui jin ru tu”) Like a rat in a hole瓮中之鳖 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “weng zhong zhi bie”) Diamond cut diamond棋逢对手 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “qi feng dui shou”) to eat like a horse狼吞虎咽 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “lang tun hu yan”) No smoke without fire无风不起浪 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “wu feng bu qi lang”) Due to the differences in structure, cultural traditions, natural environment, historical background and production methods between Chinese and English, the cultural implications that are reflected in many phrases are inconsistent or only partial. As can be seen from the previous examples, although some parts of English and Chinese are interrelated, their cultural and emotional meanings are different. 3.3 Non-corresponding English and Chinese Idioms Idioms come from culture and reflect culture, but they are also restricted by it. As the cultural origins of Chinese and English are different, they exhibit their unique cultural connotation, emotional colors and linguistic characteristics. It is often used in Chinese culture, but there is no corresponding expression in English. It means the same in Chinese culture, but it may be different or the opposite in English culture. For example, the structural meaning of 翻天覆地 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “fan tian fu di”, which means huge and radical change) and “move heaven and earth’ exactly corresponds to each other, but the actual meaning of them is far from each other. “翻天覆地” describes the change is amazing. And “move heaven and earth” comes from French, which means to achieve the goal by all means. It’s easy to make mistakes from it’s literal meaning when understanding “move heaven and earth” (郭倩倩, 2015). 同舟共济 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “tong zhou gong ji”, which means work together to overcome difficulties) and “in the same boat” have the same image in the literal sense, but their practical meanings are far from each other. The Chinese idiom “同舟共济” means that when encountering difficulties, everyone will work together to overcome them. Chinese idioms emphasize unity, while English “in the same boat” emphasizes the same situation. There are many non-corresponding English and Chinese idioms, for example: 一触即发 (The situation has reached a very tense stage, and it will erupt immediately with a push.) touch and go (In danger must act immediately.) 患难之交 (Friends who have experienced hardship together.) a friend in need (Someone who helps others when they need it.) 脚踏实地 (Do things steadily and conscientiously.) put one’s foot down (Stand firmly against what someone wants to do.) 浑水摸鱼 (Seizing illegitimate interests at a time of confusion.) fish in the troubled water (To harm others when they are in danger.) 一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳 (Fear of similar things once hurt.) Once bitten, twice shy (Draw lessons from practical experience.) Chinese and English idioms are constrained and influenced by cultural factors, so the literal meaning and actual connotation of many words are not consistent. When the meanings of Chinese idioms and English idioms are not equal, cross-cultural communicators are required to understand their respective implications and carefully screen the words. 4. Geographical Environment Affecting Factors 4.1 Different Terrains China is located in the east of the Eurasian continent. The terrain is dominated by mountains, hills, and plateaus, and the terrain is high in the west and low in the east. The vast land area and complex landform contribute to the unique attribute of rich and diverse national culture and wide distribution of cultural elements (张晨霞,2018). The highlands to the west and the lowlands to the east of China create a river flow from the west to the east, which also influences the expression of Chinese idioms. For example, 大江东去 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “tong zhou gong ji”) is used to describe the development of history. 付诸东流 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “fu zhu dong liu”) is a metaphor of hope lost, achievement lost and previous achievements lost, as if washed away with the running water. Since China is a mountainous country, many idioms about mountains were born. For example: 山高路远 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “shan gao lu yuan”) is used to describe the journey is difficult and distant. 绿水青山 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “lv shui qing shan”) refers to beautiful mountains and rivers. Britain is an island country composed of the northeast of Ireland island and its affiliated islands and Great Britain Island. Due to long coastline and the lack of land resources , people’s daily life is closely related to the sea and water, which makes English idioms often related to the sea. Such as, “a drop in the ocean” means a very small amount comparison to the much large amount that is needed. “between the devil and the deep blue sea” is in a situation where you have to choose between two things that are equally dad. 4.2 Different Climates The geographical differences between the two countries have resulted in climate differences that have led to huge differences when describing the same season. Most parts of China are located in temperate and subtropical areas. The temperature characteristics of the four seasons are more clear compared with the average temperature of the same latitude in the world. The temperature in summer is relatively high, and in spring is appropriate. Therefore, in Chinese, summer is often associated with hot summer. There are some idioms that describe the hot summer, like: 酷暑难耐 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “ku shu nan nai”)、夏日炎炎 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “xia ri yan yan”). Spring is often praised by people. It often symbolizes “joy”, “hope and future”, etc. For example, 春回大地 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “chun hui da di”) , 春暖花开 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “chun nuan hua kai”) and so on. Britain lies on the east coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the Western Hemisphere. It has a marine climate in the north temperate zone. Its summer is a warm and pleasant season. People often describe it as “beautiful”, “lovely” and “gentle”. Shakespeare likened his lover to summer in one of his sonnets,“Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate” (王莉, 2009). 4.3 Different Mode of Productions Since ancient times, China has always been a large agricultural production country. Agricultural production is the foundation of national economy. People’s production activities are closely related to land, and many idioms related to land have been produced. For example: 寸土不让 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “chun tu bu rang”), 挥金如土 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “hui jin ru tu”). Cattle play an important role in the history of agricultural production in China. Since ancient times, it has a great relationship with people’s clothing, food, housing and transportation. Many of the working habits of cattle are widely praised because they are the same as the traditional virtues of the Chinese nation. They are given the cultural connotation of hard work and selfless dedication. There are a lot of idioms about cattle, such as气壮如牛 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “qi zhuang ru niu”)、牛高马大 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “niu gao ma da”)、九牛二虎 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “jiu niu er hu”) and so on. Britain’s developed marine fishery culture benefits from its unique geographical environment and the historical position of the maritime overlord, so its language also fully demonstrates the characteristics of marine culture. There are a large number of words related to fish, ships and sea transportation in English, whose meaning goes far beyond the word itself. For example, idioms related to ships:“be in the same boat”,“sail close to the wind”; idioms related to the sea:“all at sea”, “hold water”. The British fishing industry has also left a lot of fishing-related words in its language. Such as:“fish for compliments”, “have other fish to fry”, “a fish out of water”. Before the appearance of steam engine, horse was always an important means of transportation and closely related to people’s daily life, so many idioms related to horse. Such as: “a dark horse”, “eat like a horse”, “a hobby horse”. 4.4 Different Meaning of Directions In Chinese, the East has special cultural connotations. The East is where the sun rises, where the new day begins and where it brings light to people. There are mountains in the west of China and the sea in the east, so when the east wind blows, it brings warmth to people. Therefore, the east wind is a synonym for warmth, and there are idioms such as 万事俱备,只欠东风 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “wan shi ju bei, zhi qian dong feng”), 东风浩荡 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “dong feng hao dang”). And China's temperate continental climate makes the west wind mean cold and desolate in Chinese. Such as 西风落叶 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “xi feng lou ye”) It means that people or things have declined. Ma Zhiyuan wrote in Tianjingsha Qiusi: “古道西风瘦马, 夕阳西下, 断肠人在天涯”. (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “gu dao xi feng shou ma, xi yang xi xia, duan chang ren zai tian ya”) In this sentence, “the west wind” is endowed with a sad meaning. On the contrary, in English, the east wind is a symbol of cold and unpleasant. Britain is an island country with a mild maritime climate. There is no severe cold in winter and extreme heat in summer. The east wind is very cold from the northern part of continental Europe, while the west wind is blown by the Atlantic Ocean, which is warm and pleasant. The British like the west wind. Shelley, an English poet, highly praised the west wind in his poem Ode to the West Wind: “Oh, the west wind, if winter comes, can spring be far behind?”, which expressed his vision and firm belief for the future. 4.5 Different Natural Resources From the perspective of geographical resources, both China and Britain have abundant natural resources. However, due to the differences in resources between the two countries and the use and preference of varied natural resources by the people, there are also variance in the vocabulary between Chinese and English. China is the hometown of plum blossom, whose flower language represents strong will. Therefore, many scholars will praise the indomitable spirit of plum in their works. In the early days of England, there was no plum blossom, so there was a shortage of vocabulary about plum blossom. Tea in Chinese is also an example. There are many hills and mountains in China, which is good for the growth of tea trees. There are rich tea cultures in China. There are many expressions about tea in Chinese, such as people walking in the cool tea, after tea. The humid climate in Britain is not suitable for tea planting. Even “tea” is is borrowed from foreign language. Due to the unique geographical conditions, China is rich in bamboo, and people’s life is closely related to bamboo. Therefore, there are many idioms related to bamboo in Chinese, such as:胸有成竹 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “xiong you cheng zhu”), 破竹之势 (in Chinese Pinyin, it is pronounced as “po zhu zhi shi”) While the geographical environment of Britain and the United States does not produce bamboo. Even the word “bamboo” is borrowed from foreign languages, so there are almost no idioms related to bamboo in English, and bamboo has no special cultural connotation (刘姝宇, 2012). 5. Conclusion Language is a manifestation of the characteristics of thinking, reflecting the civilization of various nationalities around the world but also restricted by national culture and geographical environment. As a product of the geographical environment, historical culture, customs and religion, idioms embody human civilization and national characteristics. Idioms have typical cultural characteristics in various regions, so they often become communication barriers for non-native speakers in cross-cultural communication. In order to solve this problem, intercultural communicators should better understand the cultural differences and similarities between Chinese and English idioms. Therefore, the study of English and Chinese idioms from the perspective of geographical differences is of great help to readers. There are numerous colorful idioms in Chinese and English. Chinese and English idioms are the epitome of national culture and the crystallization of human knowledge and wisdom. Chinese and English idioms reflect the historical civilization of different countries and the accumulation of long national history. The use of Chinese and English idioms has a long history, forming a fixed structure and usage. Based on the study of the differences in geographical environment between Chinese and English idioms, this paper expounds the differences in topography, climatic condition, mode of production, meaning of directions and natural resources. Then use comparative analysis to analyze and compare a large number of Chinese and English idioms, after that sort out the expressions and cultural differences of Chinese and English idioms affected by geographical environment. Through the understanding of the origin, structural features, corresponding relations and geographical environment of English and Chinese idioms, it is easier for cross-cultural communicators to understand the similarities and differences between the two languages and cultures, so as to overcome the obstacles of intercultural communication. References [1]O’Dell, Felicity. & McCarthy, Michael. 剑桥高级英语习语[M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社, 2014 [2]Ren Chi & Yu Hao. Translation of English Idioms From the Perspective of Cultural Context[J]. Cross-Cultural Communication, 2013(5): 78-81. [3]Shi Wenjuan. Comparison and Contrast Between English and Chinese Idioms From Cultural Connotation Perspective[J]. Studies in Literature and Language, 2015(1):102-113. [4]Sridhar, M. & Karunakaran, T. Idioms and importance of teaching idioms to ESL Students: A Study on Teacher Beliefs[J]. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (AJHSS), 2013(1): 110-122. [5]Tylor, E. Primitive culture[M]. London: J Murray Albemark Street, 1871 [6]陈玉霞. 英汉成语文化差异探析[J]. 池州师专学报, 2001(2):42-43. [7]樊艳萍. 论英语成语的文化背景[J]. 学习月刊, 2010(6):41-42. [8]郭倩倩. 汉英成语文化差异及翻译应对方法探究[D]. 苏州大学, 2015: 5 [9]刘姝宇. 汉英成语文化差异的对比分析[D]. 黑龙江大学, 2012: 4 [10]罗琦, 周丽萍. 新编现代汉语词典21世纪推荐版[M]. 吉林:吉林大学出版社, 2003 [11]王莉. 地理环境差异引起的英汉词汇差异[J]. 山西师大学报(社会科学版)研究生论文专刊, 2009(11): 87-89. [12]岳鹏. 从英汉成语的文化内涵差异浅议英汉成语翻译[J]. 甘肃政法成人教育学院学报, 2016(2): 111-112. [13]赵翠莲, 邹晓玲等. 牛津高阶英汉双解词典:第8版[Z]. 北京:商务印书馆, 2016 [14]张晨霞. 汉英成语文化差异及翻译方法分析[J]. 河北工程大学学报(社会科学版), 2018(1): 85-112. [15]Net 1. 360 Browser [OL]. Retrieved April 25, 2020, from https://www.ldoceonline.com/ 本文档由香当网(https://www.xiangdang.net)用户上传

    下载文档到电脑,查找使用更方便

    文档的实际排版效果,会与网站的显示效果略有不同!!

    需要 10 香币 [ 分享文档获得香币 ]

    下载文档

    相关文档

    论文化差异对商务沟通的影响

        **职业学院课程论文         题 目 名 称:文化差异对商务沟通的影响               系    (部):工商管理系               ...

    4年前   
    3383    0

    精选网络影响下英语教育研究

    精选网络影响下英语教育研究  一、传统陈旧的英语教学模式的弊端  第一,在我国长期占领主要教学方式的传统英语教学模式下,英语课堂大概以教师嘴上讲授和黑板板书相结合的方式进行,不但缺少直观性,教...

    7年前   
    193    0

    在书的影响下1

    在书的影响下在以前,书在游戏面前可以说是一文不值,从小我就不喜欢看书。这也使我“肩负”起语文考试最后一名的责任。自从我遇到了科幻小说。她带着知识向着无所事事的我走来,年幼无知道我也渐渐向着成熟...

    9个月前   
    255    0

    试析新时期非公经济对青年发展之影响—党政司法

     试析新时期非公经济对青年发展之影响—党政司法 非公经济已经成为我国经济飞速发展的强劲动力。据亚洲开发银行2003年3月出版的《中国私营企业的发展》介绍:2002年,非公经济产值占中国国内生产...

    9年前   
    105    0

    试谈新课程理念下初中英语课堂的导入

    课堂导入是教学的首要环节,起着温故知新和承上启下的作用。课堂导入时要避免导入时间过长,偏离重点,生搬硬套的做法,而是应根据教材与学生的特点巧妙运用适当方法导入新课,才能激活学生已有的相关所学知识...

    2年前   
    693    0

    高中英语复习

    高中英语复习第1章 主谓一致一.概念:主谓一致是指:1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。3) 就近原则,即谓语...

    8年前   
    279    0

    高中英语-教案

    Under the guidance of the purpose which is making study serve the practise, combining with Person...

    2年前   
    559    0

    论文-汉英文化差异下的商务口译技巧

    在这篇论文中,笔者先谈论口译的概念、分类、特点、理论以及在文化差异下的口译技巧,接着简单介绍了商务英语的文化差异。

    3年前   
    887    0

    高考英语-高中英语的介词使用

    高中英语的介词使用今天来讲高中英语介词相关的知识。I.分类:1.常用简单介词:about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides...

    8个月前   
    212    0

    高考英语-高中英语情景对话

    【高中英语情景对话】问候与应答Morning/Good morning 早上好Afternoon/Good afternoon 下午好Evening/Good evening 晚上好Hello...

    7个月前   
    190    0

    「英语」高中英语语法速记口诀汇总

     一、冠词基本用法  【速记口诀】  名词是秃子,常要戴帽子,  可数名词单,须用a或an,  辅音前用a, an在元音前,  若为特指时,则须用定冠,  复数不可数,泛指the不见,  碰到...

    7年前   
    178    0

    2013兔年四字成语贺词中英文

    2013兔年四字成语贺词中英文  生意兴隆: wish your business success  一帆风顺: wish you every success  鹏程万里: have a br...

    8年前   
    157    0

    初中英语教学反思

    新课改倡导全人教育,强调课程要促进每个学生身心健康的发展,培养学生良好的品质和终身学习的能力,新课改提倡交流与合作、自主创新学习,课程改革的成败关键在于教师,教师是课程改革的实施者.

    1年前   
    1372    0

    初中英语作文常用名言

    一、勤奋、意志与成功  1. Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者事竟成。2. No pains, no gains.没有付出就没有收获。3. C...

    3个月前   
    130    0

    初中英语请假条

    初中英语请假条  the distinguished leadership of the company:  i am in the xxxx x month x day marriage r...

    6年前   
    93    0

    初中英语教学论文

    初中英语教学论文第一篇:初中英语教学论文初中英语教学论文高铁中学 吕新莲一、更新教学思想教学班就是一个学生组织,教师和学生都是这个组织的成员,互相支持,互相学习。教师的任务在于帮助学生认识学习...

    6年前   
    223    0

    高中英语学习总结

    高中英语学习总结  我用我的方法。从高一时90多,到高考129。大学六级524,四级552  首先先你要端正心态,不要急躁,不管别人考多少分,你做你自己的事,这样才能静下心来学习。要成为英语高...

    7年前   
    188    0

    高中英语语法大全

    在英语中,不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态,要用不同的动词形式来表示,这就叫做动词的时态。

    6个月前   
    156    0

    初中英语语法教学

    ContentChinese Abstract……………………………………………………………………2English Abstract……………………………………………………………………31. ...

    2周前   
    95    0

    初中英语学习计划

    初中英语学习计划  一、总则:  1、坚持每一天,充分利用一切可以利用的时间学英语。没有持之以恒的学习和大量的时将做保障,一切都是空谈。  2、每天听写一篇文章,以此文章为中心,展开一天的学习...

    8年前   
    115    0

    文档贡献者

    爱***享

    贡献于2021-04-19

    下载需要 10 香币 [香币充值 ]
    亲,您也可以通过 分享原创文档 来获得香币奖励!
    下载文档

    该用户的其他文档