新概念英语第二册笔记(全部96课全)


    新概念英语第二册 ★Lesson 1 A private conversation ★private adj.私人的 ① adj. 私人的 private life 私生活 private school 私立学校 It's my private letter. (如果妈妈想看你的信) It's my private house. (如果陌生人想进你的房子) ② adj. 普通的 private citizen 普通公民 I’m a private citizen. (citizen n. 公民) private soldier 大兵 《Private Ryan》(《拯救大兵瑞恩》) public adj. 公众的,公开的(private的反义词) public school 公立学校 public letter 公开信 public place 公共场所 privacy n.隐私 It’s privacy. 这是我的隐私!(不愿让别人知道的) ★conversation n.谈话 have a + talk/chat/dialogue/conversation/gossip 名词变动词 conversation 一般用于正式文体中, 内容上往往不正式 subject of conversation 话题 They are having a conversation. talk 内容可正式可不正式, 也可以私人 Let’s have a talk. dialogue 对话, 可以指正式国家与国家会谈 China and Korea are having a dialogue. chat 闲聊,就是北京人说的“侃”,说的是无关紧要的事。 gossip 嚼舌头, 说长道短 ★theatre n.剧场, 戏剧 cinema n.电影院 ★seat n.座位 have a good seat/place,这里的seat指place(指地点),而不是chair. take a seat/take your seat 坐下来, 就坐 Is the seat taken? 这个位置有人吗? 请坐的3种说法 : Sit down, please. (命令性) Take your seat, please. Be seated, please. (更礼貌) 作为动词的seat与sit的区别 sit(sat,sitten) vi. 就座 He is sitting there. 他坐在那儿。 seat vt.让某人就座 seat sb. 让某人就坐,后面会加人 Seat yourself. You seat him.你给他找个位置. When all those present(到场者)_D_ he began his lecture. A. sit B. set C. seated D. were seated sit down 坐下;be seated=take a seat 就坐 ★angry adj. 生气的 ★angrily adv. 生气的 angry =cross I was angry. /He was cross. annoyed: 恼火的; be blue in the face 脸上突然变色 程 I was annoyed. 度 I was angry/cross. 加 I was very angry. 深 I am blue in the face. (脸色都青了, 相当生气了) ★attention n. 注意 Attention ,please. 请注意(口语) pay attention 注意 pay attention to … 对……注意 You must pay attention to that girl. pay a little attention 稍加注意 pay much attention 多加注意 pay more attention 更多注意 pay no attention 不用注意 pay close attention 特别注意 ★bear(bore, born) v. 容忍 ① vt. 承受,支撑,承担,负担 Can the ice bear my weight? Who will bear the cost? 谁来承担这笔费用? ② vt. 忍受(一般与can/could连用于疑问句及否定句中) She eats too fast. I can’t bear to watch/watching her. 她吃得太快。我看着受不了。 How can you bear living in this place? 你怎么能受得了住在这个地方? bear =stand =put up with I can't bear/stand you. endure:忍受,容忍 put up with :忍受 I got divorced(离婚).I could not put up with him bear/stand/endure 忍受的极限在加大 bear n.熊 white bear 白熊 bear hug :热情(热烈)的拥抱 give sb. a bear hug ★business n. 事, 生意 ① n. 生意 business man :生意人 do business: 做生意 go to some place on business:因公出差 I went to Tianjin on business. ② n. 某人自己的私人的事情 It's my business. (指私人的事, 自己处理的事) It's none of your business. 不关你的事。 ★rudely adv. 无礼地, 粗鲁地 rude adj. 粗鲁的,无礼的 ★pay vt. &vi. 支付 ① vt. &vi. 支付(价款等) Have you paid the taxi-driver? You can pay a deposit of thirty pounds… 您可以先付30英镑的定金…… I’ll pay by instalments. I paid 50 dollars for this skirt. (pay…for sth. 花/支付……(钱)买……) ② vt. &vi. 给予(注意等);去(访问) They did not pay any attention. We paid a visit to our teacher last Sunday. 上星期天我们去拜访了老师。 ③ n. 工资,报酬 I have not received my pay yet. 我还没有领到工资。 【课文讲解】 1、Last week I went to the theatre. 动词 go 的原义是离开一个地方去另一个地方,与介词 to 连用后,常加上主语所要去的目的来代表主语的动作目的。 go to the +地点 表示去某地干嘛 go to the theatre = go to the theatre to see a play去剧场看戏 go to the cinema =see a film 去电影院看电影 go to the dairy 去牛奶店 go to the + 人 + 's 表示去这个人开的店 go to the doctor's 去看病;go to the butcher's 买肉 以下短语中名词前不加冠词: go to school 去上学;go to church 去做礼拜;go to hospital(医院) 去看病;go to bed 上床,睡觉;go home(跟home相连一定表示没有事情可做,回家休息) I am at home. 在家休息 2、I had a very good seat. seat一般指戏院、汽车等配置的固定座位,也可以抽象地表示“座位”或“位子”等概念。 the front seat of a car 汽车的前座 Take a seat, please. 请坐。 3、I did not enjoy it. enjoy vt. 欣赏,享受,喜爱 ① enjoy +n. 喜欢,从当中得到一种享受(后面不能跟人) I enjoy the music. enjoy the dinner/film/program/game ② enjoy oneself/代词 玩的开心 We always enjoy ourselves. ③ enjoy +动名词 Jane doesn’t enjoy swimming. She enjoys going to the theatre. 4、I got very angry. get 在这里有“逐渐变得”的含义,接近 become,是个表示过程的动词,表示状态的变化。而I was very angry则仅表示当时的状态是生气,并不暗示过程。 I am/was angry. 是一个事实 I got angry. 强调变化过程 It is hot. It got hot. got 取代be动词,got是一个半联系动词,可以直接加形容词。 5、I could not hear the actors. I turned round. hear+人:听见某人的话 I could not hear you. Beg your pardon? I couldn't hear you./I couldn't hear a word./I couldn't catch your words. I couldn't hear you clearly./I couldn't catch your words. Beg your pardon? /I couldn't catch your words. turn round =turn around 转身 6、In the end, I could not bear it. in the end 最后,终于,表示一段较长的时间之后或某种努力之后 She tried hard to finish her homework by herself. In the end, she had to ask her brother for help. I could not bear it/you/the noise. 7、I can't hear a word! I can't hear a word. 美音:肯定I can 否定,I can't, 它的/t/是吞进去的, 在读音上很难区别, 只能根据上下文来定 hear a word of sb. (a word 等于一句话) He didn't say a word. May I speak to Jim?/May I have a word with Jim? 8、It's none of your business. one’s business 指某人(所关心的或份内)的事 It's none of your business./None of your business./It's my business. 不关你的事。 It is my business to look after your health. 我必须照顾你的身体健康。 none相当于not any或no one,但语气较强。 She kept none of his letters. 他的信件她一封也没有保留。 none of 这个短语有时可以表达一种断然、甚至粗暴的口气,尤其是在祈使句中: None of your silly remarks! 别说傻话了! 【Key structures】 简单陈述句的语序 陈述句一定是有主语,有动词,有宾语,有句号 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 when? Who? Action Who? How? Where? When? Which? Which? What? What? 1 ---主语,一般由名词、代词或名词短语构成,通常位于动词之前,动词必须与主语一致,即主语决定动词的单复数形式 2 ---谓语,由动词充当 3 ---宾语,一般为名词、代词或名词短语 4 ---副词或介词短语,对方式或状态提问,往往做状语 I like her very much 5 ---地点状语,一般在方式副词之后,时间副词之前 6 ---时间状语,可以放在句首或句末 简单陈述句一定不能少的是主语, 谓语. 如果问何时何地,是一个固定搭配 when and where ★Lesson 2 Breakfast or lunch? ★until prep.直到 until用于表示动作、状态等的持续,可译为“一直到……为止”或“在……以前”。在肯定句中,它与表示持续性状态的动词连用,表示持续到某一时刻: I’ll wait here until 5. 我会在这里等到5点钟。 His father was alive until he came back. 直到他回来为止,他爸爸都是活着的. 在否定句中,它通常与描述短暂动作的动词连用,表示“到……为止”、“直到……才”: She cannot arrive until 6. 她到6点才能来。 His father didn't die until he came back. 直到他回来,他爸爸才死. until(后的从句)的时间终止之前,这个动作做了还是没做?做了前面的主句用肯定;没做前面的主句用否定 For he ___A(C)___(wait) until it stopped raining. A. waited B. didn't wait A. leave B. left C. didn't leave I stay in bed until twelve o'clock. I didn't get up until 12 o'clock. ★outside adv. 外面(作状语) He is waiting for me outside. It is cold outside. ★ring(rang. rung) v.(铃、电话等)响 ① vt. 鸣,(铃、电话等)响(这种响是刺耳的, 往往是提醒人做某事) Every morning the clock rings at 6. The telephone(door bell) is ringing. 而风铃等响要用jingle,jingle (bell) (铃儿) 响叮当 ② vt. 打电话给(美语中用 call) ring sb. 给某人打电话 Tomorrow I'll ring you. ③ n. (打)电话 give sb. a ring Remember to give me a ring. /Remember to ring me. ④ n. 戒指 ★aunt n. 姑,姨,婶,舅妈(所有长一辈的女性都用这个称呼) 男性则是uncle: 叔叔 他们的孩子:cousin 堂兄妹(不分男女) cousin的孩子:nephew 外甥;niece 外甥女 ★repeat v. 重复 ① vt. 重复 Will you repeat the last word? They are repeating that wonderful paly. ② vi. 重做,重说 Please repeat after me. Don’t repeat. 【课文讲解】 1、It was Sunday. it指时间、天气、温度或距离,it被称为“虚主语”(empty subject)。作为第三人称单数的中性代词,it可以指一件东西、一件事件或用来指是什么人: It is a lovely baby. 2、I never get up early on Sundays. on Sundays: 所有的星期天,每逢星期天,与一般现在时连用,表示经常性的行为。 介词on一般用于表示某一天的时间短语中:on Monday,on Monday morning,on that day 当使用last,next,this,that 时,介词(以及定冠词)必须省略: I’ll see you next/this Friday. never 从来不 (可以直接用在动词前面)=助动词+not (变成否定句,前面一定要加助动词) I don't like her.=I never like her. 3、I sometimes stay in bed until lunchtime. 在表达卧床时bed前不需加冠词: It’s time for bed now. You must stay/remain in bed for another two days. 你必须再卧床两天。 4、Just then, the telephone rang. It was my aunt Lucy. just then: 就在那时 如果不知道对方性别, 他/她可以用it取代 Who are you?/Who is it ? 5、I've just arrived by train, by 直接加交通工具(不能有任何修饰词, 复数);如果加修饰词, 就要换掉by用in或on I go out by bus. I go out in/on two buses. (指具体的两辆车介词用 in/on) Long ago people could go to America only by ship/sea. 如果是特指的交通工具,则要加冠词或其他限定词: My aunt left by the 9:15 train. by air 乘飞机 by bicycle/bike 骑自行车 by boat 乘船 by bus 乘公共汽车 by car 乘小汽车 by land 由陆路 by plane 乘飞机 by sea 由海路 by ship 乘船 by train 乘火车 6、I'm coming to see you. 我将要来看你. 用 come 的现在进行时态 be coming 表示一般将来,表示近期按计划或安排要进行的动作。同样用法的动词有:go,come,leave,arrive,land,meet,die,start,return,join… 7、Dear me! 天哪!英国人说Dear me!或My dear! 美国人说 : My god! 注意美英的发音不同. 【Key structures】 现在进行时和一般现在时 现在进行时表示说话的当时正在发生或正在发生的事件,也用来表示现阶段(一段时间)的动向。现在进行时常与now,just,still等副词连用: I am working as a teacher. "现阶段" He is still sleeping. (现在还在睡觉) Jane is just dressing up. 简正在打扮。 一般现在时表示习惯性动作, 真理, 是过去、现在和未来都会发生的事情。一般现在时一般与频率副 词often,always,sometimes,never,frequently,rarely,ever等连用。 Helen never writes to her brother Tony. She sometimes rings him. 频率副词往往放在句子中的实义动词前, 非实义动词后;如果既有实义动词又有非实义动词, 要放在两个之间;疑问句中副词往往放在主语后面。在否定句中not必须放在always 之前,而且也出现在 generally、normally、often、regularly和usually之前;not必须出现在sometimes和 frequently之后。表示肯定的速记可以用在句尾;在特别强调和需要对比时,frequently、generally、normally、sometimes、usually等副词可用于句首。 I get paid on Friday usually. Very often the phone rings when I’m in bath. 非实义动词 : ① 系动词(be) ② 帮助动词构成时态的助动词(do, does, will, shall, have, had, has) ③ 情态动词(must, can, may) 除此之外都是实义动词. I frequently go to bed hungry. (形容词作状语) He went to school hungry.饿着肚子上学. You must come here hungry.空腹来这里. 【Special Difficulties】 以what开头的感叹句: 在英语中可用what引导的感叹句来表示惊奇、愤怒、赞赏、喜悦等感情,在感叹中主谓语采用正常语序。 What 对名词感叹,感叹句的结构为:What +a/an (+adj.)+n.(+主语+谓语)! What a good girl (she is)! (主、谓可省) 有上下文和一定的语境, 才能省略形容词。一般省略形容词表示批评或不大好的意思。 What a thing to say! 多么难听的话啊! What (a lot of) trouble( he is causing)! ★Lesson 3 Please Send Me a Card ★send v. 寄, 送 send a letter 寄信 send sth. to sb. /send sb. sth. 给某人送(寄)什么东西 send/take children to school:take强调某人亲自送;send则是通过第三人去送, 如美国的校车 take flowers to his wife 自己送 send flowers to his wife 叫店里的人送 ★postcard n. 明信片 两个爆破音在一起,前者失去爆破音。这里/t/和/k/前者失去爆破音 name card /visiting card 名片 Here is my name card. (口语常用, 同时伴随着递出的动作) ID card 身份证 (ID 身份) credit card 信用卡 cash card 现金卡, 储蓄卡, 工资卡(不能透支的那种) ★spoil(spoiled,spoilt) v. 使索然无味, 损坏 ① vt. 弄坏,损坏,糟蹋 The sad news spoiled our weekend. 这不幸的消息使我们没能过好周末。 The rain spoiled the school sports. 这场雨把学校运动会弄得一团糟。 This spoiled my day. What you said spoiled me. His arrival spoiled my holiday. ② vt. 宠坏,惯坏,溺爱 Don’t spoil your children. 不能太惯孩子。 His parents spoiled the boy. spoil: 把东西的质量变得不好; 生活中不顺心的事;宠坏, 溺爱 break: 打破; break the windows 打破玻璃 damage: 破坏, 程度不一定很重 destroy : 破坏, 彻底摧毁 以上三个是指物理上的破坏, 而spoil主要指精神上的 ★museum n. 博物馆 Palace Museum 故宫 ★public adj. 公共的 ① adj. 公共的,公众的,社会的 There is a public library in this town. I always sit in public gardens on Sundays. ② adj. 公开的,众人皆知的 Their secret meeting was made public 20 years later. 他们的秘密会晤20年以后才被公开。 public house(酒吧)简称pub public place 公共场所 in public 公开的;in private 私下里的 Let’s have a conversation in private. 让我们私下谈谈? Why not have a conversation in public? 为什么不公开谈呢?(当面说呢?) ③ n. 公众,群众,大众 The public is/are pleased with his explanation. 公众对他的解释很满意。 The museum is open to the public on Sunday. ★friendly adj. 友好的 咯 friendly是形容词,单独使用时一般做定语;作为状语表示这个人做什么事情很友好, 用短语in a friendly way He is not very friendly to John. She gave me a friendly greeting. He always greets me in a friendly way. 以-ly结尾的形容词还有lovely,brotherly,fatherly,manly,motherly ★waiter n. 服务员, 招待员 waiter(男服务员), waitress(女服务员), 只出现在餐馆里 chief waiter 领班 I want to see the chief waiter. 我要见你们的领班。 shop assistant 商店里的店员 attendant n. (其他公共场所的)服务员 ★lend v. 借给 lend to(借出):lend sth. to sb/lend sb. sth. Can you lend me $20 please? I’ll pay/give it back tomorrow. borrow from(借进):borrow sth. from sb./borrow sth. (borrow不能用 borrow sb sth.) He borrowed my pen yesterday. He hasn’t given me it yet. ★decision n. 决定 make /take a decision作出决定 It was not easy for me to make/take this decision. Are you made/taken a decision? make a big/great decision (big:重大;great:伟大, 更重大) decide v. 决定 ★whole adj. 整个的 a whole bottle of milk 一整瓶牛奶 the whole…,the whole day 整天 ,two whole weeks 整整两星期 all th…,all the day (the可省略) 整天 all of后面如果加代词, 代词前面不需要修饰词;一旦要加名词, 前面一定要加the all of us;all of the students ★single adj. 唯一的, 单一的 反义词 : double 双倍的 【课文讲解】 1、Last summer, I went to Italy. last: ① adj. 上一个 last summer里的last表示 “上一个” ② adj. 最后一个,表示“最后一个”时要加冠词the the last day 最后一天 (具体到一天及一天的早中晚都要用on) 2、A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian. Italian于Italy : 注意重读音的位置不同 teach sb. sth. 教某人做某事 He teaches our English.(错) He teaches us English.(对) 语言不可数, 所以要用a little Italian或a few words of Italian I can speak a little English/a few words of English. a few可与复数可数名词连用,表示肯定,含有 some,a small number of(一些,少数几个)的意思。 The police would like to ask him a few questions. 警察要问他一些问题。 3、Everyday I thought about postcards. think about/of 考虑, 思考,指某一段时间一直在想/考虑某事, think of还可指想到 What do you think of? What do you think of TV program last night? What do you think of the weather today? 你觉得天气怎么样? think over 仔细考虑,反复思考 What’s the weather like today? cold, chilly(非常非常冷), freeze I'll freeze.我要冻僵了 4、I spent the whole day in my room, but I did not write a single card! spend与表示时间的词或短语连和时,意思为“花(时间)”、“ 度 过 ” spend+时间+地点 : 在什么地点我花费/度过了多少时间 I spend three hours in the sea. I spend my weekend at my mother's. I spend three hours in the classroom everyday. I spend a lot of time in traffic jam.(交通堵塞) spend还可以表示“花钱” If we spend all the money, we’ll be poor again. I can’t spend any more on this car. 【Key structures】 一般过去时 一般过去时通常表示过去发生的而现在已经结束的事件、动作或情况。它通常指动作何时发生,而不指动作持续多久。 Do you ever catch a cold in the winter? Yes, I caught a cold last winter. 【Special Difficulties】 直接宾语与间接宾语 双宾语:直接宾语(表示动作结果,动作所涉及的事物)和间接宾语(动作目标,动作是谁做的或为谁做的,通常是人)。间接宾语大多数情况下置于直接宾语之前,如果间接宾语在后,间接宾主前必须加“to”(表示动作对什么人做)或“for”(表示动作为什么人而做)。 give sb. sth./give sth to sb 间接宾语在后面时, 其前必须加to(对……而言)或 for(为……而做)。可以翻译为“给”、“替”、 “为”的,就用for;如果只能翻译为“给”的, 就用to 与to相连的give, take, pass, read, sell, buy,pay,hand,bring,show,promise,offer,owe take flowers to my wife. 与for 相连的 buy, order, make, find I buy a book for you . make a cake for you find sth. for sb. do sb. a favor 帮某人一个忙 Do me a favor please./Do a favor for me? 帮我一个忙 I do something for you. Can I order something for you? Can I buy you a bottle of beer ? 意为我请你喝杯酒的意思 ★Lesson 4 An exciting trip ★exciting adj. 令人兴奋的 exciting adj. 令人兴奋的;excited adj. 兴奋的 -ed: 自己感到 / -ing:令人感到 The news exciting. exciting boy 令人兴奋的男孩 I am excited. excite v. 激动 (这类动词的宾语一定是人,让后面的人感到……) The news excited me. interesting adj. 令人感到有趣的;interested adj. 感到有意思的 interesting man The man is interesting. interest v. 对……感兴趣 The book interests me. 那本书让我感到很有趣 ★receive v. 接受, 收到 ① vt. 接到,收到,得到 When did you receive that letter? ② vt. 招待,接待 You need a large room if you are going to receive so many guests. receive 是“收到”,指的是一个被动的动作,主观上接受与否不清楚。 receive/have a letter from sb. accept 同意接收 This morning I received a bunch of flowers from a boy,but I didn't accept it. take则是主动的“拿”、“取” I received a beautiful pen from my uncle. My brother took it from me yesterday. take 也可以作收到 take the exam 接受考试; take advice 接受建议 ★firm n. 商行, 公司 company n. 公司 ★different adj. 不同的 ① adj. 不同的,相异的(经常与 from连用) We are planning something different this year. 我们今年有不同的打算。 My room is different from yours. ② adj. 各种各样的,不同的 This department store sells a large number of different things. 这家百货商店出售许多各种各样的东西。 He has visited many different places in China. 他去过中国的不少地方。 ★abroad adv. 在国外(副词, 直接和动词连用) go abroad 去国外 live abroad 国外定居 study abroad 国外学习 【课文讲解】 1、I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. 同位语:一个名词(或短语等)与另一个名词(或短语)并列而作为其说明或限定成分时称为同位语。同位语与它所补充说明的成分之间用逗号隔开。 在译成汉语时,同位语或者插入主句中,或者另译为一句,很少像英语中那样用逗号隔开。 This is John, one of my best friends. 这位是约翰。他是我最好的朋友之一。 Mrs. Smith, my neighbore, has never been abroad. 我的邻居史密斯夫人从来没有出过国。 2、He has been there for six months. one month;two months 注意读音 I have arrived in Beijing. (arrive 是瞬间动词不能和段时间连用) has been + in 地点 He has been in Beijing for one year. He has been in America for tow years. 3、He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. work for 在……上班/任职,强调work I am working for a school. work in 强调地点(在哪个地方上班) I am working in the New Oriental school. work at 上班 She works at a department store. a number of后面一定要加可数名词复数;通常 number前有great,large,good,small,certain等形容词,数量大小也随之改变。a great number of 类似于, 约等于a lot of; A large/great number of our students are Danish. There are a small number of spelling mistakes in your homework. a lot of 可加可数名词也可加不可数名词 I have a lot of friends I have a great number of friends. 4、He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. has gone to 去了某地没回来 has been to 曾经去过某地, 现在不在那个地方 Have you been to Paris? 5、From there, he will fly to Perth. from there:从那地方起 from 即可以加时间又可以加地点 from half past 8 to half past 11 from Beijing to Tianjing fly to Perth = go to Perth by air 6、My brother has never been abroad before, so he is fending this trip very exciting. before在句子后是副词, 译为“在此之前”,是现在完成时态的标志 find作“发现”、“ 发 觉 ” 讲时宾语往往带补足语(一般为形容词),说明宾语的状况、性质等。 find +宾语+形容词做宾补 find the room clean find her happy be finding在口语中经常使用 I'm finding... . . We’re finding... ... 下面表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词不可用于进行时:believe,doubt,see,hear,know,understand,belong,think,consider,feel,look,seem,show,mind,have,sound,taste,require,possess,care,like,hate,love,detest,desire 【Key structures】 现在完成 现在完成时表示动作现存的结果,或者过去发生的事对现在的影响。常与现在完成时连用的副词和副词短语:before (now)(以前);it’s the first tiem(第一次);so for(到目前为止);so far this morning(到上午为止);up to now(直到现在);up to the present(直到目前);just(刚刚);recently(最近);already(已经);lately(最近);now(现在);for 一段时间;since+时间;still(还;仍);at last(终于);finally(最终);疑问句和否定句中常用ever,yet,never,not…ever等。 I’ve planted fourteen rose bushes so far this morning. I have lived here for several years now and I’ve made many new friends since I have lived here. 现在完成时还可和表示频度的副词连用,表示反复和习惯性动作,如 often(经常),frequently(屡次),three times(三次)等。 I’ve watched him on TV several times. ★Lesson 5 No wrong numbers ★pigeon n. 鸽子 It's not my pigeon. =None of my business. 不关我的事。 ★message n. (口头或书面的)信息 Here is a message for you from your sister. an oral/written message 口信/便条 leave sb. a message 给……留便条 I'll leave you a message. take a message for sb. 替某人捎口信 Can I take a message for you? 我能替你捎个口信吗? Can you take a message for me? 你能替我捎个口信吗? take a message to sb. 给某人口信 打电话 : Hello!--‡May I have a word with Tom ?/May I speak with/to Tom? --‡Can you take a message for me? information n. 信息(不可数) messenger n. 送信人,信使 ★cover v. 越过;覆盖 ① vt. 盖,覆盖 Snow covered the whole village. She covered the child with a coat. 她给孩子盖了件外衣。 ② vt. 行过(一段距离),走过(通常不用被动语态) cover+距离 越过…… You can cover the distance to the museum in ten minutes. ③ n. 覆盖物,盖子,罩子,套子 Put a cover on the box! ★distance n. 距离 keep distance 保持距离 distant adj.远距离的 Can I share this table? Can I join you? importance n. 重要 important adj. 重要的 difference n. 不同 different adj. 不同的 ★request n. 要求, 请求 ① n. request for 对……有请求, 有需求 I have a request for the cake. He granted my request for more time. 他同意了我延长时间的请求。 She sent a request for help to Gary. 她向加里请求帮助。 ② v. 要求, 请求 request sb.to do sth. =ask sb.to do sth. 要求某人做…… require sb.to do sth. 要求某人做…… You are required/asked to do sth. (对人要求习惯用被动语态) ★spare adj. 备用的 ① vt. 抽出(时间等),让给 Have you got five minutes to spare? I cannot spare the time. I have no time to spare. ② vt. 饶恕,赦免 The robbers spared his life. ‘Share me!’begged the prisoner. ③ adj. 多余的,空闲的,剩下的,备用的 You can sleep in the spare bedroom. Where can I get spare parts for this machine? I have no spare time now. ‘Have you any old clothes that you do not want?’ he asked. =‘Have you any old clothes to spare?’he asked. ★service n. 业务, 服务 service 作为不可数名词时通常用于表示旅馆、餐馆以及商店等对旅客、顾客等的侍候、接待或服务;作为可数名词时可以表示为帮助他人所采取的行动或所做的工作。 The service in that hotel is quite good. You have done me a great service. service既可以指公用事业的业务,如:the mail service(邮政业务)、the telephone service(电话业务);也可指办这些业务的机构,如:a travel service(旅行社)、a news service(通讯社)。 At your service. = Glad to be at your service. = I am glad to be at your service. 我很乐意为您效劳. serve v. 服务, 接待 ——Thank you. ——You are welcome.(下次又需要再来找我)/Not at all.(根本完全不用谢)/That's (all)right./That's ok.(绝对正确, 绝对过时)/(It's) My pleasure.(我很高兴这么做, 把自己放得很低, 把对方抬得很高) Thank you for your listening.在讲课, 演讲结束时说, 即感谢大家的合作的概念(应以鼓掌回应) 情急之下, 可用No thanks.回答 ——Sorry. ——No sorry. 【课文讲解】 1、Mr.James Scott has a garage in Silbury and now he has just bought another garage in Pinhurst. garage n. 车库, 车行(英美读音不同) another(+单数名词) 其它的很多个中的一个, Can you show me another? other(+名词) adj.其它的(可加单/复数名词) the other 两个之中的另外一个 one…the other… 一个……另一个…… One is watering the flowers, and the other is reading. others(不用再加名词)= other + 名词复数 Some boys are playing football, and others are rowing/(going boating). 2、Pinhurst is only five miles from Silbury, but Mr. Scott cannot get a telephone for his new garage, so he has just bought twelve pigeons. 介词from在这里表示距离上相隔,作“距……”、“ 离……”讲,常与away连用 It is far (away) from here. Bus stop is only one mile from school/here. Bus stop is only one mile (away). She has been away from home for 5 days now. How far...? 多远(对距离提问) How far(away) is the bus stop? How far is your home(from here)? My home is ten miles away from here. get a telephone 得到电话, 安装电话 3、Yesterday, a pigeon carried the first message from Pinhurst to Silbury. carry v. 带着, 携带(其强调所携带的东西不会着地) I carried my son. (背或抱着) I carry the bag. take v. 带着 I take my sister to the cinema. from…to…表示从一个地方到另一个地方 He looked at the girl from head to foot. The news spread from house to house. 家家户户都得知了这条消息。 4、The bird covered the distance in three minutes. cover the distance 飞过那段距离 5、Up to now, Mr.Scott has sent a great many requests for spare parts and other urgent messages from one garage to the other. up to now =up till now 到目前为止,到现在为止(作时间状语,时态多用现在完成时,相当于until/till now) Up to now, he has not been very hard-working. request for 对……的需求 a great many(+可数名词复数) 许多…… a great many可以做形容词短语: A great many trees were destroyed in the storm. 也可作代词短语: He has read a great many of the books in this room. a great number of(+可数名词复数) 许多…… urgent adj. 紧急的 something urgent 紧急的事情 【Key structures】 一般过去时与现在完成时 在表示过去某个特定时间发生的事情或动作时,要用一般过去时。在表示刚刚或者已经完成一个动作并且对现在有影响时,则要用现在完成时,时间状语可以是不特指的 now,just或者for 引导的一段时间,或者不加任何时间状语。 一般过去时与现在完成时的共同点:动作在过去都做过了;区别:过去式只能强调过去的事, 和现在没有任何关系. I ate a piece of bread. 现在完成时, 强调过去的事情对现在产生的影响. I have eaten a piece of bread this morning. I'm not hungry. The clock stopped. 陈述事实 The clock has stopped. 过去的事实对现在造成影响 It snowed yesterday. It has snowed yesterday. 强调对现在造成影响 【Special Difficulties】 带way的短语 in the way 按照,以……方式 Do your work in the way I have shown you. 按我给你示范的方法来做你的工作。 I do the work in the way you showed me. I fly the kite in the way you showed me. in the/one’s way 挡路;妨碍(某人) Sorry, you are in the way.(在口语中很少用, 一般直接用Excuse me.就可以了) Don’t stand in the way. I can’t see the blackboard. in this way 这样,以这种方式 He saves old envelopes. In this way, he has collected a great many stamps. in a way 从某种意义上来说,在某种程度上 In a way, you are kind. in a friendly way 用友好的方式 in the family way 怀孕了, 快有小孩了(have a baby) The woman is in the family way. by the way 随便说一声, 随便问一下(插入语,改变话题时用) By the way, have you seen Harry recently? on the/one’s way(to) 在去……的途中(陈述句) : on the way to school/the office;on the way home out of the way 让路 Get out of the way! 你给我滚出去! get one's own way 随心所欲 (at one’s pleasure) Children get their own way during the holidays. 关于系动词 : 一般来说, 如 be become 一定不单独使用, 往往要在后面加上表语, 我们称它为系动词. 但另外还有一些系动词同时又是不及物的实义动词, 常见的有 : seem, look, appear, sound, taste, feel, smell, stay, remain, keep, grow, turn, go, run, get, prove, stand等, 这些词有的语法书上称为半联系动词. ★Lesson 6 Percy Buttons ★beggar n. 乞丐 beg v.乞求 I beg your pardon? beg for 乞求得到 ask for 请求得到(ask sb. for sth. 向某人索要某物) ★food n. 食物(不可数) a lot of food ★pocket n. 衣服口袋 inner pocket 内口袋;jacket pocket 夹克的口袋;coat pocket 大衣口袋 pocket book 袖珍书;pocket dictionary 袖珍词典 pocket pick 车上的小偷 pocket money (小孩的)零花钱 change 零钱 get exact change 准备好正确的零花钱 beer money (男人的)零花钱 ★call v. 拜访, 光顾 ① vt.&vi. 叫,喊 I heard someone calling. call out =shout 大声喊 ② vt. 呼唤,召唤 Lucy is sick. Please call a doctor. ③ vi. 访问,拜访;(车、船等)停靠 Amy called (at our house) yesterday. The train calls at large stations only. 这列火车只停大站。 call on sb. 拜访某人 I will call on you. 我要去你家。 call at+地点=visit someplace 拜访某地 I will call at your home. 我要去你家。 ④ vt.&vi. 打电话 call sb =call up sb. 给某人打电话 call back 回某人电话 Can you take a message for me? =Can you tell him to call back? call in sb. 招集和邀请某人 For the project, the government called in a lot of experts. 【课文讲解】 1、Yesterday a beggar knocked at my door. ★knock v. 敲门 ① vi. 敲门 I knocked, but no one answered. knock at 敲(门、窗等) knock at the door;knock at the window ② vt.&vi. 碰撞 You always knock things off the table. 你总是碰掉桌上的东西。 Jim was knocked over by a bus this morning. 今天上午吉姆被一辆公共汽车撞倒了。 She has knocked a cup over again. 她又碰倒了一个杯子。 ③ vt. 把(某人)打成……状态 He knocked Tom out yesterday. 他昨天把汤姆打昏过去了。 ④ 与off连用时有一些特殊含义,一般用于口语 vt. (价格上)减去,除去,打折扣 They knocked five dollars off the price of the coat. The shop assistant knocked 10% off the bill.(He reduced the price by 10%.) vi. 下班,停止,中断(工作等) When do you usually knock off? 你一般什么时候下班? He knocked off for lunch at half past eleven. 他十一点半休息吃中午饭。 2、He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer. ask (sb.) for sth =request for sth. 问某人要什么东西 (for 为了这个目的去请求某人, sb.更多的时候不出现, ask for sth.) The boy asked (his parents)for money again/once more. 3、In return for this, the beggar stood on his head and sang songs. in return for this 作为对……的回报,作为交换(this 在代词当中常常指代上文的一件事情) I'll buy a present for him in return for hospitality. (hospitality adj. 热情) in return 作为回报 You lent me this interesting book last month. In return (for it), I’ll show you some picture books. In return for your help, I invite you to spend the weekend with my family. He doesn't want anything in return. 他不想得到任何回报 stood on his head 倒立 stand on one's hands 用手着地(hand单数就是一只手, 双手复数) stand on one's knees 跪着, 膝盖 lie on one's back 仰面躺着 lie on one's side 侧躺 lie on one's stomach 趴着 4、Later a neighbour told me about him. 介词about可以和一些动词连用,以表示“关于……(的)”、“ 涉 及……(的)” Please tell me about the accident. tell sb. about sth. 告诉某人某事(about关于, 通过其他事自己得出的结论) tell you about him tell you about the word 解释这个单词的意思 tell sb. sth. 告诉某人某件事(把事情直接告诉) tell you the news tell you the word 直接告诉这个单词 5、Everybody knows him. everybody作为主语一定作单数看待, 属于不定代词 所有的不定代词作为主语一律为单数看待 : somebody,anybody,everything等 6、He calls at every house in the street once a month and always asks for a meal and a glass of beer. calls at 光顾,拜访 in the street(英国)/on the street(美国) once a month 一个月一次, 单位表达方式 once adj. 表示每……一次(表示频率时后面直接加表示时间的名词), 计量单位 “/” (每……) five kilometers an hour He goes back to the South once a year. 【Key structures】 A, The and Some 当表示不确定的某个人或物时,用不定冠词a/an(单数, 可数名词);当表示不可数的名词时,则需要由不定冠词加量词组成词组。 在表示一种笼统概念(某某一类/一种东西)的陈述句中可以省略a和some A tiger is a dangerous animal. Tigers are dangerous. Salt is necessary for/to us all. 表示某个确定的人或事物或者上文已提到过的人或事物,则要用定冠词 the(有时相当于 this/that/these/those),可数名词单/复数或不可数名词均可。 在姓名、地名、国名(非复合词)以及月份、星期等前面不加任何冠词。 a和the的区别:a是泛指, a man;特指, the man 在文章当中第一次出现名词的时候往往用a和an修饰, 第二次出现的时候用the A man is walking towards me. The man is carrying a parcel. The parcel is full of meat. I have just drunk a glass of milk. Milk is very refreshing. I ate an apple. Apples are delicious. She always buys flour, sugar and tea at the grocer's. 一般姓名前一般不能加冠词,表示“某某一类人当中, 具有这种特征当中的一个”,加不定冠词 a a Mr. Zhang 张先生这类人 【Special Difficulties】 短语动词 某些动词的后面加上介词或副词以后就会改变词义, 这种新的组合称作短语动词 put v. 放 put on 穿上,戴上 tak v. 拿走 take off 脱掉,摘掉 look v. 看 look at 看;look for 寻找;look after 照顾;look out 当心;look out of 向外看 call call at;call on;call in;call back; call for 去取某物, 去接某人;需要 The problem calls for immediate action. 这个问题需要立即采取行动 knock v. 敲 knock at 敲门 knock off 下班 He knocked off earlier. knock off 打折 Knock 10% off the price. 把……撞倒,如果有地点,用介词 off;无地点,用介词over knock sth. off+地点 knock the vase off the table I knocked the boy off the bicycle. knock over A car knocked the boy over. knock out 打晕, 在拳击场合中, 把人打倒在地叫knock out(专用术语) He did not know how to fight, but he knocked the boxer out. ★Lesson 7 Too late ★detective n. 侦探 detective story 侦探小说 ★airport n. 机场 ★airfield n. 飞机起落的场地 port 港口;airport 航空港 at the airport 在机场 field 田野;airfield 停机坪 on the airfield 在停机坪上 ★expect v. 期待, 等待 ① vt.&vi. 预计,预料 Jim has failed in mathematics as his teacher expected. 正如他老师所预料的那样,吉姆数学考试没及格。 ② vt. 等待,期待,盼望(心理上的等待) They are expecting guests tonight. 今晚有人要去他们那里作客。 expect所表示的等待一般暗含着根据某些信息或规律而作出相应反应的意思,而wait for主要接续“等待”这个动作本身。 expect sth. I expect a letter from Jimmy. expect sb.to do sth. 期待某人做某事 I expect you to write back. I expect my mother to come back. wait for sth./sb. 动作上的等待 I wait for my mother. ③ vt. 认为,猜想(一般用于口语) I expect so./I think so. 我希望如此[口语] I expect you’ve heard the news. 我想你已经听到这个消息了。 ★valuable adj. 贵重的 ★precious adj. 珍贵的 value n.&v. 价值;valuable adj.有价值的 sth.is valuable/sth.is precious precious adj. 珍贵的(带有一定的感情色彩) precious photo 珍贵的照片 -less 表否定; priceless adj. 没有价格的, 无价的 valueless adj. 没有价值, 不足道的 worthless adj. 无价值的 ★diamond n. 钻石 diamond ring 钻石戒指 precious stone 宝石;crystal 水晶;jade 玉 ★steal(stole,stolen) v. 偷 ① vt.&vi. 偷盗,行窃 英语中“偷”用 steal和rob来表达,宾语是物,用 steal;宾语是人,用 rob;跟地点相连,也用rob steal sth. 偷(某物) My wallet was stolen. John never steals. 约翰从不偷东西。 rob sb. 抢(某人) I was robbed. rob the bank ② vt. 巧妙地占用,偷偷地弄到手 He has stolen away Mary’s heart. 他已赢得玛丽的芳心。 ③ vi. 偷偷地行动,悄悄靠近 He stole into the room. 他悄悄地进了房间。 ★main adj. 主要的 main building;main street;main sentence;main idea main不能与人连用 ★guard n. 警戒, 守卫 life guard 救生员 body guard 保镖 keep guard 守望,警戒 They kept a close guard over the thieves. 他们对小偷们严加看管。 stand guard 站岗,放哨 【课文讲解】 1、The plane was late and detectives were waiting at the airport all morning. all一般直接加表示时间的单数名词构成副词短语,如:all day,all night,all week,all winter,all year等。但不说all hour。 whole在表达同样的意思时一般要加冠词或数词,如 a whole day/year,two whole weeks。 all morning=all the morning The plane was late 飞机晚(点)了 The bus was late./The train was late. detectives 没有强调一些侦探或者那些侦探, 强调侦探这种人,笼统感念, 可不加some, the 2、They were expecting a valuable parcel of diamonds from South Africa. a valuable parcel of diamonds a cup of tea 强调的是茶 South Africa 南非 3、A few hours earlier, someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. a few hours earlier 几个小时以前 = a few hours before/a few hours ago would +do 过去将来时,间接方式, 转述, 站在过去看未来 4、When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside the main building while others were waiting on the airfield. 代词others常常和some连用,表示“有些(人)……,也有些(人)……”或“有的……,其余的……” one…the other… 一个……另一个…… some…others… 一些……另一些…… Some students are very hard-working, others are not. others=other+名词复数 5、Two men took the parcel off the plane and carried it into the Customs House. take sth. off…=take sth. away from… and carried it into…carried 表示看得很重 Customs House 海关 6、While two detectives were keeping guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To their surprise, the precious parcel was full of stones and sand! …were keeping guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. 表面上是分工, 两个动作同时发生, 不是同时开始同时结束, 延续时间不一致, 长一点时间的动作用进行时态, 短时间的动作用过去时. When someone knocked at the door, I was having dinner. keep guard 守卫 They kept a close guard over the thieves. at the door 在门边(固定搭配) two others=two other detectives to one's surprise,让某人惊讶的是 To my surprise, the teacher was late. To one’s +表达人情绪的名词 to one's joy To my joy, my mother came here yesterday. to one's excitement To our excitement, our team wins. be full of ...装满 My bag was full of books. The cup is full of water. 【Key structures】 过去进行时 过去进行时的构成:be的过去式+现在分词 过去进行时和一般过去时经常同在一个句子里使用。过去进行时表示过去正在进行的动作或情况,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。正在进行中的动作或情况往往由连词 when,while,as,just as等引导。 when,while 当……时候(强调动作同时发生) while+从句, 动词一定是延续性动词 when+延续性动词/瞬间动词 while能用when代替,但是when却不一定能用while代替。while通常只引导持续时间较长的动作,并且主句和从句可以同时用过去进行时,而 when和as一般不这么用。 John was watching TV while his wife was talking with a neighbour over the phone. Just as I was leaving the house, you came in. when也可以引导比较短暂的动作,while和 as则一般不行。 We were having supper when the lights went out. 过去进行时往往与表示一段时间的状语连用,如 all morning,all night,all day,all evening,the whole week等,表示这段时间一直在干什么。 What were you doing all evening? I couldn’t find you anywhere. 过去动作同时发生的时态 ① 过去两个动作同时发生, 习惯上一个用一般过去时, 另一个用过去进行时;动作长用过去进行时, 动作短用一般过去时; 分工的情况, 动作的开始时间和结束时间几乎相同, 均用过去进行时; I was listening to the radio, my sister was dancing. When my mother was doing the housework, my father was watching TV. ② 两个动作在同时段进行, 在不同时间结束, 先发生的动作未结束, 另一个动作发生, 先发生的动作用进行时态, 另一个动作用过去时. When I was opening the door, the telephone rang.先开门 When the telephone was ringing, I opened the door. 电话先响 ③ 瞬间动词(如:arrive)没有进行时态, 所以两个动作同时发生, 延续性动词用进行时态, 瞬间动词使用过去时态. When he arrived, I was having dinner. I am arriving 进行时态表示将要 Exercises D 1 As my father ______ (leave) the house, the postman ______ (arrive). was leaving;arrived(两个瞬间动词同时发生可能性很小, 应具体分析, 故用进行时态表将来) 5 While mother ______ (prepare) lunch, Janet ______ (set) the table. set the table摆桌子 was preparing;set 【Special Difficulties】 短语动词中的小品词 许多动词加上介词或副词后就会改变词义,这些介词和副词通常被称为小品词。它们没有词形的变化。 有些小品词既可以作介词又可以作副词。判断一个小品词是副词还是介词要看小品词有没有带宾语。有宾语的是介词,没有宾语的是副词,介词的位置相对固定,不能变动。 ① vi.&vt.+ prep./adv.+宾语(n.) She is walking up the hill. ② vt.+宾语(n./pron.)+adv. take off the coat =take the coat off =take it off put on your shoes =put your shoes on =put them on I always take money with me.我身上总带些钱 Exercise 11 They have pulled down the old building. pull down… (pull<vt.>;down<adv.>) pull one's leg 开玩笑 You are pulling my leg.你开我玩笑 12 Make up your mind. make up…--->make up one's mind 习惯用法不换,语法上可换 13 He asked for permission to leave. ask for…-->ask (sb.) for sth. 其实是省略sb.故不可换 ★Lesson 8 The best and the worst ★competition n. 比赛,竞赛(暗地里的竞争) race n. 比赛,竞赛 car race match n. 比赛 football match contest n. 比赛(更广泛) baby contest 宝宝大赛;beauty contest 选美 game : 游戏, 运动 ★neat adj. 整齐的, 整洁的,井井有条 clean adj. 干净的 neat=tidy <adj.> tidy <v.> (up) the room 整理房间 ★pool n. 水池(人工的) swimming pool 游泳池 pond 池塘(天然的) 《golden pond》—金色池塘 【课文讲解】 1、Joe Sanders has the most beautiful garden in our town. Joe's garden is the most beautiful. Bill's garden is the largest. Bill’s garden is larger than Joe’s. (比较的东西都是同类的事物 joe’s 的“’s”不能省略) 2、Nearly everybody enters for 'The Nicest Garden Competition' each year, but Joe wins every time. nearly和almost意义相似,表示“几乎”、“ 差不多”、“ 差 点儿”的意思。 I have nearly forgotten his name. 我差点把他的名字忘了。 I’m nearly/almost ready. 我快准备好了。 enter for 报名参加(各种竞赛,考试等活动) win(won,won) v. 赢 ① vi. 赢 I win. I lose. (输了) ② vt. 赢得…… win something 后面往往是奖品,不能接对手 I win the book. I win the gold cup. win a prize 赢得了一个奖 win a prize for… 因为……而获奖 defeat+对手 I defeat you. 3、Bill Frith's garden is larger than Joe's. 名词加-’s表示所属关系,构成名词的所有格。这类名词往往指有生命的东西,特别是人。所有格的语法作用相当于形容词,限定后面的名词。这个被限定的名词在上下文中第二次被提到时可以省略,只要不引起误解。 4、He has made neat paths and has built a wooden bridge over a pool. make和build在这里是同义词,“修建,建造”。make 的词义比较笼统、广泛,可解释为“做、作出、制造”等,而 build主要限于建筑业,指“建造,建设,盖房子,修筑(桥梁)等” Have you made the skirt by yourself? They have made a road along the river. 【Key structures】 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 比较级相当于汉语中“比……更……”这种句型,最高级则表示在某个范围“最……”的概念。最高级在使用时前面通常要加定冠词 the,并有一个短语或从句限定其范围。 1、比较级和最高级的构成: ① 单音节词和少数双音节词在词尾加-er,-est,以辅音加-y结尾的词变-y为-i,再加-er,-est ② 以-e结尾的词加-r,-st ③ 以一个辅音字母结尾的单音节词要双写最后一个字母,再加-er,-est ④ 三个或者是三个音节以上(多音节) 比较级的构成 : more+原级 最高级的构成 : the most+原级 有一些双音节词既可在单词结尾加-er,-est,也可与 more/less 和 most/least连用,如 narrow,clever,common,pleasant等。 clever— cleverer— more clever fun adj. 快乐 more fun (美国人用) ⑤ 有些构成是不规则的: good/well(better best);bad/ill(worse worst);many/much(more most);little(less least); far(farther further , farthest furthest) (farther:距离上的远和更远,further:程度上的更进一步) further more(更有甚者) old(older elder, oldest eldest) older 比……大 She is older than somebody elder 做定语修饰其他名词 elder sister (年长的)姐姐 2、比较级和最高级的用法 在使用比较级时,如果需要把所比较的两项都提到,那么就必须比较级后用than: My room is cleaner than the one next door. 如果比较级之所指很清楚,它可独立存在: Which house do you prefer? I prefer the older one. 最高级的限定范围一般用 of,among,in 等介词短语;限定范围也可以是从句;如果范围很清楚,则可以省略。 John is the tallest of the three brother. This is the coldest day in ten years. Mary is the most intelligent person I’ve ever met. 【Special Difficulties】 every构成的合成词 every和one,body,thing可以构成复合不定代词everyone,everybody,everything。Everyone和everybody一般可以替换使用,后面的代词既可以用单数,也可以用复数,但它们本身均被视为单数。 Everyone/Everybody knows what he has to do. =Everyone/Everybody knows what they have to do. 每个人都知道自己必须做什么。 Everything is going well. 一切都很顺利。 each 和 every均可译为“每一个”,两者常可互换。every只能是形容词性,强调整体,常用来指一个大的、不确定的数目,不能直接做主语;each既可作形容词,又可作代词,强调个体,常用以一个确定的并通常是有限的数目,在作代词时,直接作主语或宾语,使用第三人称单数 Every/Each time I wash the car it rains. Enter and Enter for enter ① vt.&vi. 进入 enter+地点名词 Always knock on the door before you enter. ② vt.&vi. 参加,加入 We’ve entered into an agreement. 我们已达成一项协议。 He soon entered their conversation. enter for+表示比赛、竞赛、考试的名词 报名参加, 强调报名 enter for the exam She entered (her name/herself) for the mathematics competition. 她报名参加数学竞赛。 take part in 真正的参加 2 Will you enter ___for___ this week's crossword competition? crossward 文字游戏 3 Many athletes have entered ___for___ the Olympic Games this year. athletes = sportsman 运动员, 体育家 ★Lesson 9 A cold welcome ★welcome n. 欢迎;v. 欢迎 ① n. 欢迎 a cold welcome 冷遇 ② v. 欢迎 welcome to+地点 welcome to China;welcome to my home;welcome home;welcome back ③ adj. 受欢迎的 You are welcome. You are welcome to+地点 ★crowd n. 人群 ① n. 人群 in the crowd 在人群中 I spotted him in the crowd. 我在人群中一眼就认出了他 a crowd of people 一群人,没有次序的人群, 拥挤的人群 a group of people 一群人,有次序的人群 ② v.拥挤, 挤满 a large crowd of people 一大群人 crowds of people 许多人, 人山人海 ★gather v. 聚集 ① vt. 使集拢,集合,召集 He gathered a large crowd of people round him. ②vt 收集,采集,收(庄稼等) The children are out in the field gathering flowers. 孩子们在外面地里采花。 It has taken me a lifetime to gather all these books. 收集所有这些书花了我一辈子的时间。 ③ vi. 集拢,聚集,集合 They gathered under the Town Hall clock. people gathered 人们聚集在一起, 尤指自发性的聚集 ★hand n. (表或机器的)指针;手 minute hand;second hand;hour hand second hand 二手的,旧的,秒针 wait me a moment/wait me a few seconds(for a few secs.) (secs.是seconds 的缩写) ★refuse v. 拒绝 ① vt. 拒绝(接受、服从等) She refused the gift. ② vt. 拒不,不肯,不愿 John refused to change his mind. 约翰拒不改变主意。 ③ vi. 拒绝,不接受 I offered to pay him for his help, but he refused. 对于他的帮助我提出给他报酬,但他拒绝了。 ★shout v. 喊叫 call out 大声喊叫 cry out 大声哭喊 scream 尖叫 【课文讲解】 1、A cold welcome 冷遇 cold adj. 冷的, 寒冷的, 冷淡的 cold fish 冷漠的人 My brother is a cold fish. lucky dog 幸运的人 What does "a cold welcome" refer to ? (refer to 指……) 2、On Wednesday evening, we went to the Town Hall. morning,afternoon,evening前如果加修饰词则用介词on,否则用in Town Hall 市政厅 3、It was the last day of the year and a large crowd of people had gathered under the Town Hall clock. the last day of the year 一年中的最后一天 a large crowd of the people 一大群人 4、It would strike twelve in twenty minutes' time. ★strike v. 打,击;敲,弹(钟,乐器等) ① v. 打,击 She struck the man in the face. ② v. 敲,弹(钟,乐器等) strike the clock (人)敲钟 clock strike 钟自己响 Listen, the clock is striking. strike twelve 数字表示敲击的次数 minutes'名词所有格,用来表达时间 名词所有格表示时间或距离 It will leave in five minutes'time. in twenty(minutes'time)名词所有格可省略 an hour's time How far is the school from here? 3 minutes' walk. 三分钟路程。 5、Fifteen minutes passed and then, at five to twelve, the clock stopped. … minutes pass … 几点过几分(前半小时,pass过了) 25 minutes passed eight … minutes to … 几点过几分(后半小时,to还没到) a quarter to nine/15 minutes to nine 时刻指点时间, 时间指段时间。时刻前的介词用at …(some time) passed and then, sth. happened ……时间过去了,…… An hour passed and then, he arrived. 一个小时过去了,他终于来了。 …minutes later几分钟以后 6、We waited and waited, but nothing happened. waited and waited 等啊等啊, 强调动作的重复(walked and walked;run and run) happen vi.事情做主语, 事情发生 What happened? Nothing happened. 7、It was true. It was true that+从句 ……是一个事实 8、The big clock refused to welcome the New Year. refuse to do sth. 拒绝去做某事 I refuse to leave. 我拒绝离开 I refuse to move. 我拒绝移动 9、At that moment, everybody began to laugh and sing. at that moment = just then 就在那时 at the moment = now 现在, 此刻, 在此时 【Key structures】 引导时间状语的介词in/on/at/during/till与until 1、用in的时间短语有: ① 表示一天中的某段时间:in the morning;in the afternoon;in the evening ② 表示周、月份、年份:in a week;in January;in Feb;in 1992 ③ 表示季节:in summer;in spring;in autumn;in winter in+表示时间长度的短语可以表示“在某段时间之内”,这时可以与现在时、过去时或将来时连用,一般与完成某动作有关;还可译为“……时间之后”,一般与将来时连用。根据时态判别in 表示的含义 in twenty minutes' time 20分钟之后 We will finish class in half an hour. 2、用on的时间短语有: ① 表示星期:on Monday;on Friday ② 表示日期:on June 1st;on 23rd March(在书写日期时没有冠词,但在口语中则分别读为:on June the first;on the 23rd of March) ③ 表示星期+日期:on Monday, June 1st ④ 表示具体时间:on Wednesday evening;on fine afternoon;on that day 3、用 at 的时间短语有: ① 表示确切的时间:at five to twelve;at ten o'clock ② 表示用餐时间:at lunch/dinner time;at teatime ③ 表示其他时刻:at night;at noon;at midnight;at that time 4、during在……期间,后必须跟一个名词,可以指整个一段时间,有时可以用 in替代 He has phoned four times during the last half hour. I met him sometime during the week.(不能用in代替) 我是在这一周的某天遇到他的。 during the holiday 强调假期的从头到尾 He enjoyed himself during his holiday. in the holiday 强调这段时间其中某一点时间, 并不表示自始至终 I was caught in an accident in the holiday. 5、from…till… 指一段明确的时间: The tourist season runs from June till October. 6、until prep.&coin. 直到……时候,直到什么时候为止, 直到什么时候才 until主句和从句两个都用一般过去时对(最习惯的一种用法), 主句和从句任何一个用过去完成是也对 I can't enter for the sports meeting until tomorrow. I had not understood the problem until he explained it. We hadn't disturbed him until he finished work. We didn't disturb him until he had finished work. We didn't disturb him until he finished work.(更习惯于这种用法) 7、from…to… Everyday we have English class from 8:30 to 11:30 关于时间表示方法 : What’s the time?/What time is it? A整点 : A o’clock A点 B 分(B<30): A B / B past A A点15分 : A fifteen / fifteen past A / a quarter past A A点30分 : A thirty / half past A A点B分(B>30) : A B / (60-B) to (A+1) A点45分 : A forty-five / a quarter to (A+1) / fifteen to (A+1) 【Special Difficulties】 Any,Not...Any and No any 用于否定句和疑问句中, some用于肯定句(或要求得到肯定回答的疑问句) Do you have any friends? I don't have any friends. not 用在非实义动词后面, 实义动词前面. not any=no <adj.>用在名词前面,no比not any的语气要强,但这两种否定的意义是相同的。 I have no friends. no可构成复合词nobody,none,nothing,nowhere;any可构成复合词anybody,anything和anywhere。 在一个句子中通常只能有一个否定词(包括never,hardly等词) ★Lesson 10 Not for jazz ★jazz n. 爵士音乐 a kind of music ★musical adj. 音乐的 musical student 有音乐天赋的人 music student 学音乐的人(the student who learned music) ★instrument n. 乐器 instrument=musical instrument instrument 常用的意思是“器械”、“ 器 具 ”, 尤 指 医 疗 、 机 器 等 方 面 的 。 也可用来泛指各种乐器。 ★clavichord n. 古钢琴, 不是现代的piano a kind of instrument ★recently adv. 最近 recently=lately ★damage v. 损坏 ① n. 损害,损失,伤害 The storm has done a lot of damage to the village. ② vt. 损害,毁坏,损坏 The car was badly damaged in the accident. ★key n. 琴键 ① n. 琴键 ② n. 钥匙,答案 key to the door 门钥匙 Do you know the key to the question? ③ adj. 关键的 key structure ★shock v. 使不悦或生气, 震惊 ① v. 使不悦或生气, 震惊 跟人的情绪有关的动词的宾语往往是 “人” (以sth.为主语) The news shocks me. 这个消息使我震惊 ② adj. 令人震惊的 It is shocking. ③ adj. 感到震惊 凡是能够用 “人” 做宾语, 又是表示人的情绪活动的动词, 有两个形容词形成:令人……(V+ing);感 到……(V+ed) I'm shocked. ④ n. 震惊 get a shock sb. get a shock 某人很吃惊 shock 必指坏事, 令人不悦, 生气的 surprise 好事坏事都可以, 只要你没有料到的 I want to give you surprise. ★allow v. 允许, 让 allow doing sth. Smoking is allowed.=people allow smoking allow sb. to do sth. / sb.be allowed to do sth. allow常用于被动语态 You are allowed to smoke(被动语态) You are not allowed to enter the room if you don't take the card with you ★touch v. 触摸 ① vt.&vi. 触摸,碰 You are not allowed to touch the vase. ② vt. 谈及,涉及,关系到 A rise in the cost of living touches everyone. 生活费用的增加与每个人都有关系。 【课文讲解】 1、It is called a clavichord. call在这里的意思是“把……称为”、“ 称 呼 ”, 既 可 用 于 主 动 态 , 也可用于被动语态。 call sb.sth./sb.be called 称某人为……,什么被称为…… What do you call this? 你们把这称为什么? 2、It has belonged to our family for a long time. belong 是一个表示状态的动词,而不是行为动词,所以不能用于进行时,常用的时态是一般现在时和现在过去时。 This farm belongs to me and it belonged to my father before me. 3、She tried to play jazz on it! play n. 玩,演奏(乐器等) ① 跟球类连用, 直接+球类; ② 跟乐器连用, +the+乐器, 演奏乐器而非音乐 ③ play music on + 乐器 , 一定要用 “on” 【Key structures】 被动语态 主动语态与被动语态皆指动词的形式而言。在主动句中,动词的主语是执行动作的人或物;在被动句中,动作是对主语执行的。 被动语态由be的一种形式和过去分词构成。主动语态的时态用法规则也适用于被动语态。动词作及物动词用时才能构成被动语态。如果要说明是什么人或什么东西做了某事,则用“by+行为主体”结构。“行为主体”也可以不表示出来。 【Special Difficulties】 与被动语态的made连用的几个介词 made in表示产地或时间 It was made in Germany. made of表示用某种材料制成(通常指制造后不改变该材料原来的性质或形状) The tea pot is made of silver. made from表示用数种材料制成,或者是制造后改变了材料原来的性质或形状 Paper can be made from wood. made by表示由谁制造 This cake was made by my sister. be made into 被制成…… The gold is made into a ring. 双重所有格 双重所有格/双重属格 : 名词+of+名词所有格(名词性的物主代词) 英语中通常用-’s和of结构来表示所有格。-’s结构通常用在人名和表示人称的名词的末尾,而of结构则常与无生命的名词连用。 -’s结构的所有格可用于of结构之后,称为双重所有格。在 名 词 前面,可以用 a,this,that,these,some,any,no等,但不用the。 He is a friend of mine. 含有“他是我的一个特殊的或惟一的朋友”之意。 He is no friend of mine. 含义是“我根本不认识他”或“他是我的敌人” 强调很多当中的一个或几个的时候, 选用双重属格结构 a friend of my father/my father's friend(s) 只有一个朋友 a friend of my father's 很多朋友中的一个 It happened to a friend of mine. 我的很多朋友中的一个 ★Lesson 11 One good turn deserves another ★turn n. 行为, 举止 turn n.(帮助或损害他人的)举动、行为 Yesterday George did me a good/an ill turn. 乔治昨天做了一件对我有利/不利的事。 He is always ready to do a turn for others. 他总是乐于为他人做好事。 behavior n. 行为, 举止 Pay attention to your behavior. ★deserve v. 应得到, 值得 ① deserve + n. 应该得到……,值得……,应得(奖赏、惩罚等) He deserves praise. 他应该得到表扬 Yor deserve the best. 你应该得到最好的 He deserved a promotion. (promotion n. 提升) ② deserve sth./to do sth. 应该…… She deserved to be punished. Good work deserves good pay. 多劳多得 His words deserve attention. 他的话值得注意。 ★lawyer n. 律师 lawyer's office 律师事务所 ★bank n. 银行 rob the bank 抢银行 ★salary n. 工资 pay n. 工资(salary+wage,通用) salary n. 薪金,薪水(月薪, 年薪,通常指职员、脑力劳动者(如律师、教师、医生等)有固定工作或管理阶层的收入,数额比较固定,一般按月支付) My salary is paid on the 28Th of the month. wage n. 工资,工钱(按小时, 周计算的,通常指技工或一般体力劳动者,不稳定的工作人的收入,按周或天支付。一般用复数形式wages)。 When I worked as a waiter, the wages were low, but the tips were good. 我当侍者时工资不高,但小费可观。 bonus n. 奖金, 分红 collet v. 搜集, 领取 collect salary/wage 领工资 ★immediately adv. 立刻 right away =at once =immediately 立刻, 马上 right now 现在 【课文讲解】 1、One good turn deserves another 礼尚往来, 善有善报 one bad turn deserves another 恶有恶报 2、Tony worked in a lawyer's office years ago, but he is now working at a bank. work for… 强调工作 work in… 强调in后面的地点 working at a bank (some/several) years ago 名词-s,前面省略了some 3、He gets a good salary, but he always borrows money from his friends and never pays it back. The teachers in the New Oriental school can get a good salary. borrow sth. from sb. 从……借…… never=not 前面不需要加助动词 pay 在这里的意思是“偿还(债务等)”,还可解释为“付,支付(价款、账单)等”。Pay 既是及物动词也可以是不及物动词。 How much did you pay for that dress? I paid the bill. pay back 还钱 never pays it back 从不归还 4、Tony saw me and came and sat at the same table. and连接三个并列的动词 at the same table 坐在同一张桌子旁边 at table 吃饭 at the table 坐在桌子旁边 Would you like to join us? 5、'I have never borrowed any money from you,' Tony said, 'so now you can pay for my dinner!' pay for 为……而付钱 I have paid for you a dinner. I have paid 20 dollars for the book. ask (sb.) for sth. 问……要…… It's my treat. 我请客 This time is your treat. Next time is my turn. Let's go dutch. AA制 【Key structures】 复习动词时态: The Taj Mahal ______ (build) in the seventeenth century for the emperor Shah Jehan. A few years after he ______ (become) ruler, his wife, Mumtaz-i-Mahal, ______ (die). The Taj Mahal ______ (build) in her honour. Experts ______ (call) in from many parts of the world to construct the domes and to decorate the walls. The Taj Mahal which ______ (begin) in 1632 and ______ (complete) in 1654 ______ (cost) a fortune. Up to the present day, it ______ (visit) by millions of people. The Taj Mahal 泰姬陵 in one's honour 为了纪念某人 up to the present day=up to now was built;became;died;was built;were called (call in:召集);was begun;was completed;costhas been visited 【Special Difficulties】 动词+名词/代词+带 to的不定式 某些动词之后的带to的不定式之前可以有一个名词或代词。有些动词后的名词/代词可有可无,但有和没有经常影响影响整个句子的意义。 I asked him to lend me twenty pounds. I want to speak to John. I want you to speak to John. Would you like to do sth.? I’d like sb. to do sth. I’d like to do sth. 还有一些动词后面用不定式作宾语时,其后通常必须有一名词或代词。这类动词有allow,advise,help,teach,tell,request等,这类动词不但可用于主动语态,也可用于被动语态: We were not allowed to see the picture. hope一定不能说hope sb. to do sth.,正确用法是hope to do (希望自己)或hope that(希望别人) ★Lesson 12 Goodbye and good luck 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(6) luck n. 运气,幸运 captain n. 船长 sail v. 航行 harbour n. 港口 proud adj. 自豪 important adj. 重要的 ★luck n. 运气, 幸运 good luck =break your leg 祝你好运 bless you 保重(比如在别人打喷嚏时说的话) lucky adj. 幸运的 lucky dog 幸运儿 lucky day 幸运日 It’s my lucky day. 今天我真幸运 luckily adv. 幸运地 unlucky adj. 不幸的 ★sail v. 航行 ① vi. (船)航行,扬帆行驶 The ship is sailing for New York. ② vi. (人)乘船航行 I want to sail around the world. ③ n. 帆,篷 This boat has white salis. ★harbour n. 港口 port n. 港口 air port 航空港 ★proud adj. 自豪,自满 be proud of 以……为自豪,为(某人)感到自豪 Parents are proud of their children. pride n. 自豪 take pride in 以……为自豪 ★important adj. 重要的 importance n. 重大 【课文讲解】 1、We'll meet him at the harbour early in the morning. 在表示时间的短语in the morning,in the afternoon等前面可以再加上early,late等副词,以便确切地表示时间 early in the morning 一大早 late in the afternoon 傍晚 2、It has sailed across the Atlantic many times. across是对某个细长物“横切、横断、横渡”等,尤指河流、马路、海洋等;过桥用over the Atlantic =the Atlantic Ocean 大西洋 once,twice,three times… 表示次数的时候, for 一定不能加 I do something twice. 3、Captain Alison will set out at eight o'clock, so we'll have plenty of time. set out/set off/begin something 出发,动身 plenty =enough 相对多,充足的,足够的 plenty of 足够多的…… I have plenty of money. a lot of 指客观上的多 4、We'll see his boat and then we'll say goodbye to him. see = visit 参观 Can I see it? say goodbye (to sb.);say hello to (to sb.);say sorry to (to sb.) I said hello to him this morning. You must say sorry to somebody. 5、He will be away for two months. 瞬间动词不是不能用完成时态, 而是指不能与段时间连用, 一旦要用段时间就要将其变为 “系表结构” 即 “be + 形容词或介词短语构成” He has been away for two hours. =He left two hours ago.点时间 有的动词可用be+形容词系表结构表状态来代替 arrive= be here/there ;leave= be away ;die = be dead ; join(也是瞬间动词) = be a soldier/in the army 6、He will take part in an important race across the Atlantic. take part (in) 参加,参与(某项活动) enter for 报名参加 I have entered for the meeting,but now I don't want to take part in the meeting. an important race across the Atlantic 横渡大西洋的比赛(介词短语做定语放在被修饰词的后面) the person at the door be in the race = take part in the race 参加比赛 at the race 在比赛场地观看比赛 【Key structures】 一般将来时 1、一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态 2、将来时的结构 ① 基本结构: shall/will + 动词原形 shall常用在第一人称I或we的后面,而will可用于所有人称,缩略为’ll,否定式中,will not可缩略为’ll not或won’t,shall not缩略shan’t(在美语中很少用shall) ② be going to do sth./ be gonna do sth.(美语) 打算做某事; be going to 与will一般可以互换,但与打算无关含义的句子, will与be going to do 不能互换 I’ll miss you. (不能用be going to) He'll lose. 他要输了。( 不 能 用 be going to) I'll be sixteen years old next year. (不能用be going to) ③ be + to do sth. 表示计划安排在某事或用来征求意见 I am to have a holiday. ④ be about to do sth. 即将做某事. ⑤ will be doing 表示将要做某事 ⑥ be doing (瞬间动词) 用现在进行时表示将来时态 用现在进行时表示将来的动词有:go,come,arrive,leave,die,land,join ⑦ be 一般现在时表示将要发生 If it rains, … 【Special Difficulties】 be+副词构成的表语 动词be如与不同的副词连用意义不同,意思主要由副词的意义决定: be in 在家;be out 出去;be away 离开;be on 上映;be back 回来;be over 结束;be up to sth.胜任某件事情, 能够做某件事 set+副词构成的短语动词 set out 出发,动身 When’ll you set out for London? set off 出发,启程 I’ll set off for home the day after tomorrow. set up 创立,建立;(a record)创造……记录 Mr. Jackson has set up a school in the village. Has Tom set up a new world record? ★Lesson 13 The Greenwood Boys 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(5) group n. 小组,团体 pop singer 流行歌手 club n. 俱乐部 performance n. 演出 occasion n. 场合 ★group n. 小组, 团体 a group of 表示一群或一个团体 You can see a group of islands in the middle of the lake. group n. 组合,指合唱团(如 Back Street 后街男孩) band n.乐队(如零点乐队, 只有一个主唱) ★pop singer 流行歌手 pop adj. 受欢迎的,通俗的,流行的,大众的(popular的缩写) pop song(music)流行音乐 pop star : 歌星 ★club n. 俱乐部 night club 夜总会 ★performance n. 演出 ① n. 执行,完成,履行 He is praised for the excellent performance of his duties. ② n. 表现,工作情况 His performance in the mathematics exam is not very good. ③ n. 演出,表演 The pop singers will give five performances. -mance 名词后缀 perform v. 演出 ★occasion n. 场合 中文 : 在某种场合, 某种条件下, 某种环境中 英文 : occasion = time 某个时候 this occasion;on the(this) occasion 在这种时候 occasionally <adv.>=sometimes 有时候, 偶尔 【课文讲解】 1、At present, they are visiting all parts of the country. at present =now 目前,现在 The doctor is very busy at present. nowadays adv. 目前 up to now =so far 到现在为止 visit v.拜访、参观;(歌手)巡演 visit+地点 表示去某地 They stay in all parts of the world. visit some place 带有职业相关目的 visit china 某某人到中国访问 The headmasters of the New Oriental school visited Lanzhou.这里指演讲 all parts of the country 全国各地(all在这里的意思是“各种的,各个”) all parts of the world 全世界各地;介词用in in all parts of the world 在全世界各地 2、They will be coming by train and most of the young people in the town will be meeting them at the station. will be doing 将来进行时态,用来表示最近的将来正在进行的动作或说话人设想已经安排好的事情, 将来进行时态的意思往往等于一般将来时态. We will be acting. 我们将要行动了 most of the young people in the town 镇上的大部分年轻人(介词短语作定语) most of + the… 大多数的……(一定要加‘the’) most of the books; most of the time most of the young people = most young people most students = most of the students. ★meet ① vt.&vi.(偶然)遇见,遇到 We met at a restaurant. ② vt.(约定地点或时间)和……会面,迎接 meet sb. +地点 去某地接某人 Who will be meet you when you arrive in London? see sb. off 送行, 目送 ③ vt.(经介绍)和……相识/见面 I’d like to meet your brother. 3、Tomorrow evening they will be singing at the Workers' Club. last night 昨天夜间;tonight 今天夜间;tomorrow night 明天夜间;next night 第二天晚上 at the Workers' Club 在工人俱乐部 tomorrow evening 明天晚上;yesterday evening 昨天晚上;this evening 今天晚上 4、The Greenwood Boys will be staying for five days. During this time, they will give five performances. …will be staying here for five days 逗留五天 …give five performances 演出五场 5、As usual, the police will have a difficult time. as usual 象往常一样,照例 On that day, he was late for work as usual. difficult这里解释为“难对付的”、“ 费 劲 的 ”, 指 麻烦比较多。 have a good time 玩得开心 have a hard time 生活得艰辛 have a difficult time 日子不象平时那样惬意 6、They will be trying to keep order. It is always the same on these occasions. try to do sth. 设法做某事, 尽力做某事 order常用的意义是“次序、顺序”,也可当“治安、秩序”讲 keep order 维持次序 public order 治安 当用occasion表示在某个/些场合时,它与介词on连用 on these occasion(s)每逢这种场合 the same 表示情况相同 注意同一意思的多种表达方式 Why are you late? = What took you so long? 你为什么迟到? 【Key structures】 将来进行时 将来进行时由 will/shall+be+现在分词构成,通常用于表示最近或很久的将来正在进行的动作。将来进行时常用来表示说话人设想已经安排好的事。 I’ll be working for my exams next month. 下个月我将用功看书准备考试。 By this time tomorrow, I’ll be lying on the beach. 将来进行时与一般将来时有时表达的意思差不多,但一般将来时中的will经常具有蓄意为之的含义(如表示主语的意愿、决心、许诺等),将来进行时不具有这些含义,只表示单纯的将来,或者说只陈述将来的事实,但它语气比单用 will时委婉客气。 When will you finish these letters? (如上司对下属) When will you be seeing Mr. White? (如下属对上司) Mary won’t pay this bill. (她拒绝付帐) Mary won’t be paying this bill. (将来的事实) Won’t you join us for dinner? 你来和我们一起吃饭好吗?(邀请) Won’t you be joining us for dinner? 你会和我们一起吃饭吗?(将来的事实) 【Special Difficulties】 名词所有格: 一般只对人和某些生物用-’s,名词所有格放在其所修饰的名词之前,但在上下文很清楚时名词可省略。名词所有格的规则 ① 在单数名词及不以 -s 结尾的人名后加 -'s; ② 在以 -s 结尾的单数名词后加 -'s; ③ 在规则的复数名词的 -s 后面加所有格符号 '; ④ 在以 -s 结尾的人名后面即可以用 's 也可以用所有格符号 '; ⑤ 如果是用and连接的两个人名,则在第二个人名上加-'s; 也可以同时有两个所有格: My brother’s neighbour’s sister is a nurse. 我兄弟的邻居的姐姐/妹妹是一名护士。 ⑥ 有些无生命的物体后面也可以用所有格,如与时间有关的: in twenty minutes' time 3 minutes' walk(drive) 走路或开车三分钟的路程 a month’s salary 表示值多少钱也可以用所有格: I want ten pounds' worth of minced meat. (minced meat 碎肉) How much damage was there? 哪儿有多大的损失? There was a hundred pounds'worth of damage. ★Lesson 14 Do you speak English? 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(7) amusing adj. 好笑的,有趣的 experience n. 经历 wave v. 招手 lift n. 搭便车 reply v. 回答 language n. 语言 journey n. 旅行 ★amusing adj. 好笑的, 有趣的 The story is amusing. (好笑的) amused adj. 感到好笑的(要笑出声) I am amused. amuse v. 使发笑,使愉快 The story amused me. funny adj. 好笑的(不一定要笑出声可以指贬义),开心的,令人开心的 interesting / funny story ★experience n. 经历(可数);经验(不可数) ① n. 经历(可数) He has a lot of experiences. (经历,可数名词) ② n. 经验,体验(不可数) They want someone with a lot of experience for this job. (经验,不可数名词) Does she have any experience in teaching? ③ vt. 经验,体验 Have you ever experienced anything like this? The village has experienced great changes since 1980. experienced adj. 有经验的,经验丰富的 He is an experienced doctor. ★wave v. 招手 wave to sb. 向某人招手 ★lift n. 搭便车 take a bus/taxi/lift 乘公共汽车/乘出租汽车/搭便车 B wants to take a lift. 某人想搭便车 I want to take a lift. A give B a lift. 让某人搭便车 The student gave me a lift. thumb lift 拇指便车(向过路车辆竖起拇指表示要求免费搭车) ★reply v. 回答 reply与answer的区别: ① 作为不及物动词是一样的 : He answered/replied. ② 作为及物动词就不一样了 : answer sth. answer the letter 回信 reply to sth. I will reply to the letter. 回信 Respond to ★language n. 语言 native language 母语 The native language is Chinese. mother tongue 母语(口语中用) My mother tongue is Chinese. ★journey n. 旅行 journey n. 所有的旅行,偏重于陆地旅行 go on a journey 2 hours' journey;3 days' journey(三天路程) trip n. 短距离旅行或出差(时间或距离上较短) go on a trip = go on business travel n. 周游(长途旅行) tour n. 游玩(为了玩) tourist n. 游客 voyage n. 旅行(海上) flight n. 空中飞行 【课文讲解】 1、After I had left a small village in the south of France, I drove on to the next town. after 引导的从句如果一个是过去时,一个是过去完成时,那一定是从句用过去完成时;before 引导的从句表示“在……之前”,主句发生在从句之前, 主句用过去完成时。 drive on 继续开往(on加在动词的后面表示继续) My heart will go on 《我心永恒》 drive to 开车去某地 副词on紧跟在动词后面时可以表示“向前”、“ 继 续 下 去 ” 等 意义: He talked on until everybody had gone. 他滔滔不绝地讲到大家都走了。 I was reading when my friend called. After he had gone, I went on to read. 我朋友来看我时我正在看书。他走了以后我便继续看书。 表达方位的表达方式一共有3个介词, in(在……里面),on(接壤),to(没有相接的, 是相离的) A is to the east of B A在B的东方(A与B不相接) A is on the east of B A在B的东方(A与B接壤) A is in the east of B A在B的东方(A在B的里面) 2、On the way, a young man waved to me. on the way 在路上, 在途中 wave to sb. 冲某人挥手 3、As soon as he had got into the car, I said good morning to him in French and he replied in the same language. as soon as 一……就……,后面一定要加一个句子(时间状语从句), 强调两个动作几乎是连在一起的,“一” 后面的先发生 As soon as I had entered the room,I took off my coat at once. As soon as I had received the letter,I ringed/called him back. 只要是状语从句, 一旦遇到将来时, 变为一般现在时 As soon as you arrive,you must call me. 你一到就打我电话 表示用某种语言作为交际手段时介词用in,表示讲某种语言时可以不加介词。 I speak English. I say a word in Chinese. That book is written in German. reply 要想加宾语要加 to (+要回答的内容),而in the same language 在句中作状语, 不是 replay所应回答的问题(宾语), 故用 in 4、Apart from a few words, I do not know any French at all. apart from… 除……以外 not … at all 一点都不,表强调 I don't like it. I don't like it at all. 5、I had nearly reached the town, when the young man suddenly said, very slowly, "Do you speak English?' nearly 将要 when的翻译要看当时的具体情况, 在这里译为“就在此时” I had nearly reached home when I found my mother standing there. Do you speak English? 你说英语吗? 你是说英语国家的人吗?(问的是一个事实,不是问会说英语吗) Do you swim? 你去游泳吗? Can you swim? 你会游泳吗? 6、As I soon learnt, he was English himself!' I learn 我得知; I know 我知道(我本来就知道) As+主语+动词,从句 (As my mother said/As I heard/ As I learnt) 正如…… As we know,the New Concept English is very good. 正如我们所知…… As I think,it is the coldest day in the year. As he said, English is easy to learn. himself反身代词单独放在句尾, 起强调作用 I read English myself. 【Key structures】 过去完成时 过去完成时:由 had+过去分词构成,它表示过去某时或某动作发生之前已经完成的动作或情况,即“较早的过去”。过去完成时一定要以一个过去时态作铺垫, 这个动作一定要发生在had done之后。 在用过去完成时态的句子中,常用连词 when,after,as soon as,until,by that time等。常与现在完成时连用的副词如already,just,never,never…before也常与过去完成时连用,以强调事件发生的先后次序: I didn’t know that she was a famous actress until you had told me. The boys loved the zoo. They had never seen wild animals before. 在那些用过去完成时的句子中没有明确的时间状语,但通过上下文可以看出动作发生的先后。 Exercises D (用正确的时态填空) 1 The moment he had said this, he ______ (regret) it. the moment = as soon as 一……就……,后面直接加从句 2 It ______ (begin) to rain before she took a taxi. before引导的从句用一般过去时, 主句用过去完成时 【Special Difficulties】 Ask与Ask For: ask v. 问,询问;请求,要求,邀请 ask a question/ask sb. 问(一个问题)/问某人 I asked (Mary) a question. They asked Tony to sing a song. They asked her to spend the weekend with them. ask for 要,要求(某样东西) ask for the answer I asked for a cup of coffee, but they gave me a cup of tea. You are always asking for help. Except, Except for 与 Apart from 三者都表示“除……以外”,有时可以互换,但except不用于句首,except for 和 apart from则可以。 Everyone has helped in some way apart from/except for/except you. Apart from/Except for you, everyone has helped in some way. apart from习惯上喜欢放句首, apart from=except/besides 如果认为整体之中做这件事情的人除了整体之外,还有这个人也做了(包括),是加号=besides;如果认为整体之中做这件事情的人除了整体之外,这个人没有做(排除),是减号=except;如果放在句首,统一用apart from代替except/besides All the passengers are millionaire except us. (减号) I invited everyone except George. / Except for George I invited everyone. Except for/apart from this, everything is in order. except for含有对整体中的某一个方面不满意,except for 可以不放在句首, 强调整体当中某一方面除外, 剩下的整体都不错 The article is very good except for his handwriing. Except for his height, he is very excellent. Which of,Either of,Neigher of与Both of 上面这些短语都可用于指两个人或两件事 either of 两者当中的任何一个 neither of 两者都不 which of 那一个 both of 两者都 we both ① 当询问在两个或更多的人或事物中偏爱哪一个或选择哪一个时,可用 which I like both of these bags. Which of the two do you prefer? ② either与neither都是对两个人或物而言(后接单数名词)。 either指one or the other(不是这个就是那个),either和neither后跟of时则指两个事物中的每一个 either of sb. ……当中的任何一个 neither of sb. ……当中的任何一个都不(neither of(注意英音与美音的读音)两者之间都不, 一旦出现, 这句话里面不会再出现not) I don't like the book. My sister doesn't like it either. Neither of us likes it. (注意要用单数) Which bag shall I use? Either of them. It doesn’t matter which. 哪个都行。用哪个都没关系。 Neither of them. Use a suitcase. 哪个都不行。用个手提箱吧。 ③ both只指两个人或物。当它用在名词前时,of 可有可无;当用在代词前面时,其后必须加of Both books/Both of the books are interesting. Both of us/them left early. ④none of 三者或三者以上之间都不 Exercise 5 He could not answer(neither of)(either of)the questions I (asked)(asked for). either of(前面有not, 故只能选either of) , asked ★Lesson 15 Good news 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(5) secretary n. 秘书 nervous adj. 精神紧张的 afford v. 负担得起 weak adj. 弱的 interrupt v. 插话,打断 ★secretary n. 秘书 两种发音,同样还有 history也是两种发音 secret n. 秘密(注意发音与secretary的不同) ★nervous adj. 精神紧张的 ① adj. 神经质的,神经紧张的 She is a nervous woman. Do you see that nervous smile on her face? ② 紧张的,担心的,情绪不安的 He had never spoken in public, so he was very nervous. nervous adj. 精神紧张的(事情发生时) worried adj. 担心的(为以后的事情) upset adj. 不安的 (对以前的事情) irritable adj. 易怒的,急躁的 Our teacher is an irritable old lady. She gets angry easily. ★afford v. 负担得起 ① vt. 买得起(常与 can/can’t 连用) afford sth. I can afford the coat. ② vt. 担负得起(损失、后果等),花得起(时间)( 常 与 can/can’t连用) afford money/time I can afford the hoilday. (有时间去) I can afford five yuan. I can only afford one week for the trip. afford to do sth. I can’t afford to be ill again. 我不能再病了。 I can afford to buy the book. ③ vt. 提供,给予 Joe afforded us a room for the night. ★interrupt v. 插话, 打断 interrupt v. 打断某人的话 +sb disturb v. 打扰某人 +sb Sorry to disturb you. interruption n. 中断,打断 【课文讲解】 1、The secretary told me that Mr. Harmsworth would see me. would在这里不是表示单纯的过去将来时,而是表示“想……”、“ 要 ……”的意思: What would you like to have? John wouldn’t lend me his bicycle. 2、He did not look up from his desk when I entered. look up 表示原先在埋头干什么,之后抬头看 He looked up (from his book) when he heard a noise. look down 往地上看(look up的反义词) look down upon/on sb. 瞧不起某人 I look down upon my sister. 3、After I had sat down, he said that business was very bad. Business is very good! 生意好! 4、He told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries. collect salary 领薪水 pay salary 支付薪水 large一般指东西的数量大 so的后面加形容词或副词;such的后面加名词, 容许在该名词前面加修饰词 5、I knew that my turn had come. turn n. 轮流,轮班,(依次轮流时各自的)一次机会 My turn has come. It is my turn. 轮到我了(口语常用形式) When his turn came, he couldn’t speak any word. 6、'Mr.Harmsworth,' I said in a weak voice. in a … voice 用……的声音 in a loud(大声)/low (低声)/weak(强调心里不踏实)/strong(理直气壮) voice 7、Then he smiled and told me I would receive an extra thousand pounds a year! 以下几个词都可表示 “再, 又” 的意思, 注意用法 : ① an extra thousand(作名词看) 数量+extra+名词 再有多少 On Sundays, I usually get some extra sleep. Last month, he was paid an extra hundred pounds. ② two others = two other +名词 ③ two more Give me two extra/other/more books. 再给我两本书。 once more: 再一次 ④ another three days 另外三天(只有another 的数词在后面) 【Key structures】 间接引语 把某人所说的话告诉另外一个人时,应该使用间接引语。间接陈述句的时态往往受引述动词的影响。引述陈述句时最常用的动词是say和tell,tell后面必须跟表示人称的间接宾语(tell sb.),而 say后面则可跟或不跟to+讲话对象。 1、主从一致 : 主句和从句的时态一致 ① 主句的动词为一般现在时, 从句为任意时态 ② 主句的动词为一般过去时, 从句为相对应的过去时态(时态倒移) 一般现在时——> 一般过去时 现在进行时——> 过去进行时 现在完成时——> 过去完成时 将来完成时——> 过去将来完成时 一般过去时——> 过去完成时 2、人称变化:主要是第一和第二人称变化 3、只要属于宾语从句, 引导词that可以省略 【Special Difficulties】 Nervous and Irritable nervous adj. 紧张不安的 Examinations make me nervous. irritable adj. 易怒的 He is such an irritable person, you can hardly speak to him. 他这个人如此容易发怒,你简直没有办法与他讲话。 Office, Study, Desk office n. 办公室 study n. 书房 I often read in the study when I want peace and quiet. desk n. 课桌 Exercises 1 We shall use the spare room in our new house as a ______ . study 5 Since his illness he has been very ______ . He is always losing his temper. irritable Since his illness=> 自从他生了病 (since +名词) ★Lesson 16 A polite request 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(9) park v. 停放(汽车) traffic n. 交通 ticket n. 交通违规罚款单 note n. 便条 area n. 地段 sign n. 指示牌 reminder n. 提示 fail v. 无视,忘记 obey v. 服从 ★park v. 停放(汽车) No parking area 停车场 stop the car 车在运动中停下来 ★traffic n. 交通 traffic police 交通警 traffic lights 交通灯,另义为拐弯口, 红绿灯, 十字路口 traffic jam 交通堵塞 I spend a lot of time in traffic jam heavy traffic 繁重的交通 I was ordered to drive in heavy traffic. (in heavy traffic 交通拥挤) first crossing/turning 叉路口, 拐角 ★note n. 便条 note n. 纸条, 纸钞 make notes 做笔记 message n. 消息 ★area n. 地段 area n. 场地, 地段(一块对方), 大地点, 小地点都可以 place n. 地点 region n. 地区(交战, 开火) In this region, there were a lot of wars. 战火连绵 ★reminder n. 提示(可以指人,也可以指物, remind v. 提示, 提醒 remind sb. of sth. An older photo can remind me of my childhood. You remind me of your mother. remind sb. to do sth. ★fail v. 无视, 忘记,失败 ① vi. 失败 fail+宾语 做某事失败 fail (in) doing sth. 在某些方面失败 (in可省略) He failed. He failed (in) examination. ② vi. 不及格 I hope I haven’t failed in the French test. ③ vt. 使……不及格 The teacher said he would fail me if I don’t work harder. ④ vt. 未能……,不能……,忘记……(后接不定式) fail to do sth. 没有能够做某事,忘记做…… He failed to swim across the river. He failed to finish his work in time. Don’t fail to past the letter for me. not fail to do sth. 一定能够某事 I can not fail to pass it. You can not fail to drive it. 你一定能够驾驶 If you arrived in Beijing, you cannot fail to find the New Oriental School. 【课文讲解】 1、If you park your car in the wrong place, a traffic policeman will soon find it. 英语中指每个人/任何人的不定代词通常是 one,但在日常会话中,非正式的you更为常用。 One can never know what will happen tomorrow. 一个人永远不会知道明天将会发生什么事。 If you make a journey around the world, you’ll see many beauty spots. 如果你进行一次环球旅行的话,你就会看到许多风景胜地。 in the wrong place 不合适的地方 wrong adj. 不合适的, right adj. 合适的 He is the right person who you are looking for. They met(A met B)in the wrong place at the wrong time. You met the wrong person in the wrong place at the wrong time. 2、You will be very lucky if he lets you go without a ticket. let (sb.) go 放开,释放,使自由,让(某人)去 The man won’t let go (of) my arm. 那人抓住我的胳膊不放。 He is very angry now. He won’t let you go easily. without a ticket=without giving you a ticket If 引导的叫条件句, without后面的名词也叫条件 without+n. 如果没有…… Without water,fish cannot live. 3、However, this does not always happen. however=but 然而,however 常常放在句首或句子中都可以,but 习惯放在两个句子之间;but 转折性 语义比较强,however转折语义比较弱 4、During a holiday in Sweden, I found this note on my car: 'sir, we welcome you to our city. This is a "No Parking" area. You will enjoy your stay here if you pay attention to our street signs. This note is only a reminder.' on my car 指车的外面 welcome sb. to+地点 欢迎某人来某地 enjoy v. 享受 I have enjoyed my stay here. 我已经在这儿很快乐了 Enjoy your stay here. 祝你玩得开心 only a reminder==not a ticket “No Parking”在句中作area的定语,由若干个词合成的词组型定语有: a never-to-be-forgotten day 一个永远也不能忘掉的日子 a well-to-do family 一个富裕的家庭 【Key structures】 条件句(Conditional sentences) if 引导的条件从句指能够发生、可能发生或可能发生过的事件。如果认为将来的事件很可能会发生,那么 if 从句中要用一般现在时(有时也用其他形式的现在时),主句中用 will(或 shall)加动词形式或其他形式的将来时。 If he is sleeping,don't wake him up. 条件句的主句中的will表示肯定如此或几乎可以肯定会如此。如果觉得其“肯定”程度达不到使用 will的程度,或者如果想表达建议等其他意思,就可以用别的情态助动词来代替 will;条件句中的主句还可以用祈使语气等表示请求、建议等。 You can post these letters if you want to. If it’s fine tomorrow, we can/may go out. Please let me know if you cant’t come. Exercises C 5 If he ______ (enjoy) concerts, why doesn't he come with us? 5.enjoys, why doesn't跟第三人称连用, 是一种建议; why not连在一起表示建议 【Special Difficulties】 Police and Traffic Police traffic police 交通警 police n. 警察 ① n. 警察部门,警方(与the连用) Ring the police if there is a burglary. 如果发生入户盗窃就给警方打电话。 ② 警察(复数) The police are questioning a foreign tourist. 警察们正在盘问一名外国游客。 ③ 如果要单指一名警察,可以用policeman或policewoman There is a traffic policeman over there. You can ask him the way to the station. Pay attention to,Care,Take care of,Look after pay attention to (思想上)注意 pay attention (to sth.) 注意…… notice (眼睛上的)注意 care 关心, 在意 I don't care. 我不在乎。 Who cares? 我不在乎(谁在乎!) I don’t care if he breaks his neck! 他就是折断颈骨,我也不在乎! take care of==look after 照顾, 照料 Please take care of/look after the children for me when I am out. Remind and Remember remind v. 提醒 remind sb. of sth., remind sb. to do sth. I reminded him to post my letter. remember v. 记起, 记得 Do you remember? 你想起来了吗? remember sth. Remember? 记得吗?(可以单独用) remember to do sth. 记得要去做…… Remember to send the letter. remember doing sth. 记得已经做了 I remembered sending the letter. remember sb. to sb. 前者向后者表示问候 Remember me to your mother. 代我向你母亲问好 Exercise (选择正确的词) 1 You can only learn if you(look after)(pay attention). 只有当你注意的时候, 你才会学到东西. pay attention ★Lesson 17 Always young 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(5) appear v. 登场,扮演 stage n. 舞台 bright adj. 鲜艳的 stocking n. (女用)长筒袜(棉的, 绒的, 并不是现在的丝袜) sock n. 短袜 ★appear v. 登场, 扮演 ① vi. 出现,显露(反义词是disappear) The plane appeared. The plane disappeared. ② vi. 当众露面;登场(演出等) The actor appeared. I can’t appear in this dress at the party. appear as 扮演……角色 He appeared as a prince. (prince n. 王子) appear on the stage as… (扮演的确切表达) My aunt appeared on the stage as a young girl. ③ vi. 似乎,看起来好象(与seem同义),显得(系动词,后面直接加形容词) He appears nervous. 他显得很紧张(看起来) She appears to know you. Now it appears you are wrong. ★stage n. 舞台 on the stage 在舞台上 in the stage 在某一阶段(时期) ★bright adj. 鲜艳的 bright red 鲜红色; bright yellow 明黄色; bright blue 宝蓝色 【课文讲解】 1、My aunt Jennifer is an actress. 以-ess结尾的是女性;以-or、-er结尾的是男性 actor 男演员 ; actress 女演员 : waiter 男服务员 ; waitress 女服务员 prince 王子 ; princess 公主 lion 公狮子 ; lioness 母狮子 doctor 男医生 ; woman doctor 女医生 god 神 ; goddess 女神 (God 上帝,注意 “G” 大写) 2、She must be at least thirty-five years old. 年龄的两种表示方法: ① 数字+years old,作表语 thirty-five years old 三十五岁 ② 数字+-year-old,作定语 my four-year-old daughter must + 动词原形 不得不, 必须;(对现在的)推测 She must be a model. She is fifteen years old. 她五岁了 She must be fifteen years old. 她很可能五岁 She must be at most fifteen years old. 她最多十五岁 She must be at least fifteen years old. 她至少十五岁 at least 至少, 最少 If you can’t clean the car, you can at least help me to clean it. at most 最多 3、In spite of this, she often appears on the stage as a young girl. in spite of 不管,尽管 (“of” 为介词, 后面一定会加名词、代词或从句) in spite of this 尽管如此 In spite of this, I still like school. (school前不加“the”表示上学,加“the”只表示学校) In spite of what you have said about her, she is much better than Mary. 4、Jennifer will have to take part in a new play soon. join 参加了某一种团体 join sb./sth. join the army 参军 join the party 入党 join us (口语)加入我们(这个团体)中来 take part in 参加某一种活动 take part in the race 参加比赛 take part in a play take part in the party attend 出席 attend the meeting 参加会议, 出席会议 attend the party 出席宴会 attend the class 上课 Thank you for your attending. 谢谢大家的出席(到来) Thank you for your listening. 谢谢大家的听讲 5、This time, she will be a girl of seventeen. 两种年龄的表达: She is eighteen years old. She is a girl of eighteen. 6、In the play, she must appear in a bright red dress and long black stockings. in (+颜色、衣服) 穿着……样的衣服,用介词短语取代动词,避免了一句话中出现两个动词 The boy in green. in a bright red dress 鲜红色的连衣裙 bright,orange-coloured dress 鲜艳的桔黄色衣服 7、If anyone ever asks her how old she is, she always answers, 'Darling, it must be terrible to be grown up!' ever = at any time 任何时候(时间副词) it must be 一定……(表示推测) grown-up adj. 成年人 be grown-up 作为一个成年人 grow up (人)成长 当有人问你年龄时,你可以这样回答: It is a secret. / It is privacy. I forget it. 【Key structures】 情态助动词 must Must 译为“必须”,可以表示“必要,命令或强制,邀请,决心,不可推卸的责任”等多处含义。它没有时态和人称变化,通常只用于现在时和将来时。在 其 他时态时,must的有些含义可以用have to或have got to。这三种形式一般可以互换,但用于第一人称时,have to(have got to)强调客观的要求或外在的原因,must则强调主观的要求或表示说话的人认为自己有权做某事。 have to和have got to往往可以互换,但与always,sometimes 等频度副词连用时,用 have to往往比用havt got to好。have got to比have to更口语化。 在过去时的句子中, 要用have to 来表示 “必须”,have to可以有任意时态 She will have to… ;She had to… ; She has/I have had to… have to作为实义动词, 否定式为don't have to;will not have to;didn't have to 在表达“难道你不能不(做……)”时,一般用“Must you…?”,而不用“Do you have to…?” Must you leave now? 难道你非得现在就走吗? I’m afraid so. I have to study for an exam. must可以表示推测,must do表示对现在的推测;must have done表示对过去的推测 He must be mad. 在 I think…/he thinks…的从句中,一定要用事实说话. (不能说成 “I think he must be a fool.” ) must be的否定式为can’t be(不可能): Someone’s using the phone, it must be John. It can’t be John. He promised me he wouldn’t use it today. 【Special Difficulties】 As的用法 ① 作为介词,可以表示“作为”、“ 以……身份”等 In this film, he appeared as a policeman. As a mechanic, he can’t always keep himself clean. ② 作为连词,可以表示“因为”、“ 正当……时候”、“ 以……方式”或“如同……那样”等 You must take care of the bady tomorrow as I am going to London.(因为,由于) As we were talking about him, he knocked at the door.(正当……时候) Do as you are told. 叫你怎么做就怎么做(按你被告知的那样去做)(以……方式) As I learned, … (如同……那样) ③ “担任……工作” I work as an engineer. Dress, Suit, Costume dress n. 裙子,晚礼服,连衣裙(女式) suit n. 套装(男式) My brother never wears ready-made suits. 我的弟弟从来不穿成衣。 costume n. 演出服,民族服装,某一年代所穿的服装 All the actors wore fifteenth-century costumes. 所有演员都穿着15世纪的服装。 Grow and Grow up grow vi. 生长,成长,发育 Trees of the kind don’t grow in our country. How tall you’ve got! You’ve grown a lot. grow up 长成,成熟(其被动态表示长大成人) Lucy has grown up a lot since I last saw her. 自从我上次见到她之后,露西已成熟了许多。 What do you want to do when you’re grown up? Some people never grow up. 有些人总是成熟不起来。 Exercises 3 She hired a(suit)(costume)for the fancy-dress party. costume fancy-dress-party 化妆舞会; hire v. 雇,租 ★Lesson 18 He often does this! 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(3) pub n. 小酒店 landlord n. 店主 bill n. 帐单 【课文讲解】 1、After I had had lunch at a village pub, I looked for my bag. Pub是public house(酒店,酒店)的缩写 Let’s go to the pub for a drink. 2、I had left it on a chair beside the door and now it wasn't there! leave除了“离去,离开,出发”的意思,还可以表示“把(人、物)留下,遗留,丢下”等。 Have you left anything in the car? 3、'I'm very sorry,' he said. 'My dog had taken in into the garden. He often does this!' he指店主的狗,英语国家人士常用人称代词he或she指自己喂养的宠物。 【Key structures】 have的用法 1、have作为助动词构成各种完成时和完成进行时 2、have还可以作完全动词,当作“具有、拥有”讲时,它和have got通常可以互换。have做 “有, 患病” 概念时, 可作为实义动词, 也可作为非实义动词。在英国英语中的疑问句和否定句中 have(具有)的用法与 be相同,即可以不用助动词do或 did;在美国英语中,常用do助动词和have一起构成疑问句和否定句。 I don’t have a pen/a headache. I haven’t a pen /a headache. 三种情况have 可以用 have got取代 I have a pen. I have got a pen. “有” I have a headache. I have got a headache. “得病” have to== have got to have作“具有,拥有”讲时是状态动词,不能用于进行时态或被动语态,通常用于一般现在时。在其它时态中,一般用 have而不用have got。 You can have these apples if you want them. I’ve got a lot more. 如果你想要这些苹果你可以把它们拿走。我还有许多。 He must be very fond of animals to have five dogs. 他一定非常喜欢动物,才会养五条狗。 3、have作完全动词时,还可以表示eat,drink,enjoy,take等意思,这时它是行为动词,可以用于包括进行时的各种时态。当 have用于表示这些含义时,它必须与助动词do等连用以构成疑问句或否定句。 have dinner,have a cigarette,have coffee,have a holiday,have a good time,have a swim,have a rest Exercises C 在下面哪几句话中可用have got来代替have? 1 He had a drink before dinner. ⑴...不换... 2 Mrs. Sullivan has a lot of money. ⑵...换... 有钱 3 He had to leave early. ⑶...换... 4 We have had a long conversation. ⑷...不换... 进行 5 My mother has a headache. ⑸...换... 患病 6 They had a good time at the party. ⑹...不换... have a good/long time : 过的愉快(固定短语) 7 This sock has a hole in it. ⑺...换... 8 She has to be patient with him. ⑻...换... has to patient n.病人, 患者adj.忍耐的, 耐心的 9 I have a bath every day. ⑼...不换... have a swim,have a bath 10 This room has four windows. ⑽...换... 11 He has a farm. ⑾...换... 12 We had a letter from Jill yesterday. ⑿...不换... have a letter from==receive a letter from 收到 【Special Difficulties】 give的几个固定搭配 give常用含义是“给予,交给” I lent him some books last month and he has given them back to me this morning. gave away 赠送 He gave away all his books to the library. give in 上交,呈交;屈服,让步,投降 Give in your examination papers after you’ve finished. You can do what you like. I will never give in. give up doing sth. 放弃,抛弃 He gave up drinking a few years ago. give up 交出,让出 Jack has given up the watch he stole last week. Three of our officers gave themselves up to the enemy. 我方的三名军官向敌人投降了。 Beside and Besides beside pron. 在……旁边,在……附近 Come and sit beside us. besides adv. 而且,并且,此外;pron. 除……之外(还) She has so much else to do besides. 此外,她还有许多其他事要做。 I’m quite busy today. Besides, I’ve got a bad cold. There were a lot of people at the party besides us. ★Lesson 19 Sold out 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(6) hurry v. 匆忙 ticket office 售票处 pity n. 令人遗憾的事 exclaim v. 大声说 return v. 退回 sadly adv. 悲哀地,丧气地 ★hurry v. 匆忙 ① vi. 赶紧,赶快,匆忙 When he saw that it was already eight o’clock, he hurried to the office. ② n. 急忙,匆忙,仓促 In his hurry, he dropped some coins on the floor. in a hurry <n.> 匆忙 If you are not in a hurry. 如果你不急(时间、动作上的紧急) If you are not busy. 如果你不忙(行为上的匆忙) in no hurry <n.> 不匆忙 I am in no hurry. 我不急 hurry up <v.> 快点 hurry to 匆匆忙忙地去 He goes to school. = He hurries to school. come in 进来 hurry in 匆匆忙忙地进来 go out 出去 hurry out 匆匆忙忙地出去 ★pity n. 令人遗憾的事 What a pity! <n.> 真遗憾! It is a pity to be grown up. (it做形式主语) It is a pity to steal a bicycle. I am sorry. <adj.> 我感到很遗憾. I am sorry to hear that.听到这个消息我很遗憾 注意 sorry 与 pity 词性上的区别 ★exclaim v. 大声说 ① vt.&vi.(由于痛苦、愤怒、惊异、欣喜等)叫喊,惊叫 When she saw the gift, she exclaimed in delight. ② vi.(表示抗议等)大声叫喊 She exclaimed against the rudeness of the young man. shout =cry =call out 大声喊 ★return v. 退回 ① vi. 回,返回 Tim has just returned from Australia. return to 回来 return to China/Beijing 回到中国/北京 ② vt. 把……送回,归还,退回 He returned the books to the library. return to you 退回你 return money =pay back =repay 还钱 ★sadly adv. 悲哀地, 丧气地 涵盖了所有悲哀 【课文讲解】 1、'The play may begin at any moment,' I said. at any moment 在任何时候, 随时 The guests may arrive at any moment. It may/might rain (at) any moment. at the moment =now at that moment =just then 就在那时 I will help you at any time. 我随时都会帮你 must,can't,may+动词原形, 表示对现在、未来的推测 She must be a model. (must 一定, 很可能) She may be a model. (may 有可能) She can't be a model. (can't 不可能) may,must,can't + have done,表示对过去的推测 She must/may/can't have been a model. I must/may/can’t have watched TV. 2、I hurried to the ticket office. 'May I have two tickets please?' I asked. Can(May) I...? 我……可以吗?(表示“……可以吗?”,第一人称可以和can或may相连) May I have a ticket ? (英文中的问句, 常常起礼貌作用) May I have your name? (比 “What’s your name?” 更有礼貌些) Could I...? 我现在可以...吗? (在问句中更委婉的说法, 比can I 更礼貌些,但在时间上与can没区别) Can you...? 你可以...吗? (第二人称不能用may来表示“……可以吗?”,只能用can) have 是最活跃的词, 可以指任何的意思. have coffee 喝咖啡 have ticket 买票 (习惯用法) I'll have/take sth. 我买……(一般不用“buy”,用“have”习惯用法) 3、'I'm sorry, we've sold out,' the girl said. sell out (店主)售完(某种货物),(货)被售完 They have sold out of eggs. Tickets for tonight’s performance are sold out. 4、'Certainly,' the girl said, 'but they're for next Wednesday's performance. Do you still want them?' for next Wednesday's performance,用名词所有格来取代时间,“……时间的” 用介词for, 起修饰作用 ticket for+事情 ……的票 ticket to+地点 去……的票 May I have a ticket to Tianjing? May I have a ticket for the sports meeting? still adv. 还,可以和任意时态连用 still, yet 都和完成时态连用(原先认为) want them 注意连读 5、'I might as well have them,' I said sadly. may/might as well+动词原形 还是……好(无可奈何),不妨…… I might as well take the umbrella with me. It’s not very far, so we may/might as well go on foot. had better+动词原形 最好……(积极心态) 【Key structures】 Can and May 1、can和may都可以表示请求,can可以用could,may可以用might代替,语气更委婉,更有礼貌,但时间上没有区别 Can I use your phone please?/Could I use your phone please? May I use your phone please?/Might I use your phone please? 含有情态动词的普通回答: 肯定:Of course you can/may. 否定:No, you can’t/ may not. 2、may和might还可以表示推测,“可能……”。may可以用might代替,语气更委婉,更有礼貌,但时间上没有区别 may/might +动词原形:表示对现在或未来事情的推测 He may come tomorrow./He might come tomorrow. may/might +have 动词过去分词:表示对过去事情的推测 He may have telephoned last night, but I’m not sure. He might have telephoned last night, but I’m not sure. 3、may/might as well+动词原形:还是……好(无可奈何),不妨…… Do you think he’ll pass that exam? He’ll never pass. He might as well give up. ★Lesson 20 One man in a boat 【New words and expressions】生词和短语5) catch v. 抓到 fisherman n. 钓鱼人,渔民 boot n. 靴子 waste n. 浪费 realize v. 意识到 ★catch v. 抓到 ① vt. 捉住,逮住,捕获 The police have caught the thief. Have you caught any fish today? ② vt. 抓住,握住 Can you catch the ball? ③ vt. 及时赶到,赶上 catch a bus 赶车 I want to catch the eight nineteen (train) to London. catch④的一些固定用法 catch a cold 染上感冒 catch one's breath 摒住呼吸 catch sight of = see 看见 catch fire 着火 catch one's eyes 吸引某人注意力 ★boot n. 靴子 a pair of boots 一双靴子 ★waste n. 浪费 ① n. 浪费 a waste of… 浪费…… It is a waste of time/money/food/water. ② vt. 浪费 You are wasting time. ★realize v. 意识到 ① v. 认识,知道,明白,意识到 I went into the wrong room without realizing it. 我无意中走错了房间。 I realized that I was wrong. ② v. 实现(希望、目标、愿望等) realize one's dream 实现某人的梦想 She has realized her hope to be an actress. ③ 使变为事实,使发生(常用于被动语态) This plan can never be realized. 【课文讲解】 1、Fishing is my favourite sport. fishing是一个动名词,由动词+ing组成,动名词可以作主语或宾语,如eating,reading等等 ★fish ①n. 鱼(不可数名词),鱼的种类(可数) There are a lot of fishes(表示种类)in the sea. ②v. 钓鱼, 捕鱼 2、I often fish for hours without catching anything. for+时间 表示一段时间 for hours=for some hours 数小时 without catching anything作为状语而出现, 表示结果状语。without 是介词,后面一定要加宾语, 动名词catching作 without 的宾语,without 后面的动作是主语来做的。动名词也有动词的特性,可以有自己的宾语。 without通常表示“缺乏、没有”;当它位于动名词前时,表示“不曾、不” I can’t repair the car without your help. They tried to leave the restaurant without paying. He went out without saying any words. 3、But this does not worry me. ★worry v. ①烦恼,担扰 worry sb. 某人为……烦恼,担扰(作动词一定要加人作宾语, 翻译时从后往前翻,宾语担心) The house worried me. / My daughter worried me. ① adj. 担心 be worried about ……为……担心 I was never worried about this. = This does not worry me. 4、Instead of catching fish, they catch old boots and rubbish. instead of… 我原准备做……但是后来做了……(instead of 后面的词一定是没有做的, 可以放在主句后面) I went to school instead of staying at home. 我没呆在家里而是去上学了 I bought books instead of buying dresses. without强调没有做某件事, instead of强调这件事没做成而做成了另外一件事 副词instead“作为替代,反而”,单独使用时一般出现在句尾 If you don’t want a holiday in England, why don’t you go to Australia instead? 5、I am even less lucky. less是little的比较级,意为“不及,不如,更少” I spend less time on English than on French. less+原形 A is less…than B A不如B 6、After having spent whole mornings on the river, I always go home with an empty bag. spend+时间+在某地 在某地度过……时间 after <conj.>+从句 在……之后 after <prep.>+名词/动词的ing形式 ……之后(从句主语必须是主句的主语时两种形式可互换) After I go to school, I learned a lot of knowledge. (用一般式表示一个事实, 不用 “went to” ) After going to school, I learned a lot of knowledge. 介词after的宾语的动名词having spent所表示的动作发生在谓语动词go之前,所以动名词用完成形式。 with an empty bag 注意连读 with sth. 有……的,持有……的,随身带着……(状语) Who’s the man with the beard? without sth. 没带…… I always go home without angthing. 什么都没带回家 7、'You must give up fishing!' my friends say. give up doing sth. = stop doing sth. 放弃做某事 Give up smoking. 8、I'm not really interested in fishing. be intersted in sth. / doing sth. 对……感兴趣 I’m interested in collecting stamps. 【Key structures】 动名词 动词+ing 作名词时称为动名词,它仍有动词的属性,可以接宾语,动名词可以代替名词做主语和宾语或介词宾语。 1、动名词作主语 Watching television is my favourite pastime. 看电视是我最喜爱的业余爱好. 2、动名词作宾语 I am very keen on cycling. 我非常喜欢骑自行车. He is capable of doing anything. 他能胜任任何事情. 3、利用介词/副词+动名词可以把两个句子连成一个句子 apologize for (not) doing sth. 为什么事情而道歉 I must apologize. I interrupted you. 我得表示道歉. 我打断了你的说话(工作). I must apologize for interrupting you. 由于打断了你的说话(工作), 我得表示道歉. (for interrupting强调interrupt这个动词) I must apologize for having interrupted you.(for having interrupted强调interrupt这个动词先发生,强调时间 (having done))以上两者为时间概念不同,意思相同 congratulate (sb.) on doing sth. 因……祝贺(某人) He congratulated me. I won the competition. 他向我道贺. 我赢得了这次比赛. He congratulated me on winning the competition. 在我赢得这次比赛之际, 他向我祝贺. He congratulated me on having won the competition. thank you for listening/attending 动名词用表示完成时的 having+过去分词结构往往强调动名词的动词发生在前面。 4、跟动名词的短语 be keen on doing sth.(热忠于……),be fond of,be interested in,enjoy doing sth.(喜欢做某事), congratulations on doing sth. (祝贺……) be afraid of be up to=be capable of (capable adj.有能力的, 能干的, 有可能的, 可以...的) 可以带动名词的介词有:before,after,without,instead of等 I can’t watch TV without falling asleep. 我看电视时必定会睡着。 5、动名词的否定式是在它前面直接加not。 Exercises C(用括号中的词来连接下列句子, 如需要可对原句进行必要的改动) 2.She bought a pair of boots. (instead of) She did not get a pair of shoes. She bought a pair of boots instead of getting a pair of shoes. =She bought a pair of boots instead of a pair of shoes. 4.(After) She heard the news. She fainted. after+从句; after prep.+doing After hearing the news,she fainted. (faint vi.昏晕, 昏倒) 6.(On) I saw the plane coming towards me. I dashed for cover on (prep.)+doing 一……就……(两个动作必须是同一个人) On seeing the plane coming towards me, I dashed for cover. 冲进掩护体 as soon as 一……就…… the moment +从句 一……就…… 以上两个主语不一定是同一个人 【Special Difficulties】 Interested and Interesting. Excited and Exciting. 大多数现在分词和许多过去分词都可以作形容词用。以-ed结尾的形容词常与人称主语连用,表示人的情绪、状态、喜好等;以-ing结尾的形容词则常与非人称主语连用,表明事物的某种特征、性质等。 Fishing is not interesting. I am not really interested in fishing. 钓鱼没意思. 我对钓鱼并不真正感兴趣. The match was very exciting. The crowd got very excited. 比赛非常激动人心. 观众非常激动. be interested in sth./doing sth. 对……感兴趣 I’m interested in collecting stamps. It's and Its it’s = it is It's (= it is) cold today. It's raining too. 今天天气冷. 而且正在下雨. its 它的 This engine has lost its power. 这台发动机已失去了动力. Realize and Understand realize vt. 意识到…… He didn't realize that he had made a mistake. 他没有意识到他犯了一个错误. understand vt. 明白…… I don't understand English. 我不懂英语. Exercises(选择正确的词填空) 3.There was some (excited) (exciting) news on the radio. exciting news excited adj. 感动的 ;exciting adj. 令人激动的 如果–ed,-ing 做形容词即作定语时,和被修饰词有关 on the radio 在广播上 I got news on the radio/on TV/on the telephone/on the line(在线,在电话里). 4.He is not an (interesting) (interested) person. an interesting person interested adj. 感兴趣的 ;interesting adj. 有趣的 5.He is an explorer. He leads an (excited) (exciting) life. an exciting life explorer n.探险家, 探测者, 探测器 lead a life 过着……日子 lead a happy life He leads a poor life. ★Lesson 21 Mad or not? ★mad adj. 发疯 sb. is mad “为……而疯狂(着迷)”的表示方法: be mad about… I'm mad about English. be crazy about… go insane (insane adj. 患精神病的,精神病患者的,极愚蠢的) I slowly go insane/go crazy/go mad/go bananas. go bananas (go+adj. 变得……) They are going bananas. =go crazy=go mad (变疯了) ★reason n. 原因 for this reason 由于这个理由、原因 For this reason,I was late. as+句子 由于…… because+句子 由于…… ★sum n. 量 a sum of +不可数名词 一笔…… a large sum of 大笔的…… (large 指数量的大) a large sum of money 一大笔钱 a great many + 可数名词复数 a great number of + 可数名词复数 plenty of… 足够多的…… ★determined adj. 坚定的, 下决心的 be determined to do sth. 下定决心做某事 make up one's mind 下定决心 decide to do sth. 决定做…… make a decision to do sth. 决定做…… determine v.下定决心 【课文讲解】 1、Mad or not? = mad or not mad? or not 在疑问词的后面,表示“是还不是”,选择概念 2、Aeroplanes are slowly driving me mad. drive sb. mad 逼某人发疯 You are driving me mad. The teacher is slowly driving me mad. 3、I live near an airport and passing planes can be heard night and day. night and day 日日夜夜,夜以继日 (注意连读) passing planes 过往飞机 (passing是现在分词,作定语,起形容词作用,修饰 planes,“经过的(路过),过往的”) He forgot the man with passing time. 随着时间的消逝,他忘掉了那个人。 sleeping baby 正在睡觉的小孩 waiting car 正在等待的车 4、The airport was built years ago, but for some reason it could not be used then. years前面不加确定的数词时,一般表示“许多年”years ago = many years ago,weeks等的用法与它相似 I have not seen him for weeks. some+不可数名词/可数名词复数 一些…… some+可数名词单数 某一…… for some reason 由于某个理由 I’ll tell you someday. We’ll talk about it some other time. 我们改日再谈这件事。 5、Last year, however, it came into use. however 然而(用于句首, 句中, 用逗号隔开) use ① n. 使用 come into use 启用,开始被使用(主动概念,没有被动式) When did the train come into use? The road came into use last month. ② vt. 使用 be used 被使用(被动) 6、Over a hundred people must have been driven away from their homes by the noise. over a hundred… 一百多…… must have been done 过去发生, 表示推测,被动 away from 从某地离开(away 离开某地) drive sb away from out of somewhere 从某地出来 7、I am one of the few people left. one of… ……之一(表示特指的一群人/一些东西中的一个,后面的名词用复数) One of the girls standing over there is Tim’s sister. You can take one of these bags. left 表示被留下来的,leave 过去分词, left 作定语放在被修饰词的后面 left 剩下的……东西,相当于“Who are left (by the others) 其他人走了留下他们” I have a bag left. There is ten cents left in my pocket. (cent n.(货币单位)分, 分币) 8、Sometimes I think this house will be knocked down by a passing plane. I have been offered a large sum of money to go away, but I am determined to stay here. knock down 撞倒 offer v. 提供(相当于given) 双宾语的被动语态中,主语有两种可能; 以sb.做主语或以sth.做主语 give sb. sth.——>被动 sb. be given sth. give sth. to sb.——>被动 sth. be given to sb. 双宾语在变被动时用离动词最近的宾语做主语 原文句型结构 sb. be offered sth. 【Key structures】 被动语态 被动语态可以和大部分情态动词连用(包括具有情态功能的will和would)。 He may have been told the news. The shops must have been closed now. 动词+宾语+不定式结构中既可以动词用被动语态,也可以在不定式中用被动语态: Mary was told to meet us. = They told Mary meet us. 在句型“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”中,这两个宾语都可以成为被动句的主语。但由于间接宾语通常是人,所以间接宾语成为被动句主语的时候要多些: Sam was given a gold watch. = A gold watch was given to Sam. 【Special Difficulties】 Drive的用法 ①v. 开车, 驾驶 (drove, driven, driving) drive to… 开车去往某地 I drove to Tianjing yesterday ② vt. 赶,驱赶,围赶(猎物、敌人等) drive sb. away from 把某人赶走 drive sb. out of 把某人赶出去 During the war, many people were driven out of their homes. drive sb. back 撵回去 Our army drove the enemy back. ③ vt. 逼迫,迫使 drive sb. mad 逼疯 The death of all her children has driven her mad. Home and House home n. &adv. 家,家庭,家园(着重指所居住的人,常有爱、温暖、舒适、安全等隐含意义,带有感情色彩) I have a sweet home. house n. 房子,房屋,住宅(指建筑物) Tom must be somewhere in the house. 汤姆肯定在这屋子里的某个地方。 ★Lesson 22 A glass envelope ★dream v. 做梦, 梦想 ① vt. 做梦,梦见 dream that +从句 I dreamt/dreamed (that) I was in Scotland. ② vi. 做梦,梦见(与of,about连用) dream on 继续做梦, 痴心妄想(做你的梦去吧!别痴心妄想了!) dream of/about sth. 梦想 I often dream of/about you. dream of doing sth. 梦想 I dreamed of flying in the sky. I dreamed of finding the gold. / I dream of being a good teacher. think of 想,考虑,想起 Do you ever think of the girls you met at a party? 你会想起你在一个晚会上遇到的姑娘们吗? ③ n. 梦;梦想,幻想 have a dream = dream a dream 做了一个梦 Have a good/sweat dream! 祝你做个好梦! Have you heard of the American Dream? dream boat 梦中情人, 梦寐以求的(物, 人) Do you have dream boat? 你有梦中情人吗? daydream 思想开小差,做白日梦 dream on She is daydreaming. ★age n. 年龄 teengager n. 十几岁的人 adolenscent n. 青春期(一般指成年以前由13至15的发育期) ★throw(threw,thrown) v. 扔, 抛 ① vt. 投,扔,抛 Don’t throw stones at the dog. Throw the ball to Tom. throw away 扔掉 Shall I throw this old newspaper away? ② 把……对准目标,向……作出举动 George was very happy today. Julie had thrown a smile at him in the morning. The boss threw him an angry look. 【课文讲解】 1、My daughter, Jane, never dreamed of receiving a letter from a girl of her own age in Holland. 同位语 My daughter,Jane dream of doing sth. 梦想,幻想…… …of one's own age 同年龄的…… He is boy of my own age. receive…from… 从……收到…… 2、Last year, we were travelling across the Channel and Jane put a piece of paper with her name and address on it into a bottle. the Channel= the English Channel 英吉利海峡 with可放在句子后面做状语用,也可放在名词后面做定语。这里的“with her name and address on it”用来修饰名词“a piece of paper”。 I have a bag with books in it.(“in it” 不能省略) 3、Both girls write to each other regularly now. write to sb. 给某人写信 write (a letter) to me each other 相互,彼此,往往强调两者之间的相互 (注意连读)有时这个短语也可用来指许多人之间“互相” We must all help each other. one another 强调三或三者以上的相互,有时可替代 each other 4、Letters will cost a little more, but they will certainly travel faster. cost意为“(使)花费,价钱为……”,其主语通常为某物或某件事情 It costs a lot to buy a house. sth. cost (sb.) ……花了某人……(钱) The dress cost me twenty pounds. more即可做形容词, 又可做代词,文中的 “more” 为代词 = more money give me more 再给我一点 a little 稍微,可以修饰比较级;much修饰比较级,译为“多得多” It's a little hotter. It's much hotter. That is more expensive. (贵一些) That is a little more expensive. (稍微有点贵) That is much more expensive. (贵得多) but they will certainly travel faster. =but they will certainly travel much faster. 【Key structures】 跟of, from, in和 on的动词 动词+介词的固定短语通常可分开使用,可以有自己的宾语,并且大部分都可用于被动结构: 1、后接of的动词:accuse of(控告);approve of(赞成);assure of(让……放心);beware of(谨防);boast of/about(夸耀), complain of/about(埋怨);consist of(由……组成);convince of/about(使信服);cure of(治愈);despair of(丧失……希望);dream of/about(幻想);expect of/from(期望);hear of/from(听到……消息);be/get rid of(摆脱);smell of(闻到);suspect of(对……猜疑);think of/about(思考);tired of(对……感到厌烦);warn of/against(警告……有危险) Someone must warm him of the difficulties. 必须有人提醒他有这些困难。 He has already been warned of them. 他已经被警告过了。 Don’t expect too much of your child. He must have spoken of the matter to John. I have never heard of the actress. 2、后接 from的动词:borrow from(从……借);defend from/against (保护……使免于);demand from/of(向……要求);differ from(有别于);dismiss from(解雇);draw from(从……中得出);emerge from(从……出现);escape from(从……逃出);excuse from/for(允许不……);hinder from(阻止);prevent from(妨碍);prohibit from(不准许);protect from/against(向……提抗议);receive from(接到);separate from(把……分开);suffe from(受难) He has already received money from three aunts. 他已经收到三个姑妈的钱了 He borrowed three books from Mary. He always asked for help from parents. 3、后接in的动词:believe in(信仰);delight in(喜欢);employ(ed) in (从事);encourage in(鼓励);engage(d) in(正做);experience(d) in(在……有经验);fail in(没有尽到);help in/with(帮助);include in(包括);indulge in(沉醉);instruct in(教导);interest(ed) in(对……感兴趣);invest in(投资);involved in(卷入);persist in(坚持);share in(分享) She delights in working hard. 她喜欢努力工作。 He failed in his French test. 他法语考试没有通过。 Jack helped me in driving the sheep home. 杰克帮我把羊赶回家。 Mrs. Turner is experienced in teaching. 特纳夫人很有教学经验。 4、后接 on的动词:act on(遵守);based on(在……基础上);call on(拜访);comment on(评论);concentrate on(集中于);congratulate on(祝贺);consult on/about(商量);count on(依赖);decide on(决定);depend on(依靠);economize on(节约);embark on(从事);experiment on(尝试);insist on(坚持);lean on/against(倚靠于……);live on(靠……为生);operate on(起作用);perform on/in(扮演);pride(oneself) on(为……感到自豪);rely on(依靠);vote on a motion/for someone(对……表决(投……的票));, write on/about(写……的事);. I think he wrote on the cost of living. 我想他写的是关于生活费用方面的。 He finally decided on going home. 他最后决定回家。 You can’t live on fruit only. 你不能只吃水果。 Last Sunday, we called on Mr. Dupont. ★Lesson 23 A new house ★complete v. 完成 (喜欢与建筑工程连用) ① vt. 完成,结束 complete the building Work on the new school will be completed next year. ② adj. 完整的,全部的 《鲁迅全集》中的 “全集” 就用 “complete” Do you know the complete story? This is a complete family. ③ adj. 十足的,彻底的,绝对的 There is complete silence in the room. That was a complete surprise. finish v. 完成 finish/complete homework finish/complete doing sth. 某事做完了 I finish reading a book. ★modern adj. 新式的, 与以往不同的,现代的 modern history/art 现代史/ 现代艺术 modernization n.现代化 ★strange adj. 奇怪的(表示因为对一个东西不熟悉而觉得奇怪, 陌生的) ①adj. 外地的,异乡的 Living in a strange land is not always a pleasant thing. ② adj. 陌生的,生疏的 That morning, he saw a strange face in the classroom. be strange to sth. 对……不习惯, 对……陌生 This city is quite strange to me. stranger n. 陌生人 ③ adj. 不平常的,奇特的,奇怪的,古怪的 The house looks strange to some people. A strange thing happened this afternoon. ★district n. 地区,行政划分的区域, 城市内的 district n. 地区,行政区,地域,地带,通常隶属于某个整体或具有某些地理特征 Haidian District 北京的海淀区 The Lake District of Northern England is very beautiful. 英国北部的湖区非常美丽。 area n. 地段 region n.地带,区域,地方,(世界上某个特定的)地区, (艺术,科学等的)领域, (大气, 海水等的)层 【课文讲解】 1、If she comes, she will get a surprise. get a surprise 感到惊奇(这里 surprise是可数名词,指“令人惊奇的事,意想不到的事”) It’s a surprise to me that they can’t sell their flat. surprise也可以作不可数名词,表示“惊讶” She looked at the man in surprise. to one's surprise = I get a shock. 吃了一惊 2、We are now living in a beautiful new house in the country. a beautiful new house 离一个名词最近的词跟该词的关系最密切, 冠词肯定是放在最前面的 spare old cloth 不穿的旧衣服 a big red flag 大红旗 (flag n. 旗, 标记;v. 标记) 3、Work on it had begun before my sister left. work(工作,作业)是抽象的不可数名词,“……的工作”后面必须用介词on 4、In my letter, I told her that she could stay with us. stay with 跟……暂住在一起 (stay vi. 暂住,逗留) He stayed with his uncle last week. 【Special Difficulties】 There is and It is 在说明或询问人或物等的存在时可用 there be 结构。这种结构可以用一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时及现在完成时等时态。在用there表示过存在后,就必须用it或人称代词作进一步说明: There’s a bus coming, but it’s full. There’s a man at the door. It’s the postman. it作为“虚主语”表示时间、距离、天气等概念时,不能用 there be结构 It’s fifteen miles to the station. Exercise(用it或there填空) 3 ______ were some men digging up the road outside my house. there : There+be+sb.+doing+地点 : 某地有某人正在做某事(典型句型) digging up: 挖出, 找出 4 Look at those clouds. I think ______ will be a thunderstorm. there : 在表示天气的时候, 后面如果是动词或形容词, 用 it, 如果是名词, 用there be. It is raining(动词)/It is cold(形容词). There be +名词 : There is a rain. 那儿有一场雨 thunderstorm n.雷暴, 大雷雨 9 After dinner ______ will be a long discussion on politics. there on politics 关于政治 (politics n.政治, 政治学, 政纲, 政见) 10 When will ______ be convenient for you to come? it When will it be convenient for you? 什么时候对你来说最方便? ★Lesson 24 It could be worse ★manager n. 经理(用能力, 办事的) boss n. 老板(有钱) head n. 头儿,领导(表示重要,系亲密的人物) ★upset adj. 不安(事发后) nervous adj. 紧张,不安(事发前) ★complain v. 抱怨 ① vi. 抱怨,发牢骚,诉苦(常与of,about连用) complain of/about …(to sb.) 对某人/向某人抱怨…… Don’t complain about/of the weather. I compianed of my salary to my boss. ② vi. 控告,抗议(与of,about连用) The people in that district complained to the police about the noise from that factory. 那家工厂噪音太大,当地的人们已向警方投诉。 Mary complained to the Jacksons about the rubbish they had thrown everywhere. 杰克逊一家乱扔垃圾,玛丽已向他们提出抗议。 ★wicked adj. 很坏的, 邪恶的 ① adj. 邪恶的,坏的(道德上的坏,可用 “evil” 替代) She saw a wiched smile on his face. ② adj. 淘气的,顽皮的(尤指小孩) Don’t be so wicked, Tom. ③ adj.(天气)恶劣的 Few people walked about in this wicked weather. ★contain v. 包含, 内装(强调用容器装) container n. 集装箱,容量 contain v. 用容器装 The cup contains water. = The cup is full of water. The bag contains books. include v. 包含 ★honesty n. 诚实 honest adj. 诚实的 honestly adv. 诚实地 I honestly don’t know. 我真的不知道。 【课文讲解】 1、I entered the hotel manager's office and sat down. the hotel manger’s office 名词可以修饰名词 telephone number 电话号码 the village fair 乡村集市 (the fair of the village = the fair in the village) 2、I had just lost $50 and I felt very upset. lose vt. 遗失,丢失(宾语一般为钱物) Don’t lose your key. feel +形容词一般指心情“觉得……,感觉到……” feel upset 心烦意乱,很苦恼 3、The manager was sympathetic, but he could do nothing. could do nothing= could do nothing about it 对此事无能为力 I could do nothing to help you. 我没有办法帮你, 我无能为力 Can you help me? Sorry,I could do nothing for you. / Certainly. Of couse. It’s my pleasure. 4、'Everyone's losing money these days,' he said. days可以指“时期,时代”,如in his boyhood days(在他的童年时代)。 these days指“现今”用进行时态取代一般现在时, 在英文是一种修辞方法, 表示不满, 一种感情。 5、He started to complain about this wicked world but was interrupted by a knock at the door. start to do sth. = start doing sth. 开始做某事,两者无区别 a knock at the door (敲门声) knock at the door (敲门, 指动作) 6、A girl came in and put an envelope on the desk. =A girl came in with an envelope and put it on the desk. ★Lesson 25 Do the English speak English? railway n. 铁路 railroad 铁路(美) railway/railroad station 火车站 ★several quantifier 几个 several=a number of… 一些,只能修饰可数 several times 许多次(不能说some times) some 一些, 即可以修饰可数, 又可以修饰不可数 a great number of… 大量的 some time 一段时间 some time age 一段时间以前 sometime adv. 某时 I will defeat you sometime. (总有一天我将打败你) sometimes adv. 有时, 偶尔 ★wonder v. 感到奇怪 ① n. 奇迹,奇观,奇才;惊奇,惊讶 Jane is a wonder. She never fails in her examinations. the seven wonders of the world in ancient times 世界古代七大奇观 ② vi.&vt. 感到惊讶,感到诧异,对……事情感奇怪 They wondered that there was a modern building in district. wonder at sth. I wonder at the beauty of the old town. ③ vt.&vi.(对……)感到疑惑/怀疑,想要知道 wonder +if +从句 是否…… I wonder if you have any spare time. wonder +特殊疑问词 +从句 (陈述句) I wonder what time it is. I wonder why you are late. I wondered where you were going. Could you tell me how to get to?/I wondered how to get there. 问路 no wonder 难怪 wonderful adj. 极好的 【课文讲解】 1、Do the English speak English? English这里均为名词,第一个指“英国人”,前面要加the,表示一个群体,后面的动词必须用复数;第二个指“英语”,指语言时前面不加冠词。 The English often talk about the weather. English还可以作形容词,表示“英格兰的,英国的,英国人的”等。 与English相似的单词有French,Chinese,Japanese 等。 2、I arrived in London at last. arrive vi. 到达 arrive at 小地点;arrive in 大地点 When will you arrive? reach vt. 到达……(后面一定要加宾语) When will you reach(arrive in) BeiJing? get to+宾语 到达…… When will you get to BeiJing? How can I get there? home/there 都是副词,副词跟动词连用的时候不需要加介词,arrive 也一样;但一般不用“reach home/there”,如一定要这样写则把“home”看作名词,“there”当代词看, 不作副词看 get home 到家;get there 到那 3、The railway station was big, black and dark. 并列的表达方式中前面都是用逗号隔开, 最后两个用and连接 balck 颜色(建筑物) The room is black. dark 没有光线 It is dark. 4、I did not know the way to my hotel, so I asked a porter. the way to … 通往……路 Can you tell me the way to… I don't know the way to…. Can you tell me how to get there? I don't know the way to the school and where is it? I know the way. know sth. well 对……很熟悉 I know the boy well. 5、I not only spoke English very carefully, but very clearly as well. not only...but...as well= not only…but also… 不但……而且…… I can speak not only Chinese but English as well. Mary not only found her aunt, but stayed with her for two weeks as well. Not only you but also I will go there.主语并列(一般不这么用) not only喜欢放在动词的前面,一般遇到实义动词和非实义动词的时候, 习惯放在两者之间 I can not only speak Chinese but English as well.(更习惯的说法) I not only like my mother but my father as well. as well本身的含义是“也、又、还” If you go home tomorrow, I’ll go as well. He lent me his pen, and his dictionary as well. 6、He answered me, but he spoke neither slowly nor clearly. neither…nor… ……既不,也不…… Neither the boss nor his secretary is flying to New York. 7、My teacher never spoke English like that! like这里是介词,表示“像,像……一样” There’s no one like you. 没有人像你一样。 He speaks like a foreigner. To learn English well is to study hard. 但在口语中 : To learn English well is study hard. (没to) 【Letter Writing】 写信人的地址位于信纸的右上角,被称为“信头”,地址后面总是接写日期 St.是 Steet的缩略 逗号在地址里表示前者属于后者 I am in class 1,Grade 1. 在日期里, 月和日之间不需要逗号,且月和日的顺序可互换,但在年代之前要有逗号,日期是以序数词出现的,月份一定要是英语字母 February the fourth, 1998 =the fourth of February, 1998 Haidian District,(海淀区) BeiJing, China.(最后一个地点要打上句号) 【Key structures】 并列句中的语序 通过并列连词可以把几个简单句连接起来构成一个并列句。在并列句中,各分句要根据上下文的要求按逻辑次序排列,但各分句都同等重要并独立存在。 并列连词可以用来表示另加(and)、对比(but,yet)、选择(or)、连续(and,then)以及结局或结果(so)。however 用在句号的后面, 单独成句, 于前边的句子只有意思上的承接, 没有语法上的承接, 语法上的承接表转折只能用 but 一些并列句的连词:and,and then,but,so,yet,or,not only…but…as well 不但……而且……,neither…nor… 既不……也不……,either…or… 或者……或者……,both…and… 两者都 yet adv. 然而 放在句末或句中, 与否定句, 疑问句相连, 并且与现在完成时用得比较多 Have you finished yet? yet=but 连词,放在两个句子间, 起转折作用 or adv. 或者, 否则 Hurry up ,you will be late. /Hurry up,or you will be late. 当主语由and或 both…and连接, 通常采用复数谓语动词. Both the girl and the boy are his friends. 当主语由 neither...nor,either...or,not only...but also 或 or 连接时,谓语动词与nor,or,but also后面的词一致,在英语语法中,这被称之为“就近原则”,离动词最近的名词是单数, 整个主语就视为单数;离动词最近的名词是复数, 整个主语就视为复数 Neither he nor I am going to the airport. Not only Mary but also her parents have jgone abroad. ★Lesson 26 The best art critics upside down 上下颠倒地(两个同样的音连在一起时, 前面的音声去不读) ★art n. 艺术 art student 艺术系的学生 I am an art student. (注意连读) English student 学英语的学生 student of England 英国学生 art gallery 艺术画廊 (gallery n. 长廊, 游廊;画廊) black art 巫术 artist n. 艺术家 artiste n. 艺人 ★critic n. 评论家 criticise v. 批评, 批判(主要指批判, 但不完全是责备的意思) He criticised my painting. criticism n. 批评, 批判 critical adj. 挑剔的 You are critical. critically adv. 爱挑剔的 ★paint v. 画 draw a picture 用线条画 paint a picture 强调油画 painting n. 画 oil painting 油画 ;Chinese painting 中国国画 Beijing opera 国戏, 京剧 ★pretend v. 假装 pretend to do sth. 假装…… When his mother came in,the baby pretended to go to sleep. pretend that +从句 假装…… ★pattern n. 图案 ① n. 图案 pattern drills ② n. 模式, 典范 ★material n. 材料 listening material 听力材料 ★appreciate v. 鉴赏 = understand and enjoy appreciate sth. 感激…… I appreciate your help. 我很感激你的帮助 appreciate doing sth. 我很喜欢做某事 enjoy v. 欣赏,得到享受,乐趣 I like… I love… I enjoy… I appreciate… (程度一个比一个深) I like sth. I like sth. very much. I like sth. better. I like sth. best. ★notice v. 注意到 ① vt. 注意到,察觉到(不用进行时) You never notice what’s going on around you. notice 细节上的注意, 往往是别人没注意的东西, 你注意到了, 细节上的东西 I notice the beauty spot.(美人痣) pay attention to 思想上的注意 ② n. 注意,察觉 The girl in red caught his notice. ③ n.(书面的)通知,布告,海报 I know there’s a meeting, because someone put up a notice outside the Town Hall. ★whether conj. 是否 if在表示“是否”的时候可以被whether所取代;if在表示“如果”的时候不可以用whether取代 whether…or not =if If it will rain… (不是条件状语从句, 故可以用将来时 will) =Whether it will rain…/Whether it will rain or not…(可以加 “not” ) I wondered if it will rain.(不加 “not” ) ★hang v. 悬挂, 吊 ① vt.&vi(将……)悬挂,吊 A pretty curtain hangs over the window. hang — hung — hung v. 悬挂 The coat was hung. hang — hanged — hanged v. 绞死, 吊死 The thief was hanged. ② vt.&vi 垂下 John was very tired. He sat in a chair and hung (down) his head. ③ vt.&vi安装……使能转动/摆动 Have you hung the door? 你把门装上了吗? ★upside down 上下颠倒地 ① 上下颠倒 When he stands on his head, everything appears upside down to him. ② 乱七八糟,混乱不堪 My little boy always makes the room upside down. These men have made the whole country upside down. 【课文讲解】 1、They are just pretty patterns. just在此处指“只是,仅仅(是)” It was just a wrong number. just另一个意思是“刚才,正好,正是” It’s just six o’clock. I’ve just heard the news. 2、We like them in the same way that we like pretty curtain material. pretty curtain material 漂亮的窗帘布 in the same way that =as… 正如……一样 The son walked in the same way that/as his father walked. I love you in the same way that I love my father. I love you just in the same way that I love money. in a way 以某种方式 3、I think that young children often appreciate modern pictures better than anyone else. else 跟在 anyone,anything 等不定代词的后面,表示“另外/加、其它/他的、不同的”,else 也可跟疑问代词连用,如 who else,what else I can find nothing else here excep an old dictionary. They can appreciate modern arts best. better than anyone else 比其他任何人(表示最高级的含义) 用比较级表示最高级: The teacher is the tallest. The teacher is taller than anyone else. (“else”不能少, 把主语从“anyone”中排除) The book is more expensive than anything else. 4、My sister is only seven, but she always tells me whether my pictures are good or not. 连接词whether…or not可以表示选择: I don’t know whether you are interested (in it) or not. You must help him, whether you like him or not. 不管你是否喜欢他,你(都)必须帮助他。 5、'I'm hanging this picture on the wall,' I answered. the windows in the wall /picture on the wall 注意介词的不同 6、'It's all right,' she said, 'but isn't it upside down?' Isn’t it upside down? =It’s upside down. 否定疑问句,没有否定的意思,起肯定作用,起强调作用,表达一种情绪 Aren't you lucky? 你真幸运 Isn't it a boy? 【Key structures】 一般现在时 一般现在时可以用于表述现在的特征或状态,也经常用于表述经常性的或习惯性的动作,或带有普遍性的情况,频度副词可有可无,一般现在时还用于表示普遍性真理。 和人的情绪相连, 跟人的状态相连, 跟人的思维活动相连的动词都不用进行时态,而用于一般现在时,这些动词是:appear,appreciate,be,believe,feel,find,forget,hear,know,like,look like,notice,remember,resemble,see,think,understand 等等 【Special Difficulties】 Speech marks 引号 在书面语会话中,用引号(单引号或双引号)把实际的对话括起来。引号在英文当中第一次出现是单引号, 第二次出现是双引号, 英文当中的书名号用引号来替代 注意事项 : ① 引号位于一行之上, 它们应在句尾其他标点符号—如逗号、句号、问号—之外. ② 引语的第一个词以大写字母开头. ③ 在said, asked等词后面用逗号, 只有当它们位于句尾时, 才在它们的后面用句号. ④ 当said, asked等词置于引语之间时, 句子的后半部分以小写字母开始. ⑤ 当一个新的说话人开始讲话时, 要另起一个段落. ★Lesson 27 A wet night ★field n. 田地, 田野 in the field 在田野里 in one's field 在……领域 He is an expert in his field. football field 足球场地 airfield 飞机场(介词用on) ★smell (smelled,smelt) v. 闻起来 ① vt. 嗅,闻 I’m smelling the fish to see if it’s all right. 我正在闻这条鱼,看看它是否还新鲜。 I can smell something burning. ② vi. 闻起来有……气味,散发……气味 You smell of soap. 你身上有肥皂味。 smell 系动词, 接表语, 接形容词 The food smelt good. (不能说成 “smell well” , “well” 是副词, 身体好才用 “well” ) taste v. 尝起来 The food smelt good,and it tasted better. sound v. 听起来 feel v. 感到 ① 心理感到 I feel ill. ② 用手的感受 The blackbroad felt cold. 感官动词:look,taste,sound,smell,feel You look fine. You look better. You look beautiful. ③ n. 气味 I can’t stand the smell in this room. ★wonderful adj. 极好的 Great ! (与物相连,口语中用得更多) Excellent ! adj.卓越的, 极好的(与人相连) She is an excellent teacher. Outstanding ! (人) 好得站了出来 Brilliant! adj.灿烂的, 闪耀的, 有才气的 Fantastic! ★campfire n. 营火, 篝火 fire 可数也不可数 (一堆堆的火为可数, 炉子里的火为不可数) ★creep (crept,crept) v. 爬行 (蹑手蹑脚的) 也是平行的爬 creep out 蹑手蹑脚(别人不注意, 偷偷摸摸的) climb v. 爬 climb the tree, climb up or down (上下爬) crawl v. 平行地爬 The baby is crawling on the floor. ★sleeping bag 睡袋 动词加ing 变成形容词作定语有两个意思 : ① 正在…… 如:sleeping dog passing plane 正在路过的飞机 ② 用来做…… 如:leeping bag listening material 听力材料; walking stick 拐杖 ★soundly adv. 香甜地 sleep soundly 睡得很甜 表示睡觉的短语:go to bed 上床/go to sleep 睡觉/fall asleep坠入梦乡(fall为半联系动词)/sleep well睡得很好/sleep deeply 睡得很沉/fall fast asleep 睡得好香(fast asleep 熟睡) ★leap v. 跳跃, 跳起 jump v. 跳 jump up and down 原地跳跃 leap v. 跳跃, 有距离(如从沟的这边跳到另一边, 位置变化) Look before you leap. 三思而后行 leap year/month 闰年/月 skip v. 课文行的跳过去,单词,文章 Let us skip it? ★heavily adv. 大量地 rain/snow heavily 一般与雨雪连用 smoke heavily 烟瘾重 He smokes heavily. ★form v. 形成 ①vi. 形成,产生 During the conversation, an idea formed in his mind. Ice forms when it is cold enough. 如果冷到一定的程度,冰就会形成。 ② n. 形状,外形 The ice cream is made in the form of a ball. ③ n. 表格 If you want to enter for the competition, you must fill in these forms. 如果你想报名参加比赛,你必须填写这些表格。 ★wind (wound;wound) v. 蜿蜒 ① v. 蜿蜒 wind one's way 蜿蜒而行 The road winds its way. ② n. 风;v. 刮风 ★right adv. 正好 right 做副词时强调后边的形容词、副词、介词短语,不强调动词,可用 just来替换 Right here. 就在这儿 “Right here waiting for you” 《在此等候》 I found my lost watch right in the graden. 我就在花园里找到了我丢失的手表 just like 正好; just as 正如 后边加代词时只能用just,如:just you 就是你了,不能用“right”代替 【课文讲解】 汉语与英文只有意义的对等, 没有字的对等 My idea is the same as yours. 我的想法与你一样的 I agree with you.(口语) I think so.(口语) 1、A wet night 英文中表示 “湿” 的词:wet,damp,moist (湿的程度减少) wet adj. 湿淋淋的(反义词是 dry) You are wet. damp adj. 让人感觉不太舒服 moist adj. 潮湿的; n. 潮湿,稍湿(给人感觉舒服,如湿润) moist cake 松软的蛋糕 moist eyes 水灵灵的眼睛 dreamy eyes 梦幻般的眼睛 humid adj. 指气候比较潮湿 2、Late in the afternoon, the boys put up their tent in the middle of a field. late in the afternoon 傍晚 early in the morning 清早 put up =set up 搭建(强调搭,如搭个草棚等) build 建(强调精心设计并且建造) build a car 制造汽车 (一般不用 “make a car” ) make a desk in the middle of 在……当中,在……中间(相对两边,既可以用于表示地理位置,又可以用于表示时间或在某个过程当中) in the middle of the river 河中心 He heard someone shouting in the middle of the night. Mary was in the middle of reading when her aunt arrived. in the center of 在……中心,在……中部/中央(相对四面,一般用于表示地理位置,腹地) 在陆地的腹地用 “center” Alice Spring is a small town in the centre of Australia. 3、As soon as this was done, they cooked a meal over an open fire. open fire 在野外生的火, 篝火,盆火(指无遮盖的、没有围起来的火) cook a meal 做一顿饭 4、After a wonderful meal, they told stories and sang songs by the campfire. 表示“在……之后”的句式:after+从句/doing/n. after I arrived => After my arrival 在我到达之后 when the plane arrived => after the arrival of the plane After his arrival, we have a party. After the arrival of the flowers,I took them and went to my girlfriend's. 在……旁边: at the door 门边, (紧挨着的) sit at the table 桌边 by 在……旁边,靠近 (不会紧挨着的, 但也不会很远,通常指距离非常近) Come and sit by me. There are many trees by the river. next to He sits next to me./who is the next? (表示紧邻着的) the next door to my house(next door 在隔壁) beside = next to 与……相邻 next to /beside the village near 在附近 near the village 5、But some time later it began to rain. some time later 一段时间之后 some time earlier 一段时间之前 some time ago 一段时间以前 a few hours earlier 几小时前 later表示“后来、以后、过后” He told me he would come again later (on). I met her again a few days later. 6、The boys felt tired so they put out the fire and crept into their tent. put out 人为的熄灭火 I put out the fire. be out 火自动熄灭 The fire is out. 7、In the middle of the night, two boys woke up and began shouting. in the middle of the night=midnight at midnight 在午夜 the mid-autumn day 中秋节 wake up 醒来(主语自己醒) wake sb. up 唤醒 开始干某事:begin doing/start doing/begin to do/start to do 8、It was raining heavily and they found that a stream had formed in the field. 如果强调某东西自动形成, 则可以用主动态, 如果强调某东西是人为的, 用被动态,在这里 river formed 河流是自动形成 When I'm getting close to the door,the door opened. (自动门) The door opened. 强调门自动开 The door was opened. 门被打开, 强调人为的 10、The stream wound its way across the field and then flowed right under their tent! wind表示“曲折而行”时,既可以是及物动词,又可以是不及物动词 wound one's way 蜿蜒而行 The car wound through the village. right在此处表示强调,意为“正好、恰恰、就”,这种用法多见于口语中: I met him right here. He hit the man right on the nose. 【Composition】 I am very tall(so)(but)I must be careful. Doorways are often low(and)(but)I usually(beat)(knock)my head against them. My head always(hurts)(pains). I have never(met)(recognized)a tall architect. Have you? so,and,knock,hurts,met doorways n. 门栏 knock/beat:knock 大声地撞;beet 持续的撞击/打 against prep. 相对作用的力 (在政治上叫 “反对” ) hurt/pain:身体的某一部位+hurts,表示某一部疼痛;pain 表示疼痛的名词 My hand hurts./I have a pain in my hand. I have a pain. meet 遇见 / recognize 认出 (原来熟悉再次认出的概念) 【Letter writing】 信头各部分的顺序如下:门牌号码、街名、城市名称、地区、国家和日期。只有给居住在国外的人写信时,才需要写上国名。 地址的每一行都以逗号结尾,最后一行用句号。在日期后面不用标点符号。 【Special Difficulties】 与put有关的短语动词: put up with 容忍,忍受 I can’t believe that he can put up with this. put up ① 搭建,搭建; They put up their tent in the middle of a field. ② 安排住宿,为……提供膳宿,夜宿 It’s raining heavily. We must put them up tonight. 雨下得很大,我们今晚必须为他们安排住宿。 put out 扑灭 They put out the fire and crept into their tent. put on 穿上 I’m putting on my coat. put away 把……收好,放好 Your room is untidy, put your things away. I have put away all my clothes. put off 推迟,拖延 Don’t put your exercises off until tomorrow. The meeting has been put off. put down = write down 记下,写下,记录下 Have you put down the boss’s words? 【Multiple Choice】 6 They sang songs by the campfire. They sang songs ___b___ the campfire. a. close b. near c. besides d. at beside 在……旁边; besides 除……之外 close to 离……很近(必须要有 “to” ) close to me 离我很近 my closest friends 我最亲密的朋友 9 The boys had put out the campfire. The fire wasn't ___d___ . a. switched on b. on fire c. on d. alight be on 上演, 亮着的(一般指灯亮着的) What's on in the cinema today? The lights were on last night. switch n. 开关;v. 用开关 The light was switched on. 强调通过开关打开的 on fire 起火 The house is on fire. 房子起火了 alight以a开头的形容词为表语形容词 The fire was out. 火熄灭了 ★Lesson 28 No parking ★rare adj. 罕见的 ① adj. 罕见的 rare 指世界上都少有 rare animal 稀有动物;rare bird 珍稀鸟类;rare illness 疑难杂症 scarce[ ] adj. 缺乏的,不足的,稀有的,不充足的(少有的,表示某个时间段或某个地方少有) Watermelon is scarce in winter. (watermelon n. 西瓜) ② adj. 几乎是生的 well done 全熟 medium adj. 半生半熟的 ★ancient adj. 古代的, 古老的 ancient Egypt 古埃及 antique adj. 古代的,古玩,古董,古老而有价值的 antique furniture 古董家具 ★myth n. 神话故事 fairy n. 神仙故事 ★trouble n. 麻烦 ① n. 麻烦 I'm sorry to put you in trouble. 我很抱歉给你带来麻烦(口语) ask for trouble 自找麻烦 He is asking for trouble. have trouble in doing sth. 在做……时遇到麻烦(书面语) I have trouble (in) parking the car. =I have a lot of trouble parking the car. ② v. 麻烦 Woman/Man/Child troubles. 女人/男人/孩子真麻烦。 Never trouble troubles until troubles trouble you. 永远不要自寻烦恼 Let sleeping dog lie. 不要自找麻烦 (let sb. do sth.) ★effect n. 结果, 效果 have an effect 有效果 have no effect 没有效果 have effect on 对……有效果 The advice has no effect on me. 【课文讲解】 1、Jasper White is one of those rare people who believe in ancient myths. one of +名词/代词 其中之一(of后面的名词必须是复数,但与这个结构连用的动词必须是单数) One of your friends is waiting for you now. 如果在定语从句中出现了one of作为先行词, 它后边的关系代词指代的是后面的复数名词;如果在 one of前面还有一修饰词 (the) only,那么后边的关系代词将指代one这个词, 才作单数看 He is the only one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. one of 直接作主语的时候, 它是做单数看待的 One of the answers is ture. One of those people is good. believe vt. 相信,认为 Do you believe that cats eat grass? believe in 信任,信赖(人格、力量等);信仰;相信……的存在,相信……的价值 I believe in God. 我信仰上帝。 I’ve never believed in John. 2、He has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owners. ever since =since 从那以后一直(ever since的语气比since强,主句一般用完成时) I’ve been interested in flying ever since I was a boy. He left the village last year and has never returned ever since. have trouble doing 做……有麻烦 have trouble with sb. 和某人相处有麻烦 I have trouble with my roommate. 3、Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once. because只能作连词用,后面接从句 You can’t remember his name, because you aren’t really thinking. because of 由于,介词短语,后面不可以跟从句,只能跟名词、代词或动词 “-ing” He came back early because of the rain. be able to 的主语一般都是人, 表示有能力去做;can表示天生的或学到的能力时,只能用于现在时和过去时(could),而不可用于将来时。将来时中表示能力时必须用be able to。在现在时和过去时中,can/could与be able to一般可以互换,在完成时中一般用be able to。 Tom is only 9 months old and he is already able to stand up. I’ll be able to pass my driving test after I’ve had a few ★Lessons. get sth. into 把……弄进 get his car into his garage drive the car into 把车子撞上…… I drove the car into the wall /tree. even once 甚至一次(even 起强调) 4、It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. “I have ever seen”最高级的标志 做定语从句, 修饰前边的faces 如果关系词在从句中做宾语, 关系词可以省略, 所以 I 前的which被省略 This is the most difficult thing I have ever done. This is the most terrible news I have ever heard. 有两个结构一定用最高级: of+范围 of all the students in+地点 He is the tallest in the room. 5、Jasper hopes that she will turn cars and their owners to stone. hope 的后面加that从句 turn sth. to… 把前者变成后者 turn the prince to a frog He was turned to a frog. They have turned the famous beauty spot to/into an ugly place. 6、But none of them has been turned to stone yet! none of,neither of做主语时做单数看待 【Composition】 My wife (drives) (leads) a car. She has (driven) (ridden) a car for many years (and) (but) she says that women drivers (do not deserve) (are not worth) their bad reputation. Yet, on the road, she often (criticizes) (judges) other women drivers. drives/driven/and/do not deserve/criticizes reputation n.名誉, 名声 judge n.法官, 审判员, 裁判员, 鉴赏家, 鉴定人, (J-)最高的审判者 vt.审理, 鉴定, 判断, 判决, 断定, 认为 vi.下判断, 作评价 【Key structures】 Wht has happened? 现在完成时 与现在完成时连用的副词和副词短语:before(now),so far,up to/till now,just,already,now,ever,never,since和for 等,since一般与一个时间点连用,for一般与时间段连用。 【Special Difficulties】 关系从句及关系代词 关系从句又可称为定语从句或形容词从句,它像形容词一样可以形容人、物及事件。关系从句可分为限定性关系从句(不带逗号)和非限定性关系从句(带逗号)。 表示人的关系代词:who,whom,that,whose(口语中whom经常由who代替) 表示事物和动物的关系代词:which,that 关系代词可以有四个概念 : ① 代人的, 做主语或宾语who,只做宾语的whom ② 代物的, 做主语或宾语 which ③ 代人的也可以代物的 做主语或宾语 that ④ whose其代表的东西由其在句子中的成分决定(不一定指人) 关系代词后面要加从句,先行词放在定语从句前面, 而且是两句话共同含有的词, 还是被定语从句修饰的词 I have a book that/which he likes.( “book” 为先行词 “that/which” 为关系代词) 关系代词有两个功能 : 一是承上, 一是启下(如上句中的 “book” 作从句的宾语) The boy who is standing at the door is my brother. I can do anything that I can do. 我愿意做我力所能及的事情来帮助你 The boat whose name is... I have a house whose windows are broken. 我有一个房子, 房子的窗户都破了. 关系代词在关系从句中作宾语时往往可以省略,作主语时则不可以。 The millionaire whose son ran away from home a week ago is not a kink father. whose 后面一定要加一个名词, 然后这个部分共同做主语或宾语 The boy whose sister is standing at the door is my brother. 妹妹站在门口的男孩是我弟弟 The pilot whose plane landed in a field was not hurt. 把飞机降落在田里的飞行员没有受伤 He is the right person I am looking for. Exersise(在需要的地方填上who, which, that或whose) 1 The only games ______ I play are football and tennis. 不填 (如果要填只能是 that, 在从句中作宾语可省略) 先行词如果用only, 序数词, 形容词最高级修饰, 其后边的关系词只用that 4 This is the hotel at ______ we are staying. which 句中的 “at” 原来在 “staying” 的后边 介词后加物的话, 只加which,加人的话, 用whom, 都不可用that,who也不能 She is the girl who/whom/that I stayed with. (句中 “who/whom/that” 可省略) She is the girl with whom I stayed. That is the house in which I live. 6 That is the horse ______ won the race. which 选which , 不能用that,句子中用词避免重复, 句首已有了一个 “that” , 故选 “which” 而不是 “that” Who is the man that is helping you? 谁是那个正在帮助你的人?(不用“who”避免重复) 7 He is the sort of person ______ everyone admires. 不填 person 是先行词, 在从句中做宾语 ★Lesson 29 Taxi! ★taxi n. 出租汽车 taxi driver 出租车司机 take a taxi,take a bus,take a lift ★land vi. 着陆 Whose plane landed in the field? ★plough v. 耕地 plough n. 梨;v. 耕, 犁, 犁耕, 费力穿过, 艰苦前进, 在考试中淘汰 farm n. 农田,家场 ★lonely adj. 偏僻的, 人迹罕见的(地方) lonely adj. 孤独的, 孤僻的(人) She felt lonely. 她感到孤独(主观) alone adj. 单独的, 独一无二的, 孤独的, 独自的;adv. 独自地 She is alone. 她独自一个人(事实, 客观) ★roof n. 楼顶(从外面看) raise the roof v. 喧闹, 大声抱怨 ceiling n. 天花板(从里面看) hit the ceiling 勃然大怒, 暴跳如雷, 怒发冲冠(美口语) ★block n. 块, 一座大楼 ★flat n. 公寓房 a block of flats 公寓楼 (英国英语) a block of apartments 公寓楼(美语,apartment n. 公寓) office block 办公楼 写字楼 ★desert v. 废弃 ①v. 废弃 desert the house = let the room empty ②n. 沙漠, 不毛之地 【课文讲解】 1、The 'taxi' is a small Swiss aeroplane called a 'Pilatus Porter'. called a ‘Pilatus Porter’是过去分词短语,作aeroplane的定语。一般过去分词短语作定语时要放在所修饰的名词/代词之后,而一个单独的分词作定语时则往往放在所修饰的名词/代词前面。 He landed in a deserted car park. a race across the Atlantic call sb. sth. 叫某人…… be called 被称为…… The instrument was called a clavichord. 过去分词做定语时是作为被动状态来翻译的 I have an instrument called a clavichord. a ploughed field 被耕过的田; a deserted car park 被废弃的车场 written English 书面语 ;spoken English 口语 colloquial language 口语 2、The most surprising thing about it, however, is that it can land anywhere: on snow, water, or even on a ploughed field. that 从句在此处是表语从句。宾语从句中的that可省略;定语从句中的关系词在从句中做宾语时可以省略。 The most surprising thing is that… (surprising 可以由其它词替换) The most exciting thing is that we can win the football match. The happiest thing is that I can visit/see/(stay with) mother during the Spring Festival. (the Spring Festival 春节) To one’s surprise, … 3、Since then, Captain Fawcett has flown passengers to many unusual places. since then 从那时起(强调起点) so far =up to now 强调终点 ★fly ① vi. 飞,飞行 The aeroplane is flying over the river. ② vt. 空运(乘客) fly sb./sth. To… 开飞机送某人/物去…… He has flown his car to France. drive sb. to… 开车送某人去…… My friend drove me to Tianjin. 4、Once he landed on the roof of a block of flats and on another occasion, he landed in a deserted car park. once…and on another occasion 一次……还有一次…… Once I met him on the street and on another occasion I met him in the library. 5、Captain Fawcett has just refused a strange request from a businessman. request from sb. 来自某人的请求 request for sth. 要求得到 6、The man wanted to fly to Rockall, a lonely island in the Atlantic Ocean, but Captain Fawcett did not take him because the trip was too dangerous. take sb. to … 送某人…… too 在副词或形容词前表示否定含义,强调程度大到了人们不愿去做 too expensive 太贵了(买不起) very 强调程度深 You are very kind. very expensive 很贵,但买得起 dangerous adj. 危险的 【Composition】 The plane (not only) (neither) (flew) (threw) close to the river, (but) (or) also flew under a bridge. (Then) (However) it (climbed) (ran) into the air. The people on the bridge (waved) (shook) to the pilot (and) (yet) he did not (notice) (look after) them. not only,flew,but,Then,climbed(ran也对, 但没有climb表达更确切),waved,yet,notice 【Key structures】 一般过去时和现在完成时 一般过去时往往强调动作本身,而现在完成时则表示始于过去并持续到现在的动作或表示过去不确定的时间发生过的并与现在有某种联系的动作。 I hope you washed them before you ate them. Up till now, I have never been abroad before. 【Special Difficulties】 Refuse and Deny refuse to do sth. 拒绝做某事 I offered to pay him for his help but he refused (payment). deny doing sth. / deny that +从句 否认(指控、做过某事等) The secretary denies that she has stolen the letter. 当refuse 作为及物/不及物动词表示“ 拒绝接受 ”时,不可与 deny混用;当 refuse作为及物动词表示“ 拒绝给予、拒绝要求”时,它与deny可以互相替换。 All those not holding tickets will be refused /denied entry. 无票者不得入内。 Bring,Take与Fetch bring v. 从某处将某物“带来”,离说话人越来越近 He brought the book with him when he came to see me. take v. 拿走,离说话人越来越远 He took the book with him when he left. fetch v. 去某地将某物“取来”,是个双程动作,去了再来(双向动作) Please fetch me a glass of water. Very and Too very adv. 很,非常(very描述状况,不涉及后果) I arrived very late but I caught the train. too adv. 太,过于(too表示“太……”,以至于引起某种后果) I arrived too late and I missed the train. ★Lesson 30 Football or polo? ★cut v. 穿过 ① vt. &vi. 切,割,剪 Would you please cut the cake in half? I read this story in the paper this morning and cut it out for you. 今天上午我在报纸上读到这个故事便给你剪下来了。 cut one's hair = have a hair cut 理发 cut the tree 砍树 cut down the tree = cut the tree down 砍倒树 cut the head off 砍脑袋 (off = away from) cut off electricity 切断电源 cut sth. into pieces 把……切成小片(碎) ② vt. 割破,划破 cut oneself 割伤自己 ③ vi. 横穿,穿越(介词用across/through) cut across/through 直着穿过 The road cuts across/through the forest. cut a corner 走捷径,超近路 When you learn English, never cut a corner. No pains, no gains. ★row v. 划(船) ① vt.& vi. 划船 My brother is rowing. 划船 (row 强调动作) go boating 去划船(强调玩) ② vt. 划船载运 Can you row me up/across the river? 你能划船将我送到河的上游/对岸吗? He rowed her home. 他划船把她送回家。 ★kick v. 踢 kick me 踢我一脚 kickback n. 回扣, 佣金 I get a kickback of 2000 Yuan. kick upstairs 明升暗降 He was kicked upstairs. well to go (美语) = well done (英语) 做得不错 ★sight n. 眼界, 视域 catch sight of… 看见 catch sight of the bird =see the bird 看见那只鸟 out of sight 在视线之外 Out of sight, out of mind. 眼不见心不烦 in sight 在视线之内 The bird is in sight. long sighted 眼光长远, 远视眼 sb. is long sighted short sighted 目光短浅, 近视 【课文讲解】 1、I like sitting by the Wayle on fine afternoons. like to do sth. 喜欢……(一次性的) I like to drink tea. like doing sth. 喜欢……(习惯性的) I like drinking water. on afternoons 餐 每逢下午 2、It was warm last Sunday, so I went and sat on the river bank as usual. as usual 和往常一样 3、Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat, but he did not hear them. call out 大声呼叫,叫喊 I heard someone calling out for help. call out to sb. 对……大声喊 Mary called out to her father, but he was too far away and couldn’t hear her. 4、The ball struck him so hard that he nearly fell into the water. so…that… 如此……以致于…… (that 引导的结果状语从句) The teacher speaks so fast that I can't catch the word. My brother walks so slowly that he can't catch up with me. (赶不上) The English is so easy that I can learn it well. so的后面跟副词或形容词, 如后跟名词时要用 such +n. +that… 5、I turned to look at the children, but there weren't any in sight: they had all run away! in sight 看得见,在视野之内(反义词为out of sight) There were not anything in sight. No bus is in sight. In the afternoon, we came in sight of the village. 【Composition】 The wind(threw)(blew)his hat into the river. He(put)(took)out his hand (and) (but)tried to (reach)(catch)it(so)(but) he could not(so) (but) he(jumped) (fell) into the river(and)(but) got it. blew 吹 ,take out 拿出(put out 扑灭), and,reach够得着(catch 接住 抓住), but,so,jump 自己跳 (fall 掉进去),and 【Summary writing 】 4.The man in the boat neither saw the ball nor heard people shouting. 6.However,the man was not angry and he threw the ball back to the bank. but 连接两个句子, 中间可用逗号隔开;however只是副词, 只表示意思上得转折, 它可以放在句首也可以放在句中, 只是用一个逗号把它和其他的词隔开就可以 【Key structures】 The, Some and Any some不用于否定句,any通常用于否定句和疑问句,some在表示邀请的语气中或在疑问句中如果所期望的回答是肯定的,可以取代any Do you want some? / Would you want something? Do you want any drink? 你想要喝点什么吗?(不愿意给别人喝) Would you want some to drink? 在姓名、地名、国名(非复合词)前面通常不加任何冠词。但在特指的海洋、河流、山脉以及部分复合词形式的国名前,一定要用定冠词the;在表示世界上独一无二的东西时,通常要加定冠词the. It can get very rough in the Mediterranean. 地中海中可能会非常不平静. Many great cities are built on rivers. Paris is on the Seine, London is on the Thames and Rome is on the Tiber. 许多大城市都建在河岸上. 巴黎在塞纳河上, 伦敦在泰晤士河上, 罗马在第伯尔河上. I know a man who has been on climbing expeditions in many parts of the world. He has climbed in the Alps, the Himalayas, and the Rocky Mountains. 我认识一个参加过世界各地登山探险的人. 他曾攀登过阿尔卑斯山、喜马拉雅山和洛矶山. 在such后面用a/an,可以起强调作用 I’ve never seen such a strong wind before. Exercises D (在必要的地方填上冠词a或the) 1 ______ refrigerators are necessary in ______ hot countries. 2 Which river is ______ longest, ______ Nile, ______ Amazon, or ______ Mississippi? 3 Heyerdahl crossed ______ Pacific on ______ raft. 4 Why is ______ Britain sometimes called ______ United Kingdom? 5 We sailed up ______ Red Sea and then went through ______ Suez Canal. 1.不填 in hot countries: 指的是炎热的那类国家, 故不用 the 2. the,the,the,the Nile 尼罗河 ; Amazon 亚马逊河 ; Missisippi 密西西比河 3.the,a the Atlantic 大西洋 raft n. 木筏子(如用 by,则不用加任何修饰by raft,用“on,in”一般都要加“the,a/an”,这里指的是这一类,没特指,故加“a”) 4. \,the 如果以单个的词作为国家, 基本上不加 the,比方说 China,America,Britain,一旦这个词成为缩略形式, 前面就要加the,如:the USA 5.the,the 横渡海峡用“across”;和运河相连介词用 through,不用 “across” ★Lesson 31 Success story ★retire v. 退休 retire =stop working =stop doing this He is getting old, He is going to retire. 他越来越老, 他打算退休了 I'm going to retire next year. 我明年会退出影坛或歌坛 I'm so tired that I'm going to retire now. (retire = go to bed) ★company n. 公司 firm n. 商行 corporation n. 责任公司 limited corporation 有限责任公司(缩略形式:Ltd.Co) business n. 生意,公司 He works in my business. 他在我的公司工作 ★save vt. 积蓄 ① vt. 挽救,救助,拯救 save one's life The doctor saved the child’s life. They saved the child from the fire. save one's face 挽会面子 ② vt. 积蓄,储蓄 He used to save letters. save money 存钱 He saved (money) for years to buy a car. 西方人不喜欢提钱, 所以用 save up 表示存钱 I have saved up for many years. 我已经存了好几年的钱 Save it for a rainy day. 未雨绸缪, 为将来需要而做好准备 ★workshop n. 车间 workshop n. 车间(工作并且可以拿出来卖) workhouse n. 感化院(强迫劳动的地方) ★helper n. 帮手, 助手 assistant n. 助理 ★employ v. 雇佣 employee n. 雇员 ;employer n. 雇主 trainer n. 教练 ;trainee n. 接受训练的人 【课文讲解】 1、Before he retired, Frank was the head of a very large business company, but as a boy he used to work in a small shop. head是“首领、头目”的意思,“the head of+名词”的意思是“……的老板,头” John is the head of the family. 一家之主 Frank is the head of the firm. 弗兰克是那家公司的总裁。 used to do sth. 过去常常, 但是现在不做 My teacher used to live there. 我的老师过去住在那(现在不住了) He lived there. 他过去住在那(不知道现在是否住在那) work…as… 作为……工作 He used to work as a teacher. as a boy = as he was a boy (as的意思是“当……的时候”) as a young man 当他年轻的时候 2、It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours a day. at that time =just then =at that moment 那时 3、He saved money for years and in 1958 he bought a small workshop of his own. of one's own 自己的,属于自己的(own为代词) Do you have a house of your own? my own book (own 起强调作用, 自己的) 用of one's own 或 one's own 由被修饰词的位置决定, 如果被修饰名词在前边, 用of one's own, 如果被修饰名词在后边, 用one's own 4、In his twenties Frank used to make spare parts for aeroplanes. in one's -ies 在某人几十岁的时候 in one's twenties/thirties/forties/fifties/nineties,十的倍数的复数形式可用于表达近似的、非确定的数量,与所有格形容词连用时表示大约的年龄。 in my fifties 在我五十多岁的时候 In his fifties, he learned the second language. in the 1980s 在二十世纪八十年代 I worked /began the job in the 1990s. 5、In a few years the small workshop had become a large factory which employed seven hundred and twenty-eight people. has become 成长为…… in a few years 在一些年之后 …factory which employed… 工厂雇佣……(除了人可以雇佣外,工厂、公司也可以这样表达) 6、Frank smiled when he remembered his hard early years and the long road to success. one’s hard early years =early in one’s life 某人的早年艰辛(生活) the long road to success 通往成功的长路 There is a long way to go. 还有很长的路要走。 remember v. 记得, 回忆起 memory n. 记忆 ;memorize v. 记住 【Key structures】 过去进行时与一般过去时 过去进行时表示过去某个时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作,和一般过去时经常在一个句子里使用。与一般过去时相比,它更强调动作的持续性,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。在叙述故事时,过去进行时往往用来表示背景。 When I was watering the garden, it began to rain. As I was getting on the bus, I slipped and hurt my foot. used to do used to do 表示过去有过但现在已不存在的习惯,以便将过去与现在形成对照。它后面经常用由 but now…,but not…any more/any longer等构成的、用了一般现在时的句子以强调过去和现在的不同之处。 I used to smoke, but I don’t any more/longer. He used to be a postman a long time ago. He's a taxi driver now. 很久以前他曾是个邮递员, 现在他是个出租车司机. I have given up smoking. I used to smoke very heavily. 我已经戒烟了, 过去我吸烟很厉害. I used to collect stamps when I was a boy. 当我还是个小男孩时, 我常搜集邮票. used to仅用于一般过去。它的疑问句和否定句形式可以不用助动词 do而用used本身。 Used he to smoke? He usedn’t /used not to smoke. 但比较常用的形式是did和didn’t Did he use to smoke? He didn’t use to smoke. 在针对used to提问时,一般也用did: I used to be a good swimmer. Did you really? I didn’t even know you could swim. 【Special Difficulties】 Experience ① n. 经历(可数名词) He told me about his experiences as a young man. n. ②经验(不可数名词) They want someone with a lot of experience for this job. Does she have any experience in teaching? vt. ③经验,体验 The village has experienced great changes since 1980. experienced adj. 有经验的,经验丰富的 John is an experienced driver. Save vt.& vi. ①救助,搭救,拯救 save one's life 挽救某人的生命 The doctor saved the child’s life. save one's face 挽回面子 vt.& vi. ②储蓄,积攒 / earn a lot of money /mortgage/loan save money 存钱(多余的钱) He saved (money) for years to buy a car. save it for a rainy day 未雨绸缪 economize v.经济,节省(能不用的就不用,节衣缩食) Work and Job work和job都翻译为“工作”,job为可数名词,一般与“职业、职位”有关,或表示某人的“份内事”;work 作“工作”讲时是不可数名词,常指具体的“劳动、作业”或“(待做的)工作或事务”等,也可能表示“上班”。 John is looking for a new job. I’m looking for work as a driver. I am looking for a new job. It was his job to repair bicycles. 【Composition】 Frank (not only) (neither) (repaired) (made)his grandson's bicycle, (but)(also)went for a ride on it(as well)(both). He (said)(told)me later:‘I(make)(do)aeroplanes, (and) (but) I prefer bicycles.’ not only / repaired / but /as well / told /make/ but go for a ride/go for a walk 骑车出去/出去散步 ride a car/bicycle/horse go for a ride on sth (对自行车只能用 “on” ) 出去骑车 prefer vt.更喜欢, 宁愿 ★Lesson 32 Shopping made easy 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(6) once adv. 曾经,以前 temptation n. 诱惑 article n. 物品,东西 wrap v. 包裹 simply adv. 仅仅 arrest v. 逮捕 ★once adj. 曾经, 以前 once = ①long long ago 很久以前 once ② 一次 I visited my mother once a month. (一次) ③once 连接从句,表示“一旦” Once you leave my company, you must return the house. ★temptation n 诱惑 temptation to do sth. ……的诱惑 temptation to steal 偷窃的诱惑 resist the temptation to do sth. 抵抗不了……的诱惑 (resist vt. 抵抗, 反抗, 抗, 忍得住) I can't resist the temptation to laugh. ★article n. 物品, 东西 ① n. 文章 This is a good article. ② n. 物品, 东西(强调的是商店里的一个一个的东西, 是可数名词, 单独的东西, 独立的个体) thing n. 指任何的东西(和article不可相互取代) cargo n. 船货, (车、船、飞机等运输的)货物 goods n. 货物, 商店里的货物的总称 ★wrap v. 包裹 wrap sth. up 把……打包 Please wrap them (up) for me. 请替我把他们包好 pack v. 打包(指为了携带, 运输的方便而打包) I will take/get/have it. Please wrap them for me. / Please pack them for me. ★simply adv. 仅仅 simply = only = just ★arrest v. 逮捕 ① vt. 逮捕,扣留 When she was arrested, she refused to say anything. The criminal was arrested. (criminal n. 罪犯, 犯罪者;adj. 犯罪的, 犯法的, 罪恶的) ② n. 逮捕,扣留 sb. be under arrest 某人被逮捕 Tony is under arrest now. control/under control 控制/被控制 ③ vt. 吸引(注意等) arrest one's attention 吸引某人的注意 The beauty of the woods arrested the tourists. 树林的美丽景色吸引了游客。 He was arrested by her words. 她的话吸引了他。 【课文讲解】 1、shopping made easy made 为过去分词, 有 “被” 的意思(标题不用句子, 所以标题省略 be) make v. 制造;使……怎么样 make the room clean make shopping easy =Shopping be made easy.(句子) 2、People are not so honest as they once were. as…as… 和……一样(as+ adj./adv. +as +比较对象) This case is as light as that one. It is as heavy as that one. 这个东西和那个东西一样重 as…as…的否定形式是not so…as…/not as…as… It is not as heavy as that one. 这个东西不如那个东西重 I am taller than you/you are not as tall as I. less +原级 +than=not as…as…=not so…as… 不如……那样……(比较状语从句) I am not so lucky as those fisherman. once表示“以前,曾经”时只能与动词的过去式连用: He once worked at a large company. 3、The temptation to steal is greater than ever before--especially in large shops. the temptation to steal 偷窃的诱惑力 The temptation to smoke is strong for him. (to smoke为不定式) 要表现现在与过去的比较, 有两种方式 : ① they are 与 they were 或 it is /it was等在用不同时态比 they are 与 they were 在用不同时态比 You are more beautiful than you were. 你比过去漂亮多了 You look better than you were. (省略句 : You look better.) Is this your car? It was my car. 以前是我的车子。 You were worse. (表示You are better.你过去更差劲, 表示现在比以前更好了) I think 我想…… I thought 我原以为…… ② 用短语than ever before People are not so honest as before. = People are not so honest as they once were. 4、A detective recently watched a well-dressed woman who always went into a large store on Monday mornings. watch v. 观察, 监视; 当心(口语中) watch the enemy watch sth. 当心 Watch your head! (威胁) “well+动词的过去分词”组成复合形容词,做定语 well-designed 设计得不错 well-educated 有教养的 5、One Monday, there were fewer people in the shop than usual when the woman came in, so it was easier for the detective to watch her. as usual 象平常 ;than usual 比平常 so it was easier for the detective to watch her. (句中用“easier”有潜在的比较含义,it 是形式主语,for sb.中的sb.是逻辑主语 It be动词+形容词+for sb. to do sth. 对某人来说做什么事…… The teacher bought a lot of dresses to make her more beautiful. (更漂亮, 不用 “more” 时会让人产生误会,用more是表示对别人的尊重) out of politeness 出于礼貌 (politeness n. 有礼, 优雅) 6、After a little time, she chose one of the most expensive dresses in the shop and handed it to an assistant who wrapped it up for her as quickly as possible. after a little time 过了一会儿 hand…to… 递给(比较有权威的人) handed it to an assistant (前一个以 “o” 结尾, 后一个以 “元音” 开头的, 读时需再在它们之间加一个[ ]音, 又如:my heart go on.) pass sth. to sb. 一个一个的传递(更常用) hand in 上交 wrap sth. up for sb. 为某人打包…… as … as possible 尽可能…… I have sent you as many books as possible. He went home as soon as possible. 7、When she was arrested, the detective found out that the shop assistant was her daughter. find out 发现……(后跟的宾语一般是抽象的) find out the truth 发现真相 find sth. 找到……(sth. 是看得见, 模得着的, 具体的) I find the pen. (pen是具体的) 8、The girl 'gave' her mother a free dress once a week ! free adj. 免费的 Children under five years old travel free. 5岁以下儿童免费旅行。 fee adj. 交费 fee parking 收费的停车场 “once a +表示时间的名词”可以表示频率: He comes to the office once a day. 【Key structures】 比较状语从句 比较状语从句含有或暗含有“与……相比”的意思。除了 than…或 more…than…这种结构外,它还包括as+形容词/副词+as…,not so/as…as…,less…than…等结构。当句子里两个动词相同、时态也一样时,则第二个动词可以省略,比较从句就成了含蓄的从句。如果对比的东西很明显,那么为了避免重复,从句中有些成分、甚至整个从句都省略,因此这类句子往往不完整。 People aren’t so kind as they used to be. No, they’re becoming less kind. 是的,他们变得不那么友善了。 He is as quick in answering as his sister (is). He answers as quickly as his sister (does). He is not so/as quick as his sister. little和few的用法 little和a little与不可数名词一起使用。little表示否定,有“几乎一点儿也没有”的含义,在口语中常用 not much;a little表示肯定,具有some的含义。 He has (very) little hope of winning this race. =He hasn’t much hope of winning this race. Have we got any bread? Yes, there’s a little/some in the fridge. few和a few与复数可数名词连用。few表示否定,与little相似,在口语中多用not many;a few表示肯定,有some的含义。 They had few guests last weekend. They didn’t have many guests last weekend. little的比较级为less,few的比较级为fewer。 During the holiday, there is less noise in the building. There are fewer travelers than there usually are. 【Special Difficulties】 A and One 不定冠词a通常用于表示不确定的人或事物以及第一次提到的人或事物,a强调的是后面的名词; one强调的是 “一个” 的意思: It was one apple I ate, not two. There is a book and a pen on the desk. 不表示强调时,a和one有时可以互换: She will come home in a/one week’s time. 叙述故事时常将one+表示时间的名词用于句首,而不用 a: One Monday, he went to the office as usual. ★Lesson 33 Out of the darkness ★darkness n. 黑暗 in the darkness 在黑暗中(在没有光线的情况下) ★explain v. 解释, 叙述 explanation n. 解释 Could you give me an explanation? 能给我一个解释吗? interpret v. 解释, (强调翻译)语言之间的解释 interpreter n. 解释程序,解释者,口译人员,翻译员,讲解员 interpretation n. 解释, 阐明, 口译, 通译 interpretress n. 女翻译员 ★coast n. 海岸(地理意义上的海岸, 海岸线等, 感觉旁边是岩石, 很陡峭 seashore n. 海岸(跟游玩有关系, 为了游玩的) seaside n. 海边 seashore/ seaside 给人的感觉是旁边是沙滩, 可以进行日光浴的感觉 bank n. 河岸,坝,堤(两边比水面高) ★storm n. 暴风雨 (只解释为“风暴”) snowstorm n. 暴风雪 thunderstorm n. [气]雷暴,雷雨 rain heavily 表示雨下得很大 pour v. 灌注, 倾泻, 涌入, 流, 倾盆大雨 The rain is pouring. 倾盆大雨 It's raining cats and dogs. 滂沱大雨 ★towards prep. 向, 朝, 接近 towards 强调nearer and nearer(强调越来越近) ★rock n. 岩石, 礁石 rock 表示huge stone (huge adj 巨大的, 极大的, 无限的) ★ahead adv. 在前面 a开头的词(asleep,awake,alive,ahead,alight…)往往是表语形容词。不管是作表语形容词,还是副词,都放在名词的后面,一般形容词放在名词的前面 ahead 的用法: ① 放在被修饰词的后面作定语, 定语后置 light ahead 前方的灯光 ② ahead of… 在……前面 He went ahead of me. 他走在我前面 ③ go ahead 朝前走;请随便(回答请求时用) --Would you mind my using your telephone? / Can I use your telephone? --Ok, go ahead. --Can I smoke here? --Go ahead. /Sorry +一个原因(可能是事实, 可能是个借口) ★hospital v. 医院 hospital 前面是否加 the,和它的功能有关系,一旦+the, 只表示地点 go to hospital 看病 ; go to the hospital 去医院(看望病人) in hospital 住院 ; in the hospital 在医院 【课文讲解】 1、Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what had happened to her. nearly adv. 将近 nearly a week 快一个星期了 “一段时间以后”句型: sometime later… Three days later, my mother returned. (强调某人做某事,简单句) Three days passed and then my mother returned. 并列句, 既强调某人做某事, 又强调时间(有多久) …passed before… Three days passed before my mother returned. 强调时间(这么久的时间, 时间状语从句, 后面是从句) be able to强调有能力, 且能够成功(还强调成功);can 只表示能力 I can swim across the river. 我能游过这条河(但没有游过,不知道能不能成功) I was able to swim across the river. 2、One afternoon she set out from the coast in a small boat and was caught in a storm. set out = set off = begin a journey 出发 set out from… 从……出发 be caught in+灾难 (突然)遇到/上(风暴等) be caught in a earthquake (earthquake n. 地震) I was caught in a rain. 我遇上了一场雨 As soon as he left, it began to rain. He was caught in a rain when he left. 他刚一离开, 就下雨了 遇上人用meet, 遇上灾难用be caught in… 3、Towards evening, the boat struck a rock and the girl jumped into the sea. towards evening 天越来越晚 strike 强调的往往是猛烈的撞击 4、Then she swam to the shore after spending the whole night in the water. “to”强调朝那个方向去, 但没有强调越来越近;“towards”朝那个方向去,强调距离越来越近 5、During that time she covered a distance of eight miles. cover可笼统地表示“行过(一段路程)”,根据上下文可具体译为“走过、飞过、游过”等。 The bird covered the distance in three minutes. a distance of+具体长度 多长的距离,表示具体的距离 the red army covered a distance of 25000… 两万五千里长征 6、Early next morning, she saw a light ahead. a light ahead 前方的一盏灯(ahead 放在被修饰词的后面) 7、On arriving at the shore, the girl struggled up the cliff towards the light she had seen. “on +动名词”相当于一个由as soon as=the moment或when引导的时间状语从句,as soon as=the moment后面要加句子,on 后面一定要加动词ing, 承认动词是由主句主语做的 On reaching the airport, he was arrested by the police. “…up the cliff towards the…”用两个介词起到动词的作用,up在此处为介词,表示“沿着……往上” 8、That was all she remembered. all作表语,是先行词, she remember 修饰 all 作定语从句, 省略 that That was all I wanted to say. 那就是我想说的全部 That was all I can do for you.=I can do nothing else for you. 9、When she woke up a day later, she found herself in hospital. find +宾语+宾补 发现……(宾补可以由形容词或介词短语充当) find the books tidy 发现书摆放得整齐 I found the books in order. When I woke up, I found myself in bed. 【Key structures】 表示方向和目的地的介词和副词 ① 表示“上、下”的两对小品词是on和 off,up和 down Jim’s standing on the roof. I hope he won’t fall off. Tom’s climbing up the tree. I hope he won’t fall down. ② 表示“来、去”的一对小品词是from和to;towards(强调越来越近)的意义和to(强调目标)相近,表示“朝,向,接近”等;for 在有些动词后面也表示“往,向”的意思 The ball was coming towards me. The plane flies from Moscow to New York. He went for home. leave for… 动身到某地(强调离开,出发) Yesterday my father left for Tianjin. set out for… 动身到某地 He left/ set out for New York yesterday. head for/to 前往 (强调“去”) ③ 表示“进去,出来”这两种方向的介词为into(进、入)和out of(从...出来);表示“在某个地方”或“在……里面/外面”可用at(含有一种瞄准的概念,方向性),in,out of等;表示目的地或位置往往用at aim at,fire at(瞄准开火),throw at,threw to the bank Tell him go into my house. Did you stop anywhere on your way to the office? 去办公室的路上你在别的地方逗留过吗? ④ 表示“穿过,越过,绕过”等动词时,往往用through,across,under,over,round等介词 How did you get through the fence? 你怎么穿过篱笆的? How did you get over the wall? 【Special difficulties】 Pass and Past pass和past的区别主要是词义上的区别,pass是动词,其过去式为passed,过去分词是passed或past。当作及物动词用时,可表示“经过,通过(考试),超过”等,作不及物动词用时可表示“(时间等)消逝”。 Your sister passed me in her new car, driving great speed. I’ve passed/past my French test. A month has passed/past since I left home. past 可以作形容词、介词、名词等,作形容词时表示“以前的,过去的”等;作介词时表示“经过,超出(范围等)”;作名词时表示“过去,昔时,往事”等。 Frank is proud of his past experience. I go past the garden. Can you tell me something about your past? Next and Other next表示时间顺序上“紧接的,下一个”,如果以现在为基准,则 next前一般不加the;如果以过去或将来的某一时间为基准,则 next 前面要加 the或其他修饰词。 next day 第二天 Mary phoned the next day to tell us that she couldn’t come to the party. 第二天玛丽打来电话告诉我们她不能参加晚会了。 the other day =a few days ago (几天前), Mary phoned the other day to tell us that she had arrived in London. 前几天玛丽来电话告诉我们她已到达伦敦。 the other day 出现一定是过去时;next day有可能是过去式, 有可能是将来式 ★Lesson 34 Quick work ★station n. (警察)局 (一定是与军方, 警方有关系的) post office 邮局 police office 警局 I went to the police. 我去警察局 communication bureau 交通局 (bureau n. 局) ★most adv. 相当, 非常 ① adj. 用于最高级,表示“最……” This is the most beautiful car I’ve even seen. ② adj. 大多数的,大部分的 Most doctors don’t smoke. ③ adv. 非常,很(相当于very,但通常用于表达主观感情、见解等) 只有加“the”时译为“最”,加“a”或什么也不加时译为“非常,相当”(“very” 的概念),常与形容词作用的过去分词连用。 a most interesting book 非常有趣的书 I was most surprised when I heard the news. 我非常惊讶 【课文讲解】 1、Quick work quick adj. 动作的快; fast adv. 速度的快; soon adv. 时间快 have a quick meal quick freeze 速冻 2、Ted Robinson has been worried all the week. worried adj. 焦虑的,担心的 worry vt. 使担心,发愁 She appears to be worried by/about something. 好象有什么事使她发愁。 3、Last Tuesday he received a letter from the local police. the local police 当地警察局 local adj. 地方性的,当地的,本地的 local news 当地新闻 ; local color 当地色彩, 地方色彩 local people 当地人 ; local call 市话 native n. 土著人;adj. 土生土长的 4、In the letter he was asked to call at the station. call at (some place) 拜访某地 call on sb. 拜访某人 ask/tell/expect/want/allow/request/order sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事 sb. was told 某人被告知;有人告诉某人 I was told that yesterday you did something wrong. he was told that/to do (被动) = someone told him that… (主动) 5、Ted wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station yesterday and now he is not worried any more. wonder表示“想知道”时后面往往跟疑问词引导的从句 She wondered who that man was/what had happened. want用于被动语态时可以表示“想与(某人见面、谈话等)”或“缉拿,追捕” Please wait a minute. I’m wanted on the phone. 请等一下,有我的电话。 This is the man (who is) wanted by the police. not......any more = no more 不再, 再也不 I don’t talk to you any more. 我不再会对你谈话了 I walked no more. 我不再走了 6、Five days ago, the policeman told him, the bicycle was picked up in a small village four hundred miles away. pick up (偶然地、意外地)找到、获得、学会 I’ve picked up a bad cold. I picked up some French while traveling in Paris. 在巴黎游览期间我学了几句法语。 He picked up the book in a small library. 他在一个小图书馆发现了那本书。 five miles away这一类结构可以直接做定语, 放在被修饰词后面 The school is five miles away. 学校在五里外 the school five miles away 五里外的学校 I live in a house which is five miles away. = I live in a house five miles away. 7、It is now being sent to his home by train. 这句语是被动语态用于现在进行时,其结构为“am/is/are +being +过去分词” The clavichord is being repaired by a friend of my father’s. home 前一旦加修饰词(如文中的his), 则其为名词 8、Ted was most surprised when he heard the news. most surprised中的 most有very的意思,常与起形容词作用的过去分词连用。 【letter writting】 在地址中我们通常使用缩略形式, 如 : “St.” (Street); “Rd.” (Road); “Sq.” (Square); “Ave.” (Avenue); “Pl.” (Place),而有些词则不用缩略形式, 如 “Lane” 和“Drive”(行车道) pics. pictures; secs. seconds 【Special difficulties】 与 call有关的短语动词 ① call on sb. 拜访,探望 Have you called on George recently? ② call (sb.) up 给某人打电话(美语) If you want my help, just call up. ③ call at +地点 对(某个人家或地方)进行短暂访问 He calls at every house in the street once a month. ④ call out 大声叫喊 Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat. ⑤ call off 取消(某项活动) For some reason, they have called off the party/the meeting. ⑥ call in 召集 Exercise 练习 2 It's too late to go to the pictures. Why don't we call the whole thing ______? go to the pictures 去看电影 call the whole thing off 取消 ★Lesson 35 Stop thief! ★while n. 一段时间 while = some time 一小会儿 wait for a while 等一会儿 after a while 隔了一会儿 ★regret v. 后悔 ① regret sth. 后悔…… You will regret it. 你会后悔的, 你一定会后悔的 ② regret to do sth. 很遗憾要去做…… I regret to tell you a bad news. 我很遗憾要告诉你一个坏消息 (还没说) ③ regret doing sth. 很遗憾已经做了…… I regret telling him the news. 我真后悔告诉他这个消息 I regret to steal your money. ④ regret that +从句 遗憾…… 遗憾:pity<n.>、sorry<adj.>、regret<v.> It's a pity I am sorry to… ★far adv. 非常 far=much, 修饰形容词或副词的比较级, 注意most 是修饰形容词或副词的, 而不是比较级 比较级前可以加修饰词,表示程度,多一点点用a little,多很多用much ★rush v. 冲 ① vi. 冲,奔 rush vi. (用腿)冲 While I was talking to Frank, a man rushed into the room. run v. 跑(速度很快) ② vt.&vi. 仓促行事,仓促完成;赶紧做 Roy rushed (through) his lunch and left for the staion. Tom always rushes his homework on Sunday evenings. ③ n. 猛冲,奔 Roy made a rush at the thieves. ★act v. 行动 Act! (口语) 行动! take action to do sth. 采取行动 ★straight adv. 径直 ① adj. 直的,笔直的 He drew a straight line on the paper. This road isn’t straight. ② adv. 笔直地 go straight on 径直往前走 You’ll see a tower straight ahead. 你会看到正前方有个塔。 ③ adv. 径直地,直接地 John always goes straight home after work. Roy drove the bus straight at the thieves. ★fright n. 害怕 get a fright 得到惊吓的感觉(类似 get a surprise) You give me a fright. 你吓了我一跳 give sb. sth. 给人带来感觉 give me a pleasure/an excitement/a fright frighten vt. 使惊吓;vi. 惊恐 You frighten me. This doesn't worry me. frightening adj. 令人感到可怕的; frightened adj. 自己感到可怕的 一个动词能够加ing/ed, 证明这个动词跟人的情感有关, 他的宾语就会是人 frightful=terrible adj. 可怕 Your handwriting is frightful. 你的字真糟糕 Cold is frightful. 寒冷是可怕的 ★battered adj. 撞坏的 battered (lose one's shape) 被撞变形的 battered bag 破旧不堪的包(battered与软的东西连用时,表示用旧了,破旧不堪的) batter n. 击球手;v. 打坏, 猛击 damaged adj. 被刮坏的 destroyed car车子被损害不能修 ; damaged car 车子坏了,但能修 ;battered car 车变形 ★afterwards adv. 以后 shortly afterwards =soon 不久以后 shortly=soon; afterwards=later 后来, 以后 【课文讲解】 1、A short while ago, however, he became a bus driver and he was not regretted it. a short while ago=a short time ago 不久以前 while作名词表示“一会儿,(一段)时间”时常与a连用,有时也与the,this等连用: They haven’t seen each other for a long while. Have you been in Australia all this while? I saw her a short while ago. however可以放句首, 可以放句中;如果一个词两边有逗号,证明这个词是插入语 2、He is finding his new work far more exciting. find 可以用一般现在时态, 可以用进行时态 He is finding his trip very exciting. far more exciting 更有趣(在形容词和副词的比较级与最高级前面,可以用 far(相当much)来表示强调,译为“很,大大的”) It’s far/much colder today than it was yesterday. This is (by) far the most expensive bicycle in the shop. 3、When he was driving along Catford Street recently, he saw two thieves rush out of a shop and run towards a waiting car. see和一些感知动词(如 smell, feel, hear, watch, notice等)可以用在动词+名词/代词宾语+不带to的不定式结构(省略to)中,如果全过程用do,过程中的一瞬间用 doing: see sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事(强调全过程) I see them dance. (看了全过程) see sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在做某事 I see them dancing . (只看了一部分) hear sb doing sth.,hear sb. do sth. 4、The one with the money got such a fright that he dropped the bag. with 一旦出现在名词或代词后就做定语, 出现在动词之后做状语 He came in with a book. (作状语) The boy with a book came in. (作定语) get a fright 吓了一跳 so+形容词(副词)+that…/such+(修饰词或形容词)+名词+that… 如此……以致…… 一旦有名词, 就认为形容词修饰的是名词, 前面的词也修饰的是名词 drop vt. 由于抓什么没抓住不小心掉下去 (sb. drop sth.) I drop the chalk. fall vi. 从上往下落 (sth. fall) drop the money / the money fall The chalk is falling. 5、As the thieves were trying to get away in their car, Roy drove his bus into the back of it. as = when 当……时候 get away = run away 逃跑 How did the thief get away? by car /in the car 开车 drive into… 撞上…… 6、While the battered car was moving away, Roy stopped his bus and telephoned the police. stopped his car,the car stopped(与当时说话时的视觉概念有关,一个是人为停,一个是自己停下来) 7、The thieves' car was badly damaged and easy to recognize. …and easy to recognize = and the car was easy to recognize (用主动表被动含义) 如果一个不定式的前面是一个形容词, 如果主句的结局是“系表结构+to”,不 定式当中常用主动表被动, 在不定式的表达方式当中, 动词的宾语如果刚好是这句话的主语, 这个宾语一定不能出现 The apple is sweet enough to eat. The apple is too sour to eat. (sour adj. 酸的) The question is easy enough to answer. The boy is enough clever to answer the question. 这个小孩足够聪明以至于能回答这个问题。 (the question不是主语故一定要出现) 文中 “…easy to recognize(car)” 因car 是主语, 所以不能出现在不定式当中, 也许有可能用主动表达被动含义, 及物动词后面一般加宾语(这个宾语就是这句话的主语就不加), 又如:The clothes are too comfortable to ware. 8、Shortly afterwards, the police stopped the car and both men were arrested. shortly afterwards 没过多久 both men = two persons stop the car 拦住车子(the driver stop the car;其他人stopped the car) stop thief 捉賊 【Special difficulties】 So and Such such和so都可以用于表示程度,但 so只能作副词和连词,such则是形容词,因此 so通常位于形容词、副词之前,而such只能位于名词之前: I’ve never read so interesting a book. I’ve never read such an interesting book. 引导结果状语从句时,它们的结构分别是: so +形容词(副词) +that…/ such +(a, an修饰词或形容词)+名词+that… 如此……以至于…… 一旦有名词, 就认为形容词修饰的是名词, 前面的词也修饰的是名词,如果名词是可数名词单数才要加a和an, 反过来如果是可数名词单数, 前面一定要加a或an It was so cold that no one went out. such除了表示“这样的,如此的”等意思外,还可以表示“像这一类的”,so不能表示这种意思。 He often talks about such things. You should not speak to such people. 如果形容词是表示数量的(many, much, little, few), 一律用so There is so little time left that we must hurry. There is such a little(小) bird that I can't see it. (little不会和可数名词连用,如连用不会译成“数量少”,而应译为“小”) He is so lazy a boy./ He is such a lazy boy. 如果有几个以上的形容词共同修饰一个名词的时候, 冠词放在第一位, 这句话中冠词不放在第一位, 说明 “a” 与 “boy” 有关系, “lazy” 从意思上与 “boy” 有关系, 但从强调点上与 “boy” 没关系, 它的强调点在 “lazy” 上 ★Lesson 36 Across the Channel ★record n. 记录; vt. 记录 break the record 破记录 set up a record = make a record 创记录 hold the record = keep the record 保持记录 equalize the recorder 平记录 (equalize vt.使相等, 补偿) recorder n. 录音机 如果同一词音节落在第一个音节的重音, 肯定是名词, 重音落在第二个音节肯定是动词 record n. 记录; vt. 记录 present n. 礼物;adj. 现在的; v. 赠送 desert n. 沙漠; v. 废弃 ★strong adj. 强壮的 as strong as horse 象牛一样壮(马) strong wind 大风; heavy rain 大雨 strong girl (隐示不是很瘦, 结实) strong mind 意志坚强 Out of sight,out of mind. 眼不见, 心不烦 sturdy adj. 结实的, 强健的 robust adj. 身体结实 (“乐百事” 英文名) strong +运动员 获胜把握比较大,强有力的(“强有力的对手”中的“强有力”就用 strong表达) ★swimmer n. 游泳的人, 游泳者 swimmer 确切的意思是游泳者, 游泳的人 strong swimmer 游泳能手 athlete n. 运动员(运动会上常说的运动员) swimming athlete 游泳运动员 (这里的“-ing”意为 “用来” ) ★succeed v. 成功 succeed in doing sth. 做……成功 success n. 成功, 成功的人 successful adj. 成功的 be successful in doing sth fail v. 失败 fail to do sth. 做……失败 failure n. 失败, 失败者, 缺乏, 失灵, 故障, 破产, 疏忽, <美>不及格 ★train v. 训练 train sb. to do sth. 训练某人做……(教, 而且有让人形成某种技能) teach sb. to do sth. 教某人做……(只是教, 会不会不管) trainer n. 教练; trainee n. 受训的人 training center 训练中心 ★anxiously adv. 焦急 anxious adj. 焦急的 ★intend v. 打算 intend to do sth.=be going to do sth. 打算做某事 ★solid adj. 固体的, 硬的;n. 固体 ① adj. 固体的 She will not eat any solid food. ② adj. 硬的,结实的,坚固的(指家具、建筑物等) The ice is solid. 冰很硬。 ② n. 固体 【课文讲解】 1、Across the Channel across 横渡 the Channel=the English Channel 英吉利海峡(当“C”大写时, 一定是指the English Channel) 2、She is going to set out from the French coast at five o'clock in the morning. set out 出发; set out from… 从某地出发 3、Debbie is only eleven years old and she hopes to set up a new world record. hope to do sth. 希望自己做…… hope that+从句 希望别人做…… set up为“创立,建立”,可以指某个具体的事物,如set up a school;也可以指抽象的,如某个机构、组织等。 set up a new world 创造新的世界纪录 4、She is a strong swimmer and many people feel that she is sure to succeed. feel (that) +从句 认为……,相信……(宾语从句中的that 可以省略) My parents feel that they can believe in you. be sure to do sth. 一定能够, 必定会(肯定语气比“must”(must + 动词原形,表示一定, 一种推测)强,对某件事情动词有把握) be sure of… (对某件事情, 名词做宾语) be sure that… (对某件事情, 某人做某事有把握) I am sure that I can do sth.=I am sure of sth.=I am sure to do sth. I am sure of my success. = I am sure to succeed. I am sure that I can succeed/be successful. 5、Debbie's father will set out with her in a small boat. ...with her 同她一道 by boat , in a boat乘船 6、Tomorrow he will be watching her anxiously as she swims the long distance to England. will be doing 将来进行时表达将来 as=when swim + 距离 游过多长距离 All the world will be watching anxiously as the war broke out. We will be watching anxiously as you went (go) out. (牵挂) 7、Debbie intends to take short rests every two hours. rest作“休息”讲时,可以是可数名词,也可以是不可数名词: Today is my day of rest. 今天是我的休息日。 After a long rest, he went on with his work. have(take) a break(rest) 休息 take short rests 休息短时间 every用在表示时间的名词之前时可译为“每”every two hours 每两个小时, I will plant another tree every three trees. 每隔三棵树我会再种一棵 8、She will have something to drink but she will not eat any solid food. something to drink 可以喝的东西(不定式作定语) have something to eat/read/do 9、Most of Debbie's school friends will be waiting for her on the English coast. most +n. = most of the +n. 大多数的…… most young people / most of the young people will be waiting 将来进行时 I will be right here wating for you. on the coast 在海边 10、Among them will be Debbie's mother, who swam the Channel herself when she was a girl. among prep. 在……之中, ……之一(三者或三者以上) among them 在他们当中(很多人之中) between them 左右各一个人 限定性定语从句/非限定性定语从句 如果是有逗号的是非限定性定语从句, 没有逗号的是限定性定语从句, 非限定性定语从句不可以用that,限定性定语从句少了后面的句子, 这句话意思不完整,非限定性定语从句前面的句子完整, 后面的句子起着补充说明的作用,非限定性定语从句一旦有逗号隔开, 后面的句子和前面的句子关系不紧密, 起补充作用。 Among them will be Debbie's mother. 这句是一个倒装句,正常的语序应为Debbie’s mother will be among them. 倒装句:地点+will+名词 常见的倒装句:Here you are. / Here is my ticket. 全部倒装:地点(介词短语或副词)+动词+名词 倒装句型中如果主语是名词, 放在动词后面, 如果是代词, 放在动词前面, 如Here you are. 在运动场上常用的口语: Well to go. / Well done. / Yea! / Yeah! bingo int.(因出乎意料的成功而表示兴奋的叫声)瞧! Go! 加油 【Letter Writing】 当书写地址时,常常不写地区或邮区的全称。有时只写名称的一部分或只用大写字母。如:Berkshire写成Berks.,California写成Calif.,North West 3缩写成N.W.3,New York缩写成N.Y.。 【Key structure】 将来时 表示将来的结构: ① be to ② be about to ③ be going to 表将来 ④ intend to do sth.=be going to do sth. 打算做某事 I intend to have a company. = I am going to have a company. ⑤ plan to do sth. 计划做某事 ⑥ mean to do sth. 打算做某事 : What do you mean to do(intend to do)? ⑦ aim to do sth. 打算做某事 ⑧ I will do sth.=I intend to do sth. plan to do / mean to do / aim to do / hope to do / want to do 这类词本身没有将来时态, 本身就表示将来, 用一般现在时表示将来时 be going to常用于口语中,在正式的书面语中通常用will而不用be going to。在陈述句和疑问句中, 常常可用be going to来替代shall或will。但有时不能用be going to代替shall或 will: You will enjoy yourself if you travel by sea. 如果你乘船旅游, 你会玩得很开心的. 在非正式语体下,要表示意图、打算,强调计划和安排,表示说话人也许对即将发生的事预先有所了解时,一般用be going to 而不用will: What do you intend to do at home? I’m going to watch TV. They’re going to be married soon. 如果表示说话时决定去做某事,或者表示建议、请求、肯 定 或 不 肯 定等含义时,要 用 will而不用 be going to: You won’t forget to bring something to sleep in, will you? (表示建议) Don’t worry! I’ll bring a sleeping bag. (表示决定) I shan’t be able to look after the baby and cook lunch. (表示肯定) I’ll look after the baby while you cook lunch. (表示决定) Tomorrow will be Tuesday. 【Special Difficulties】 Watch, Look at, Follow Watch (something happening) 观看 (正在发生的事情),注视,注意看 Do you have to watch me eating my supper? 你非得看我吃晚饭吗? How long have you been watching the race? Look at 仔细看,(留意)看 Look at the blackboard. 看黑板。 Follow (go after) 跟随 (走在后面) I followed my mother into the kitchen. 我跟着母亲走进厨房. The dog followed me all the way home. 在特定的时候,follow也可以表示注视,即用目光“跟随”: Have you ever seen a cat follow/watch a bird’s every movement? 你有没有见过猫注视鸟的一举一动? Solid, Firm, Stable Solid (not liquid) 固体的 (非流体的),硬的(固体);结实的,坚固的(指家具、建筑物等) This is a solid table. 这张桌子很结实。 Firm ① (not loose) 稳固的 (不松动),不会更改的,牢固的 I've fixed that hook. It is firm now. 我把鱼钩固定好了, 现在它很牢固. This table is firm. You can stand on it. ② (not doubtful) (无疑) 表示态度、信念等坚定的、坚决的 He gave me a firm refusal. 他断然拒绝. He is firm about going abroad. 在出国这件事上他态度很坚决。 ③ (not lenient) 严格的,严厉的 You must be very firm with that child. 对那个孩子你一定要非常严格. Stable (often describing character) 坚定的,稳重的, 可靠的,可信赖的(指人的性格);稳定的,稳固的(指工作、机构、环境等) He is a very stable person. 他是一个性格坚定的人. He is not a very stable person. 他不太稳重/可靠。 I’m glad that you’ve got a stable job now. Exercise 练习 用上面的词填空 : 1 I came to a ______ decision and I will not change my mind. 2 I stood on the bridge and ______ the boats passing by. 3 May I ______ your photograph album? 4 The ice in the pond is so ______ that you can walk to it. 5 I tried to persuade him but he remained ______. 1. firm come to a decision/make a decision 下定决心 come to a conclusion 得出结论 (conclusion] n.结束, 缔结, 结论) 2.watched watch sb. doing sth.(句型结构) 3.look at 4.so solid如此的坚硬 The ice in the pond is solid enough to walk on.(不加 “it”) =The ice in the pond is so solid that you can walk on it. The room is clean enough to live in. =The room is so clean that we can live there. 5. firm. (不改变主意的用 “firm” ) ★Lesson 37 The Olympic Games ★Olympic adj. 奥林匹克的 the Olympic games 奥林匹克运动会(简称the Games,一般大型运动会用games) ★hold (held,held) v. 召开 ① vt. 拿着,抓住,抱住 Please hold the bady while I take off my coat. Why are you holding my bag? ② 容纳,装得下,包含 This cup can’t hold much water. 这杯子装不了多少水。 The stadium can hold 20,000 people. ③ 举行,进行(会议、会谈等);庆祝(节日);纪念 have a meeting = hold a meeting 召开会议 hold习惯用被动: The Olympic games will be held in China in 2008. (two thousand eight) A festival is held at Edinburgh every year. 节日庆典每年在爱丁堡举行一次. We are going to hold a meeting tomorrow to discuss the subject. 明天我们准备开一次会来讨论这个议题. The next conference will be held in Geneva. 下次会议将在日内瓦举行. ★immense adj. 巨大的 ★fantastic adj. 巨大的 fantastic adj. 巨大的(建筑等,表惊叹),好极的, 宏伟的 immense adj. 极大的, 无边的, 一望无际的 The universe is immense. immense ocean big adj.(一般的)大的 big man 大人物 large adj. 数量的大, 尺寸的大 large man 大块头 great adj. 伟大的, 重要的 great man 伟人 huge adj.(体积的)巨大的, 庞大,极大的, 无限的 ★stadium n. 露天体育场 playground n. 操场 sports field 运动场, 体育场(sports 各种各样的运动) gymnasium n. 健身房,体育馆;体育 篮球场 gym ;足球场 stadium ★standard n. 标准 high standard 高标准 Olympic-standard 奥林匹克标准(运动会中的最高标准)(复合形容词:形容词+名词) ★capital n. 首都 capital adj. 大写的, 重要的 capital punishment 极刑 (punishment n.惩罚, 处罚, 惩处) hot seat 电椅(国外的极刑) ★design v. 设计 ① vt. &vi. 设计图样 George has designed a new bridge. ② vt. &vi. 打算(做……),计划 He designed to enter for the competition. This book is designed for foreign tourist. ③ n. 图样,图纸;设计 Susan has just drawn a design for a new dress. Here is the design of the new house. designer n. 设计师 well-designed 设计不错的(复合形容词:副词+过去分词) 【课文讲解】 1、The Olympic Games will be held in our country in four years' time. in four years’ time 四年之后(in常与将来时连用表示“……时间之后”) He will be back in ten minutes or half an hour. four years later 四年后 four years ago 四年前 2、As a great many people will be visiting the country, the government will be building new hotels, an immense stadium, and a new Olympic-standard swimming pool. as/because 原因,as 是连词,引出原因状语从句,as 用于表示原因时通常位于句首,它所表明的原因对于讲话对象可能是已知的,因此没必要再予以强调。because 任何时候都可代替 as,来说明一种或几种原因,但 as则不一定总能代替because。because一般跟在主句后面,强调讲话的对象可能不知道的原因。 As you can’t type the letter yourself, you’ll have to ask Susan to do it for you. Jim’s trying to save more money because he wants to buy a car. a large number of people = a great many people 大批的人 an immense stadium 一个大型体育场 a new Olympic-standard swimming pool 一个新的奥运会标准的游泳池 3、They will also be building new roads and a special railway line. be building 修建 a special railway-line 专线铁路 4、Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of this year. by the end of this year 到今年年底前 by the end of next year 到明年年底前 by是完成时的标志, 表示“到……为止,在……之前,并不晚于某时的任何时间”,不能与表示一段时间的名词名词连用,只能与表示时间点的名词或词组连用,用于肯定句与用于否定句有一定区别。 I’ll have left by Monday. 到星期一我将已离开。( 星期一之前的任何时间) I won’t have left by Monday. 我星期一之前不会离开。 (星期一还在) 5、Everybody will be watching anxiously as the new buildings go up. as是连词,相当于while,当“当,正值”讲,引出时间状语从句,它引导的从句虽然表示将来的动作但要用一般现在时,不能用 “…will go up” be built强调建造;go up (建筑物)被兴建起来,拔地而起 Many new houses are going up in this district. 6、We are all very excited and are looking forward to the Olympic Games because they have never been held before in this country. look forward to+n./pron./doing sth. (很高兴的)盼望,期待 look forward to…与expect(期待)的区别是expect没有高不高兴的成分 Look forward to your letter. 【Letter Writing】 在信的地址下面必须写上完整的日期。日期有两种写法,如:17th April, 19-;April 17th 19-,数字写法如下:1st(1日);2nd(2日);3rd(3日);4th(4日)等。 【Key structures】 一般将来完成时 一般将来时除了可以用来预言将来发生的事以外,还可以表示“意愿”,如允诺、建议、请求、提议等。 The radio hasn’t been mended yet. Never mind! I’ll mend it for you. (允诺) Will you open the door for me please! (请求) Shall we go for a swim tomorrow? (建议) 将来进行时除了表示最近或不久的将来正在进行的动作外,还可以表示计划或安排好的事: A great many people will be visiting the country. 将来完成时用于表示到将来某一时刻已经完成的动作。将来完成时由will have+过去分词构成。它常与by和not…till/until+表示时间的名词连用。 I hope they’ll have finished it in time for the journey. I expect you will have changed your mind by tomorrow. I will have finished it until/till tomorrow. 现在完成式 : 到现在某一点时间为止 过去完成式 : 到过去某一点时间为止 将来完成式 : 到将来某一点时间为止, 某个动作已经发生 【Special Difficulties】 Look的短语 Look forward to (expect with pleasure) (高兴地)盼望,期待着(to为介词后面只能跟名词、代词和动名词,不能接动词原形) I am looking forward to the summer holidays. 我正盼望暑假的到来. I look forward to seeing to you during the weekend. Look out (be careful) 当心 (注意),留神 Look out! A bus is coming. 当心点, 公共汽车来了. You should always look out when you walk across a road. Look out of 朝外看 Don’t look out of the window. Look up ① (get information from a reference book) 查阅 (从参考书中获取资料) I don't understand this word. I shall look it up in a dictionary. 我不懂这个词的词义, 我要查一下字典. ② (visit) 拜访,看望 Don't forget to look me up when you return. 回来时别忘了来看我. I’m going to look up Mary this afternoon. Exercise 练习 用hold或look 的正确形式填空 : 4 The students' union ______ an interesting debate on capital punishment yesterday. 5 My friend Ingrid lives in Stockholm. Why don't you ______ her______ when you're there? 6 Examinations will be ______ next week. I'm not ______ them. 4. held debate on … 辩论…… (debate v. 争论, 辩论;n. 争论, 辩论) union n. 联合,合并,结合,联盟,协会 口语过程三步:dialogue(对话);discussion(讨论);debate(争论) capital n. 首都;大写 5. look (her) up look (sb.) up : 拜访, 看看, 在英文中并不一定是很正式的, 只是去看看的意思 6. held;looking forward to hold an exam 举行考试 take the exam 接受考试 ★Lesson 38 Everything except the weather ★Mediterranean n. (the ~)地中海 Mediterranean n.地中海(=Mediterranean sea, 位于欧, 亚, 非三大洲之间),地中海沿岸的居民;adj. 地中海的, 地中海民族的 ★complain v. 抱怨 complain to sb. 向某人抱怨 complain of/about sth. 抱怨某事 ★continually adv. 不断地 continually adv. 连续地, 频繁地(时断时续) The baby cry continually. continuously adj. 连续不断地 continue v. 继续, 连续, 延伸 ★bitterly adv. 刺骨地 bitterly disappointed 彻底的失望 (disappoint vt.使失望) I am bitterly disappointed. bitterly cold 刺骨地寒冷 It’s bitterly cold. (chilly adj. 寒冷的) ★sunshine n. 阳光 也可直接用 “sun” 表示阳光 a drop of sunshine 一缕阳光 (a drop of 一缕) 【课文讲解】 1、He had often dreamed of retiring in England and had planned to settle down in the country. dream of… 想, 梦见(梦想),幻想,向往 Frank used to dream of having a car of his own. think of… 想(思维的活动), 考虑 settle down 定居,安身,安顿 After two years of traveling, I want to settle down now. 2、He had no sooner returned than he bought a house and went to live there. no sooner…than… 一……就……(关联词,引导时间状语从句,主句里常用过去完成时,than后面的从句用一般过去时),相同用法的还有as soon as,the moment,on doing had no sooner done…than +一般过去时, 固定用法 (时态结构 : 完成时态 + than + 一般过去时) He had no sooner arrived than he called me up. no sooner 放在句首就要倒装 No sooner had he arrived than he called me up. (倒装) 3、Almost immediately he began to complain about the weather, for even though it was still summer, it rained continually and it was often bitterly cold. almost immediately 几乎马上, 很快地 (时间上的快, 常用于写作) for(连词)表示因为(解释说明, 附加的)=because因为(一定要说的原因),for与because不同,不能用于句首,并且在 for后面必须重复主语: I don’t have a car, for I can’t afford it. even though =even if 即使,虽然(引导让步状语从句) Even though I came here, my mind was absent. 尽管我人来了, 但我还是心不在焉 4、After so many years of sunshine, Harrison got a shock. so many years 这么多年 after it rained for days = after so many days of rain 在这么多天雨之后 After seven years of hard work, he was successful. After ten years of staying in abroad, he decided to return and settle down. got a shock 吓了一跳, 吃了一惊 5、He acted as if he had never lived in England before. as if+句子 似乎, 好像(引导表示方式的状语从句,如果从句为过去完成时则是虚拟语气,描述与事实相反, 后面的条件是假的) He acted as if he was poor. (as if 后是真是假, 应根据上下文来看) My leg hurts as if it was broken. 连词as if/though引导方式状语从句,通常跟在描述行为举止的动词之后,如act,appear,feel,look,smell,sound等后面: She acted as if she were mad. (虚拟语气) It feels as if/though it’s going to rain. 6、In the end, it was more than he could bear. more than在这里表示“超过……的范围” This piece of news is more than I can believe. It was more than I could understand. I can't affard it. = It was more than I can affard. 这种用法与它通常表示“比……更多”的用法稍有不同: There were more than ten people in the room. 7、He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. hardly…when… 还没来得及……就……,用法同no sooner…than hardly had sb. done when… (hardly在句首, 要倒装) He had hardly opened his eyes when he was knocked out.(knock out : 打晕, 击倒) have time to do sth. 有时间做某事 I have no time to talk with you. 我没时间和你说话 I have time enough to have coffee. 我有足够的时间喝咖啡 【Composition】 1 He bought an old car. It was in a very bad state.(but) 2 The engine was worn out. The gearbox was full of sawdust. (The engine…not only…but…as well) 3 He could not drive it. He could no sell it. He could not even give it away. (neither…nor…nor) 1. in a bad state 状态不太好 though 虽然, even though=even if 即使,这些词出现在两句之间, 就不再加but, 2. The engine was not only worn out but the gearbox was full of sawdust. worn out 破旧不堪的 engine n. 发动机, 机车, 火车头 gearbox n. 变速箱 sawdust n. 锯屑, 木头屑子 (saw n. 锯;v. 锯) not only出现在句首要倒装,一般不会放在句首 3. He could neither drive it nor sell it nor even give it away. He could neither drive it nor sell it even nor give it away. (这样写更好) neither do sth. nor do sth. nor do sth. 既不能也不能更不能 【Letter writing】 日期:每年下列月份写出全称:3月,4月,5月,6月和7月,剩余的月份写成:Jan. (1月);Feb. (2月);Aug. (8月);Sept. (9月);Oct. (10月);Nov. (11 月)和 Dec. (12月)。 【Key structures】 过去完成时 过去完成时经常与一般过去时连用,表示过去某个动作发生前完成的动作。与过去完成时连用的表示时间的词或词组有when,after,as soon as,(not) until,by that time,(never) before,already,for,since,just,no sooner…than,hardly…when等。过去完成时不能与副词ago连用(ago只能与一般过去时连用)。 He hadn’t finished it by yesterday evening. 到昨天晚上他还没做完。 I’d never flown a plane at all until I flew this one! 在驾驶这架飞机之前我从来没有驾驶过飞机! 【Special Difficulties】 No sooner…than and Hardly…when no sooner…than (一……就……);hardly…when (几乎未来得及……就……)这两组连词意义都和 as soon as相近,但比as soon as正式。它们通常都与过去完成时连用。当no sooner和hardly位于句首时,后面的主谓结构都要颠倒顺序,即句子变为no sooner/hardly +助动词 +主语 +动词形式的语序。 No sooner had he begun speaking than he was interrupted. 他刚一开始讲话就被打断了。 Hardly had he got into the bus when it began moving. Country and Countryside country n. 国家,祖国;乡下(做“乡下”讲时常与the 连用) Which country do you come from? He had planned to settle down in the country. countryside n. 农村地区(强调景色),乡下 The countryside around Vienna is very beautiful. 维也纳周围的乡村非常漂亮. I grew up in the countryside. Continuously and Continually continuously adv. 不断地,连续地(指动作中间没有间断) You mustn’t watch TV for such a long time continuously. This plane can fly continuoulsly for twenty hours. continually adv. 频繁地,反复地(指动作中间有间断但又持续很久) It rained continually. 天频繁地下雨。 The river flows under this bridge continuously. 河水不停地从桥下流过. ★Lesson 39 Am I all right? ★following adj. 下一个 the next day, the following day 第二天 the next week, the following week 第二个星期 ★alone adj. 独自的 alone 强调人孤单一个 ‘home alone’ -- 《独自在家》 Leave me alone. 我烦着呢, 别理我 Leave him alone. 让他一个人呆会儿 ★exchange n. (电话的)交换局 ① vt. 换,更换,调换(指同类事物之间) I want to exchange the red skirt for a blue one. ② vt. 交换,互换 I met Frank at a bus stop this afternoon and we exchanged a few words. Did you exchange gifts after the party? ③ n. 电话交换台 He telephoned the hospital exchange and asked for Doctor Millington. ★inquire v. 询问, 打听 ① vt. &vi. 打听,询问 A Mr. Wang inquired your telephone number. 一位王先生打听您的电话号码。 inquire sth. of sb. 从某人那打听 insquire about sth. 打听某事 He wanted to inquire about a certain patient. ②vi. 调查,查问 He didn’t tell the truth when the police inquired into the accident. ③ vi. 求见(某人),要找(某人) She inquired for the manager. 她想见经理。 ★certain adj. 某个 certain后面的名词的数量由它前面的数词来定 某一个a certain +n.(单数) a certain patient = some patient 某个病人 某两个two certain + n.(复数) two certain patient some+可数名词单数时表示某个(某一个) for some reason 由于某个理由 【课文讲解】 1、Am I all right? all right 当指人的健康状况时,可表示“安然无恙的,良好的” I was not very well last week, but I feel all right now. 2、While John Gilbert was in hospital, he asked his doctor to tell him whether his operation had been successful, but the doctor refused to do so. So在这里是代词,代替前面的动词不定式(to tell him whether…)。 它 一 般 出 现 believe,do,expect,hope,say,tell,think,appear 等之后: Is it true that John has had an operation? I am afraid so. /I believe so. / I think so. / It seems so. 3、The following day, the patient asked for a bedside telephone. the following day = the next day,这里following表示“紧接着的,其次的”。 ask for 请求,索要,要求(得到某个东西)。在下一句(…asked for Doctor Millington)中它表示“要求(某人)来(接电话)”。 bedside telephone 床头电话 4、When the doctor answered the phone, Mr. Gilbert said he was inquiring about a certain patient, a Mr. John Gilbert. Certain 在这里没有“肯定的,确实的”等含义,而表示“某一,某位”,暗指说话者或说话对象可能对这人/这事不大清楚/熟悉,或所指的这个人身份不大清楚: Mary years ago a certain doctor arrived in London. a Mr. John Gilbert 一位名叫约翰.吉尔伯特的先生 a+人名前面, 表示某一个拥有这个特征的人或我不认识的某某人,这种情况下 a 通常与表示“某一”的certain连用: He is a Leifeng. 表示具有雷锋的特征 A certain Mrs. Hart is waiting to see you. 有位哈特夫人正等着见您。 5、He then asked when Mr. Gilbert would be allowed to go home and the doctor told him that he would have to stay in hosptial for another two weeks. for another two weeks 又两个星期 another作为限定词表示“另一个,再一个”的时候,通常与可数的单数名词连用,不和复数形式连用;但是后面可以跟基数词/few+复数名词(它们被当成一个整体): I need another three driving ★Lessons before my test. 考试前我还需上3节驾驶课。 I need another few hours before I can finish my homework. 我还需几个小时才能做完作业。 【Key structures】 直接引语和间接引语 直接引语的疑问句变为间接引语的疑问句时引号和问号不再使用,且直接疑问句中的倒装语序在转述疑问句里要还原为陈述句语序(主语+动词),有必要还要改变时态。转述一般疑问句时必须使用if或whether,不可省略,助动词do/does和did在转述疑问句里消失了。 She asked if/whether you were tired. 她问你是否感到疲劳. ask,want to know,wonder等后面的 if和whether 通常可以互换,但是 whether表示的怀疑程度比if稍大。 I wonder if/whether he’s phoned the doctor. 在表示两者挑一时更常用whether: She asked me whether I wanted tea or coffee. 转述疑问句中带有or not时,通常用whether引导,不用if引导: He wants to know whether or not we want dinner. Did the children say they’d eaten? 他们没告诉我他们吃了没有。 在转述特殊疑问句时,通常用原来的疑问词。在针对主语提问的间接疑问句中,时态和情态助动词照常有变化,但语序保持不变。 Tom asked if / whether Jack would arrive the next day. 汤姆问杰克第二天是否能到. Jane asked why I hadn't written to her. 简问为什么我不给她写信. 如果直接引语是问句,变为间接引语时,主句不说He said,而用He asked;told可以后跟问句,还可以跟陈述句:直接引语是表示命令、请求、建议的祈使句通常可用适当的动词后跟不定式来转述,常用的这类动词有advise,ask,tell,order,command,warm,invite等,这些动词后往往有间接宾语,在转述这类祈使句的否定形式时,必须将not放在带to的不定式之前: She reminded/told me to turn off all the lights. The teacher was telling/ordering/commanding her students to close their books. tell sb. to do sth. The teacher told me (not) to open the door. ask sb. to do sth. 动词suggest和insist用于转述建议、要求时,其结构为 suggest/insist +that从句(用 should): He suggests that they should sell the flat. I hope they won’t sell the flat. He still insisted that we should help him. ★Lesson 40 Food and talk ★hostess n. 女主人 host n. 男主人;v. 作为主人, 主办 actor n. 男演员; actress n. 女演员 ★unsmiling adj. 不笑的 unsmiling adj. 不笑的(un+smiling, 但并不一定表示 “严肃”) serious adj.严肃的, 认真的, 严重的 My father is serious. ★tight adj. 紧身的 tight jeans 紧身牛仔裤 The shoes are small/tight. (夹脚, 很紧) tights n. 贴身衬衣, 紧身衣, 女用连裤袜 ★fix v. 凝视 ① v. 使……固定、安装 fix the picture on the wall She fixed a handle on the door. fix on 使(目光、注意力等)集中于,盯着 fix one's eyes on sth./one's eyes be fixed on sth. 盯着……目不转睛(习惯用被动) All the eyes were fixed on the blackboard. 所有的眼睛都盯着黑板 ② v. 修理 ★globe n. 地球,球状物, 如地球仪;adj. 全球的 global problem 全球性的问题 earth n. 地球 global “阁楼宝”,一种灭蟑螂的药名 ★despair n. 绝望 despair n. 绝望, 失望, 令人失望的人(事物);vi.绝望 in despair 绝望的 sb./sth. is the despair of… ……让……感到绝望 The boy is the despair of his parents. 那男孩的父母对他感到绝望了。 This boy is his mother's despair. 这个男孩使他妈绝望了。 The examination was the despair of me. = The examination was my despair. 我对考试已经绝望了。 disappoint vt. 使失望 【课文讲解】 1、Last week at a dinner party, the hostess asked me to sit next to Mrs. Rumbold. dinner为不可数名词,“at a dinner party”中的“a”并不修饰“dinner”而是 “party”,have dinner不加“a” ask sb. to do sth. 叫某人做某事 next to 与……相邻,挨着(既可表示座位挨着也可以表示地理位置上挨着) sit next to me 坐我旁边 There’s a field/shop next to our house. 2、Mrs. Rumbold was a large, unsmiling lady in a tight black dress. unsmiling表示bad mix,很难与人融合。其义词为smiling(微笑的,喜气洋洋的)。 有些形容词前面可以加上前缀un-来表示相反的意义:comfortable(舒服的)/ uncomfortable(不舒服的),true(真实的)/untrue(不真实的),interesting(有趣的)/ uninteresting(无趣味的,乏味的)。 in在这里表示“穿着、戴着”: A young man in a blue dress is inquiring for you. (inquiring for sb. 要找(某人),求见某人) 3、She did not even look up when I took my seat beside her. take a seat 坐下,比sit要正式 Please take a seat. take one’s seat 表示位置事先已安排好 After everyone had taken his seat, the meeting/dinner/party began. 4、Her eyes were fixed on her plate and in a short time, she was busy eating. busy +doing sth. 忙着做某事(doing前可以加in,也可以不加) We’re all busy (in) getting ready for the performance. 5、'A new play is coming to "The Globe" soon,' I said. 'Will you be seeing it?' The new film is coming to the cinema. / A new play will be on at ‘The Globe’. 即将上映 The film will be on. 那部电影即将要上映 6、'if you ate more and talked less, we would both enjoy our dinner!’ 在并列句中,相同的句子成分(如主语、谓语、状语等)通常由同一词性的单词/词组表示,并且它们的长度也差不多,以保持句子的平衡性。 You can either go out or stay here. He wants to buy a lot of things, but he has little money. 他想买的东西很多,但他的钱很少。 【Composition】 1 She refused to answer any questions. She did not ask any questions. (not only…but…either) 2 She was not interested in the theatre. She was not interested in travel. (neither…nor) 1 She not only refused to answer question but she did not ask any question either. =She not only refused to answer question but ask no question either. but…as well 可以加肯定也可以加否定 ; but…either只能加否定 as well, either 在此句中可省略 2 She was interested in neither the theatre nor travel. =She was interested neither in the theatre nor in travel.(更好, 介词短语的并列) 【Key structures】 第 2类条件句(虚拟条件句) 第1类条件句,谈论将有可能发生的事情,并且考虑其将来的真实结果。主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时或其他形式的现在时。 If you help me,I will be gratefull. 如果你帮我, 我会感激你 (正常语气) If it rains, I will not go. 正常语气(不一定会去) 第 2 类条件句,if 从句谈论想象的情况(假设与现在事实相反),主句则推测想象的结果。 从句使用一般过去时, 主句使用 would+动词原形。尽管第 2 类条件句使用过去时,却并非指过去的时间,所以,if之后的过去时用法常被称为“非真实的过去”,整个条件句也被称作非真实条件句。 If you helped me,I would be grateful. 如果你帮了我, 我会感激你(可惜你没有帮我, 我不会感激你) If it rained,it would not be hot. 如果下雨, 就不会这么热 If you could make him change his mind, you would save him a lot of trouble. 假如你能使他改变主意, 你会使他免了许多麻烦. 如果if从句中的动词是be, 那么应该在第一和第三人称单数名词之后用were。If I were you这种说法经常用于提出建议。 If I were you, I’d accept their offer. If I were in your position, I would act differently. 假如我处于你的位置, 我会采取不同的作法. 第2类条件句有时也可代替第 1类条件句来描述颇有可能发生的事情,但比第 1类条件句较为“无把握”。 If you went by train, you would get there earlier. If you go by train, you will get there earlier. 第2类条件句经常用来描写完全不可能的事情。 If I had longer legs, I’d be able to run faster. 【Special Difficulties】 Make的用法 及物动词make的原义为“制造”,但它经常用于一些固定的结构,最常见的为make+(冠词)+名词形式: make progress(取得进步);make the bed(铺床);make conversation(找话题);make a noise(吵闹);make a promise(保证);make trouble(捣蛋,制造麻烦); make money(挣钱); make a speech(演讲);make a mistake(犯错误);make up one's mind(下定决心,拿定主意) Do的用法 完全动词do也有一些固定短语: do one's best(尽最大努力);do one's homework(做作业);do sb. a favour(帮忙);do a job(干家务);do work(做家务);do exercise(做练习);do business(做生意) do还可以与动名词连用:do some shopping(买东西,购物);do swimming(游泳);do some reading (读书) ★Lesson 41 Do you call that a hat? ★rude adj. 无礼的(强调故意的) impolite adj. 不礼貌,表示没有注意到礼节性的问题, 所以显得有些不礼貌(polite 的反义词,以 p开头的形容词的否定前缀为 im) Cheeky adj. 无礼, 没礼貌的(表示小孩对长辈) Don’t be cheeky! 不得无礼! naive adj. 天真的 ★mirror n. 镜子 look at oneself in the mirror 照镜子 look up sth. in the dictionary 查字典 mirrot of… ……的写照,……的真实反映 His novel is a mirror of his time. 他的小说就是他那个时代的真实写照 ★hole n. 孔 hole in+地点 ……(地方)有个洞 ★remark v. 评说 remark主要指说, 当say 来理解 ★remind v. 提醒 ①vt. 提醒 remind sb. of sth. / remind sb. to do sth. / remind sb. that… 提醒某人做某事 He reminded his wife that they needed to buy some coffee and sugar. ② vt. 使……想起 The smell of cabbage reminds me of school. 卷心菜的气味使我想起了学校。 She reminds me of her sister. reminder n. 提醒物 【课文讲解】 1、Do you call that a hat? “Do you call that +(冠词)+名词”这个结构可以表达一种轻蔑的含义: Do you call that a house/a dog? 你把那个叫房子/狗吗? 2、You needn't be so rude about it. be rude about sth. 对事很粗鲁 be rude to sb. 对人很粗鲁 Don't be rude to me. 别对我这么粗鲁 3、I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. on the chair 在椅子上 with holes in it 作定语 Jane put a piece of paper with her name and address on it into a bottle. 4、We had been in the hat shop for half an hour and my wife was still in front of the mirror. 名词修饰名词, 一般用单数:bookstore书店,drugstore药店, 5、I regretted saying it almost at once. regret doing sth./名词/that从句 后悔已经做了某事,表示对做过的事感到遗憾 Did he regret his mistake? I now regret leaving my country/that I have left my country. regret to do sth. 表示对现在或将来要做的事感到对不起、遗憾,比be sorry to do sth.要正式: We regret to tell you that you are not welcome. 我很遗憾地告诉您,您不受欢迎。 6、'You needn't have said that,' my wife answered. 'I needn't remind you of that terrible tie you bought yesterday.' needn't have done 原本不必做, 但是做了, 强调过去的动作不必做 You needn't have bought it. 你原本不必买的 You needn’t have come. 你原本不必来的。 needn't do 现在的动作也不必做 You needn’t come. 你不必来。 remind sb. of sth. 提醒某人想起某事 7、'I find it beautiful,' I said. 动词find经常用于“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”这种结构: You’ll find it difficult/easy to make conversation with her. I find this book very interesting. 8、A man can never have too many ties. can never…too…=cannot…too… 无论……也不为过 A man can never have too many ties. 再多的领带对一个男人来说也不为过(男人有多少领带也不会嫌多)。 I can never thank you too much. 感激不尽。 Drinking water can never be too clean. 饮用水越干净越好。 A wife can never complain too much. 妻子怎么罗嗦也不为过。 You can’t be too careful in doing your work. 你工作越小心越好。 【Key structures】 Must, Have (got) to and Need 情态动词must(必须,不得不)的否定式 mustn't(不能、不准),must还可用于表示推测: ① 对现在和将来的推测:must +动词用原形 ② 对正在发生的事情的推测:must be doing ③ 对过去的推测:must have done ④ 对过去正在发生的事情的推测:must have been doing 用 must的一般疑问句可以用must/have to或needn’t来回答,而不用mustn’t: Must I set off now? Yes, you must / have to. No, you needn’t. mustn’t表示绝对禁止,在说话人看来,根本没选择余地: You mustn’t use that bicycle. It’s broken. “不必要”可用needn’t,don’t have to来表示: needn’t = don’t have to needn’t have done = didn’t have to You needn’t / don’t have to work such long hours. 英语中的 need有两种词性,一个是普通动词(需要),一种是情态动词。need的否定形式对应也有两种: needn't 不必(情态动词need的否定); don't need 不需要(普通动词need的否定)。 need I...?(情态) / do I need...? 实义动词 在实义动词后面再加一个实义动词, 就在后面加to do Need I go out? = Do I need to go out? 我需要出去吗? You needn’t have told me that. I know it is. 情态动词后面不能直接用名词做宾语,实义动词后面可以直接加名词, 故 need 后面如是名词, 则这个need 为实义动词 例 : He__c__follow me . a doesn’t need b needn’t to c didn’t need to d needs 情态动词need后接动词原形,但只用于否定和疑问句,肯定句用must,have to,ought to或should。need用于疑问句时,问者往往希望得到否定的回答: Need you leave so soon? 你有必要这么早就走吗? 用need的一般疑问句的肯定形式的回答可以用must/had to,否定形式的回答可以用needn’t: Need I type this letter again? Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t. Need you have told him about my plans? Yes, I had to. / No, I needn’t have. 表示必要时,must的语气比need要强: I must go to the dentist this moring. 这种句型可用来表示说话人让对方选择或允许对方可以不做某事的主观意图。它的完成式和过去式分 别为needn’t have,didn’t have to和didn’t need to: I needn’t have gone to the office yesterday. I didn’t have to / didn’t need to go to the office yesterday. need doing sth. 需要被做(用主动表达被动含义) ① 这里 need属于实义动词, 动词ing相当于名词来理解 ② 有时态和人称变化,否定式为: don’t need doing ③ need doing 表达被动含义, 如: Your shoes need washing. 你的鞋子需(被)洗了 另外want doing也是用主动表示被动含义,它们的主语一定是物, 不是人 Your hair needs cuting. need to be done---主语是人,也可以是物 The child need to be … 对比 mustn't 和 needn't: You musn’t read it bed. It’s bad for your eyes. (be bad for… 对……有害) Smoking is bad for your health. 抽烟有害你的健康 You mustn't make a noise. The children are asleep. 你不应吵闹, 孩子们都睡了. You needn't drive so quickly. We have plenty of time. 你不必开得那么快, 我们有足够的时间. =You don't have to(haven't got to) drive so quickly. We have plenty of time. You mustn't smoke in a theatre. It is forbidden. 你不应该在剧场里抽烟, 这是不允许的. You needn't come with us if you don't want to. 如果你不想去, 你不必和我们一道去. =You don't have to (haven't got to) come with us if you don't want to. 【Special Difficulties】 Remark, Observe and Notice remark与observe都可以表示“说,评论说”,它们比say要正式: ‘You’re looking very well!’She remarked/observed. notice和observe 都可以表示“注意到,察觉到”,但有一定区别。notice指无意中“察觉到”;observe则可以指有意观察、仔细地看,比notice更正式: He observed me carefully. (He looked at me.) 他仔细地看着我. Did you notice how she was dressed? 你注意到她的穿戴了吗? I’ve noticed/observed that he telephones her oftener than before. 我发现/注意到他现在给她打电话比以前次数多了。 I didn’t notice his leaving. make rude remark / call one's name / say F words (F 指 fuck) 讲粗话,骂人 He made a lot of rude remarks about the hat she was wearing. fail to do sth. 没有能够 not fail to 表示强烈地肯定 I had changed the furniture round that you can not fail to notict it. 我已经把周围的家具都换了。 ★Lesson 42 Not very musical ★market n. 市场,集市 ① n. 市场,集市 We had a long walk through one of the markets of Old Delhi. 我们穿过旧德里的一个市场时走了很长一段路。 ② n.(商品的)市场,销路,需求(可数名词) market for… ……市场 The foreign markets for apple this year are not as good as last year. Can you find a market for these shoes? 你能给这些鞋找到销路吗? ★pipe n.(吹奏的)管乐器 pipe n. 两头通的东西, 如下水管道, 老爸的烟斗,或一节两头通的竹子都可以叫pipe ★glimpse n. 一瞥 have a glimpse of 瞥了一眼,映入眼帘(犹如汉语中的“惊鸿一瞥”) (无意识的看) glance at 扫了一眼(有意识) ★movement n. 动作 move v. 移动(movement的动词) action v. 采取行动 ★continue v. 继续 begin/start/continue to do sth. begin/start/continue doing sth. I continue (to go)/going on. continue +sth. Let's continue our trip. Let's continue our journey. ★dance v. 跳舞 dance to the music 随着音乐跳舞(固定搭配,用“to”) ★obviously adv. 显然 obviously=clearly Obviously you are wrong. Obviously I love you. ★difference n. 差别 tell the difference between A and B 区别差异 Can you tell the difference between them? different adj. 不同的 be different from 与……不同 A is different from B differ vi. 不一致,不同 【课文讲解】 1、As we had had a long walk through one of the markets of old Delhi, we stopped at a square to have a rest. stop to do sth. 停下其他活动去做不定式表示的动作 On the way to the station, I stopped to buy a paper. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 I’ve stopped buying newspapers. 我已不再买报纸了。 How can we stop him complaining? 我们如何才能让他不抱怨呢? 2、When he began to play a tune, we had our first glimpse of the snake. play a tune(tune 可数名词);play music(music 不可数名词) have/get/catch a (first) glimpse of… 一瞥,一看 This afternoon I caught/got/had a glimpse of Debbie and Dan walking together in the park. take a glimpse at 瞥见 He took a glimpse at the ‘No Parking’ signs outside Jasper’s gate and parked his car there. at the first sight 一见钟情 I love you at the first sight of you. 3、It rose out of the basket and began to follow the movements of the pipe. rise(rose,risen) vi. 升 raise(raised,raised) vt. 提高 4、We were very much surprised when the snake charmer suddenly began to play jazz and modern pop songs. 很少用very much 放在一起修饰surprise, 一般用very surprised 或 most surprised 5、It obviously could not tell the difference between Indian music and jazz! tell表示“辨别、分辨、识别”时常与can,could,be able to连用。表达这些意义时,tell可以单独使用,也可以与from构成词组: My son can already tell the difference between beer and wine. =My son can already tell beer from wine. 我儿子已经能分辨出啤酒和葡萄酒了。 表示两者之间的“差别、差异”时常用difference between: There’s a lot of difference between Englishmen and Frenchmen. What’s the difference between them? 有些情况下也可以不跟between: It makes no difference whether you believe me or not. 你信不信我区别不大/都无所谓。 【Key structures】 “have +名词”代替普通动词 “have +名词”代替普通动词表示“完成该动作”: have a bath=bathe ;have a swim=swim;have a walk=walk;have a look=look;have a rest=rest;have a smell=smell等,类似的动词有dance,fight,ride,talk,sleep,wash: I had two dances with Lucy. Jim and I have just had a long talk. 一个动词的后面会加介词(如果这个动词是不及物动词),动 词 能加什么样的介词,名词也可以加什么样的介词: look at->have a look at; walk across->have a walk across succeed<v.> in doing sth.-> be successful<adj.> in->success<n.> in 【Special difficulties】 Pick的用法 pick up 拿起、捡起;意外地找到;(偶然地)学会;开车去接 He picked up a long pipe which was covered with coins. (拿起) The bicycle was picked up in a small village. (意外找到) pick sb. up (顺路)接某人(meet sb.+地点 专程接) I'll pick you up in the car this evening. 今晚我开车来接你. pick up a lot of English =learn a lot of English I picked up a lot of English while I was in England. (I learnt.) 在英国的时候, 我学到了不少英语. pick up the radio program = the program on the radio 在广播上收听节目 pick out 挑出,选出,辩认出 There are so many beautiful cards on display, I can't pick out the ones I like best. (I can't choose.) 陈列着那么多漂亮的明信片, 我挑不出最喜欢的. When I went to the bookshop yesterday, I picked out two of the books which I needed most. Look at these photos and see if you can pick out my mother. The thief was picked out by several people. ★Lesson 43 Over the South Pole ★lie v. 处于 ① vi. (lay[lei],lain[lein]) 处于,位于(+地点) The mountains lie below us now. The town lies to the east of London. ② vi. (lay[lei],lain[lein]) 躺,(平)卧 lie 现在分词--> lying stay in bed = lie in bed 躺在床上 While I sat by the fire, my dog lay beside me. ③ vt.(lied,lied) 撒谎 tell a lie 撒谎 You lied. = You lied to me.你骗人! 你撒谎! You,liar! 你, 骗子! (liar n.(惯于)说谎者) ④ n.谎言 lay (laid,laid) ① vt. 放,放置 lay sth. ② vt. 下蛋, 产卵 lay an egg 下一个蛋 hang(hung,hung) 挂,悬挂 hang(hanged,hanged) 绞刑 ★point n. 地点 point 点,一般指从飞机上向下看的点 地点 place,spot sina.com中的 “.” 读为dot(点) @读为 at ★seem v. 似乎,看起来 seem + as if 看起来似乎…… He seems as if he had never lived in England before. seem + adj. He seems rich. seem to be He seems to be rich. seem that… 看起来似乎…… It seems that he is rich. ★crash v. 坠毁(从上向下掉);n. 冲突, 撞击声, 抵触 aircrash 空难 , carcrash 车祸 strike v. 撞击 collide vi.碰撞, 抵触(两个都运动的东西相撞) ★clear v. 越过 clear v. (凌空、不接触地)越过, 跳过,没有接触面的飞跃 clear the mountain 飞跃山峰 The horse cleared the fense. (fense n.篱笆,栅栏,墙 v.围住,防护) over adv. 越过(距离) go over飞跃 ★plain n. 平原 plain girl 平凡的女孩 I'm a plain girl. mountains n. 高山 【课文讲解】 1、In 1929, three years after his flight over the North Pole, the American explorer, R.E. Byrd, successfully flew over the South Pole for the first time. for the first time 第一次(time表示“次,回”,还 可以说this time,last time,next time,another time,each time,for the last time等) I remind you for the last time that if you don’t hurry, you’ll miss the train. Give him these photos next time you see him. 2、Though, at first, Byrd and his men were able to take a great many photographs of the mountains that lay below, they soon ran into serious trouble. 连词though引导让步状语从句,其含义是“虽然……,尽管……” Although/Though/Even though I felt sorry for him ,I was secretly pleased that he was having difficulties. 虽然我为他感到惋惜,但对他的困难我却暗自高兴。 take a photograph of… 拍……的照片 He took a photograph of his house before he left home. run into trouble = get into trouble 遇到麻烦,陷入困境 Each time he ran into trouble, he asked his parents for help. 3、At one point, it seemed certain that their plane would crash. at one point 在某一地方,在某一时刻(point 也指时间上的某一点) At one point, he made up his mind to become a painter.他曾一度下决心要当个画家。 it为先行主语,真正的主语为that 引导的从句。it作先行主语时经常与seem,appear,look等连用: It now looks certain that the meeting is going to be put off. 现在似乎可以肯定会议将被推迟。 4、It could only get over the mountains if it rose to 10,000 feet. rise to … 上升至…… 5、The plane was then able to rise and it cleared the mountains by 400 feet. by表示“相差,以……之差”的意思 I missed the train by ten minutes. 我晚了10分钟,没赶上火车。 He is younger than me by two years. 他比我小两岁。 【Key structures】 Can and Be able to 情态助动词can/could用于表示请求别人允许或答复时的情况: Can/Could I borrow you pen? can有时可以表示可能性: I can have lunch with your tomorrow if you like. 在表示天生的或学到的能力时,can/could可用于现在时和过去时,can/could与be able to通常可以互换, 表示将来的“能力”时,则用will be able to: I could drive a car by the time I was sixteen. I tried again and found I could/was able to swim. Can Jane swim yet? No, but she’ll be able to swim in a few months’ time. 在谈到说话时正在发生的事时,一般不用be able to: Look! I can stand on my head. 在表示成功地完成某一具体动作时,通常不用could,而用be able to;如果表示某一动作没有取得成功, 则可用couldn’t: It’s pity he couldn’t visit Mary. Oh, didn’t you know? He was able to visit her after all. He was able to leave Europe before the war began. 他在战争开始之前得以离开欧洲。 He was able to go to London yesterday and he enjoyed himself very much. 在问及过去某一具体活动时可用could,但回答是肯定的时候则不能: Could he borrow a car? Yes, he was able to borrow a car after all./No, he couldn’t. 【Special Difficulties】 含有介词 at 的词组 at与许多词可以构成固定词组,其中表示时间的有:at first(开始时,最初),at once(马上,立刻),at present(目前,现在),at last(最后,终于),at times(有时),at the moment(现在);表示地点的有:at home(在家),at school(在学校);表示程度的有:at least(至少),at any rate(不管怎样);其它词组有at heart(内心里,实际上),at a loss(困惑不解,不知怎么办)等。 At any rate, I’m determined to stay here at present. At least, I’m not mad yet. People have more money now, yet the temptation诱惑 to steal is greater than ever before. Why? I’m at a loss. Though he tried to made conversation with the lady, he wasn’t interested in her at heart. ★Lesson 44 Through the forest ★risk n. 危险,冒险 ① n. 危险,风险 Is there much risk of losing money in doing football pools?赌球是不是会有输钱的风险? John took/ran the risk of damaging his bus and drove it into the back of the thieves’car. 约翰冒着撞坏他开的那辆公共汽车的危险把它撞在了小偷们的车的后尾上。 John saved me at the risk of his own life. 约翰冒着生命危险救了我。 ② vt. 冒……危险,使……遭受危险 We’d better take a taxi. We can’t risk missing the plane. John risked his own life to save me. ★breath n. 呼吸 out of breath 上气不接下气 waste one's breath 白费口舌 in one breath 片刻, 转眼间 He finished water in one breath. 他一口气把水喝完了. hold one's breath 屏住呼吸 bad breath 口臭 You have a bad breath. 你有口臭. ★contents n. (常用复数)内有的物品(具体的东西) contents of the bag 包里的书 More contents! (口语) 在吃饭时要求再加些饭菜时可以这样说. content n. 内容(抽象) content of the text 文章的内容 【课文讲解】 1、Mrs. Anne Sterling did not think of the risk she was taking when she ran through a forest after two men. think of… 考虑,思考 Have you ever thought of settleing down in this town? take a risk(of doing) 冒……风险 run after 追赶;追随;追求 The police are running after a thief. run behind 在某人后面跑 I ran behind him. run to 跑向 2、They had rushed up to her while she was having a picnic at the edge of a forest with her children and tried to steal her handbag. rush up to sb. 迎面冲向某人 up向上,面对面,与说话人相反方向;down方向相同,与说话人相同方向 go down 接着往前走,不用回头 up to可以表示地点、时间等“一直到……” The child ran up to his mother when he saw her. He worked up to nine o’clock in the evening. have a picnic 野餐 at the edge of 在……的边上 The park lies at the edge of the town. 3、In the struggle, the strap broke and, with the bag in their possession, both men started running through the trees. in one's possession = in the possession of sb. 为某人所拥有…… I went out of the book shop with book in my possesion. The house used to be in my possession, but now it is in the possession of an old lady. 4、She was soon out of breath, but she continued to run. out of breath 上气不接下气,喘不上气 Tom ran to the shop to get some salt for his mother. When he reached there, he was quite out of breath. continued to do sth. 接着做…… 5、When she caught up with them, she saw that they had sat down and were going through the contents of the bag, so she ran straight at them. go through (仔细地)搜查,在……中搜寻,浏览,翻看(速度较快的看) She went through her bag, but she couldn’t find her key. catch up with sb. 追上,赶上(强调结果) contents of the bag 包里的东西 run (straight) at (at 强调瞄准,一般与straight 相连都用at) 6、'The strap needs mending,' said Mrs. Sterling later, 'but they did not steal anything.' need作“需要”为讲时,后面接的动名词有被动的含义。 【letter writing】 信封上的地址的书写方式:收信人的姓名和地址必须在信封的中央,称呼总是和姓名连在一起的: Mr. James Thompson;James Thompson Esq.;Miss H. Thompson;Mrs. D Thompson;Mr. and Mrs. J. Thompson, Esq.‡ Esquire写信时对男性的尊称(放在人名的后面),等同于Mr. 但位置不同 Mr.and Mrs.(已婚),一般夫妇一起邀请 先写人名,再写地址,写信人的地址写在信封背面,或放在信中 【Key structures】 动名词 1、动名词可以做主语、宾语、介词宾语等 Washing the car made me tired. Before leaving the office, he gave me a book. I am very keen on cycling. He sat there without saying anything. 他坐在那里, 一言不发. That’s no excuse for not mending the chair! 这不是你不修椅子的借口! 2、动名词还可以用于“动词+介词”之后 look forward to doing sth. 期待、盼望做某事 I am looking forward to seeing him tomorrow. be accustomed to doing sth. 习惯于做某事 I am accustomed to getting up early. 我习惯早起. be used to doing sth. 习惯做某事 I am used to getting up early. 我习惯早起. 比较:I used to get up early but I don't anymore. 我过去常早起, 但现在不再早起了。 devote to doing sth. 奉献给某事, 把……奉献给…… devote oneself to doing sth. 全身心投入做某事 She devotes herself to teaching. My mother devotes herself to doing homework. object to doing sth. 反对做某事 I object to eating out. 我反对在外面吃饭. get/be tired of doing sth. 对……厌烦, 作为系动词get可与be 替换 believe in 信任,信仰 believe in + sb. 表示信任某人,信仰某人 believe in + doing sth. 表示我的信条是... I belive in taking it easy. (take it easy 轻松,放松,慢慢来) accuse sb. of doing sth. 因某事控告某人(accuse vt. 控告;指控) The police accused him of stealing. 警方控告他犯有盗窃罪. 3、在start,begin,continue等后面,既可以用不定式又可以用动名词,区别不大: I began to learn/learning English two years ago. 4、在love,like,prefer等动词后,用不定式和动名词意义有所区别。 hate,love,like+doing sth. 表示一种习惯(always) hate,love,like+to do sth. 表示某一次性的行为(now) would love /like to do sth. 表示想要, 习惯于在前面加 would 餐厅服务员习惯会问: “Would you like to…?”,而不会用 “Do you like…?”,他只关心你现在想吃什么,而不管你平常吃什么。 I hate to do sth.… 不喜欢…… I hate to say I have no money , but I really need some. 说明这个人要向你借钱了 I hate to say but I really have something important to do. 你想拒绝别人的邀请时可用的句型 prefer…to…结构中只能用动名词 Why don’t you drive to work instead of walking? 为什么你不架车上班来代替走路了? I prefer walking to driving. 5、在need,want之后,动名词形式具有被动的含义,相当于被动的不定式: 如果以物体做主语,可以直接加动词-ing,表达被动的含义 My shirt is torn. It needs mending. 我的衬衫撕破了, 需要缝补. Those windows are dirty. They want washing. 那些窗户很脏, 需要洗刷. 【Special Difficulties】 catch and run catch主要意思是“抓住、捉住、逮住”,但有时可以表示“(及时)赶上、追上”等: He ran quickly to catch the last bus home. When she caught up with them, she saw that they were going through the contents of the bag. run的本意是“跑”,后面加上不同的小品词可以表达“追赶,逃跑”等多种含义: She has run off with all his money. The man ran away with her bag. 【Mutiple choice questions】 4 They were going through the contents of the bag. ___c___she ran straight at them. a. For this b. That's because c. That's why d. That's so that's后一般加特殊疑问词引导的从句,或that's all加从句 for 加句子的时候, 习惯上放在主句之后,表示“由于某个理由”,不说for this 而说for this reason 5 They got such a fright. They were ___c___. a. so frightful b.such frightened c.so frightened d.such fright so +adj./adv.;such +n. (d 应为 such a fright) frightful = terrible adj. 糟糕 frightened adj. 感到害怕的 6 The strap needs mending. It ___b___. a. has mended b. has to be mended c. has been mended d. has been mending 10 They tried to steal her handbag. They tried to ___a___her of her handbag. a. rob b. steal c. be robbed d. be stolen steal后面加物(steal sth. from sb.);rob的后面加人(rob sb. of sth.) 8 She took a risk. What she did was ___a___. a.dangerous b.brave c.clever d.stupid 这里what 有点类似于汉语中的 “兼语” 的概念,what=the thing that The thing that/which surprised me is that my brother will come. =What surprised me is that my brother will come. (更多用这种表达) What I said is true. 我所说的话是真的 That is what I heard. 那就是我所听到的事情 What I saw made me sad. What you said made me sad. ★Lesson 45 A clear conscience ★conscience n. 良心, 道德心 a clear conscience 问心无愧 I have a clear conscience. 我问心无愧 a guilty/bad conscience 问心有愧 (guilty adj.犯罪的, 有罪的, 心虚的) I have a guilty conscience. 我问心有愧 ★wallet n. 皮夹, 钱夹 (一般指的是男用的那种皮夹) purse n. 钱包(女士用) handbag n. 手袋 billfold n. 皮夹, 钱包(美语) (意为纸币折叠形成的, 很形象) ★savings n. 存款 savings account 存款账号(有利息的, 有点象活期存款) checking account 存款(没有利息) deposit n. 定金 deposit account 存款(有利息, 有点象定期存款) ATM (auto teller machine) 自动取款机 self-service machine 自助银行 cash card 取款卡 IC ① interchange 高速公路转换出入口 ② integrate circuit [电]集成电路,指令计数器 ★per cent 百分之…… three per cent 百分之三 【课文讲解】 1、A clear conscience 问心无愧 a clear conscience又可译为“清白的良心”,相当于a good conscience,反义词a bad conscience(感到内疚)。 2、 The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been lost. village在这里为总称,指“村民”,the whole village指“全村的人”,后面通常跟单数动词(有时也可视为复数) The whole village was excited by news. learn v. 得知,获悉 the whole world learnt… 全世界都知道…… I’ve just learnt that she was ill. a large sum of… 一大笔…… 3、Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while taking his savings to the post office. while doing是现在分词短语用于连词之后,作用相当于一个时间状语从句。现在分词这样用的前提是两个动词的主语是同一个,并且这两个动作通常是同时发生(即这句话一定要是进行时态)。如果主语不一致则必须用从句。 这句话完整的应为: while he was taking his savings… 4、Sam was sure that the wallet must have been found by one of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. must have done 表示对过去的推测;must have been done 表示对过去被动的推测 5、Three months passed, and then one morning, Sam found his wallet outside his front door. 三种表示一段时间以后,另外一件事情发生的方式: ① …passed, and then ② some time later ③ some time passed before… 6、It had been wrapped up in newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost, together with a note which said: 'A thief, yes, but only 50 per cent a thief!' wrap up 包裹 It had been wrapped up in newspaper by somebody. (用报纸包用in,不能用by) half the money =half of the money 钱的一半(half 直接加在名词前表示 “一半” ) half an hour 半个小时 , half a year 半年 Half the bread/half of the bread was bad. together with… = with… 随它一起的还有……(介词短语作状语) I with my son went there. 我带着我的儿子去了 My son and I went there. 我和我儿子去那里。 a note said… 纸条上说…… the picture said… 图片上说…… newspaper said… 报纸上说…… 7、Two months later, some more money was sent to Sam with another note: 'Only 25 per cent a thief now!' some more money 又有一些钱 (more 又, 再) 8、In time, all Sam's money was paid back in this way. in time = in the end 最终,最后,经过一段时间 In time, he found all the books he needed. I’ll tell you everything in time. pay back 还回来 in the way 以这种方式 You must pay attention to your spelling. In this way, you can become a good secrtary in time. 【Special Difficulties】 Steal and Rob steal (something from someone or somewhere) 偷(从某人或某处) steal (sth.) from (sb.) steal后跟(被偷)物 The man who stole my wallet took my address book as well. Someone has stolen my bag from me. rob (someone of something)(a building,a blank,a house,etc.)抢(某人的某物)(大楼银行房子等) rob (sb.) of (sth.) rob后跟人或地方 I lost my address book when that man robbed me of my bag. The police have caught the men who robbed the bank. Pay back ① 偿还 Yesterday Sam borrowed some money from me and said that he would pay me back in a week. ② 报答;向……报复(pay sb. back) You’ve been very kind to me. How can I pay you back? I’ll pay you back for what you did to me. 你对我这样,我一定会报仇的。 He embarrassed me at the party. I’ll pay him back someday. ★★Lesson 46 Expensive and uncomfortable ★unload v. 卸(货) load v. 装货 ★extremely adv. 非常, 极其 extremely 把一个形容词或副词推到了极限,达到了无以复加的程度 I am extremely tired. 我累极了 ★occur vi. 发生 ① vi. 发生 When did the accident occur? ② vi. 被想起,被想到 It occured to sb. that… 某人想起了…… It occured to me that I didn't finish my homework. 我想起我还没完成作业 It occurs to sb. to do sth. 某人想起了…… It suddenly occurred to one of the workers to open up the box. 突然一个工人想到打开箱子看看 sth. occur to sb. 某人突然想起某件事 (从后面往前面翻) A good idea occured to me. = I have a good idea. happen vi. 发生 What happened/occured ? It happened to me… 这件事发生在我身上 What happened to the clavichord? What happened to you? = What's wrong with you? 什么事发生在你身上? ★astonish vt. 使惊讶 如果一个动词跟人的情绪有关,则它的宾语是人,其形容词有两个:令人 –ing;感到 -ed astonishing adj. 令人惊讶 ; astonished adj. 感到惊讶的 I am surprised.-->astonished-->astounded-->shocked 惊讶程度递增 surprise 最常用,但意思肤浅 astonished 难以置信的事 astound vt. 使惊骇, 使大吃一惊 (非常吃惊, 目瞪口呆) shock 不快的事情 ★discover v. 发现 (属于那种以前你不知道的事现在知道了) discovery n. 探索,发现 ★admit v. 承认 ① vt. 承认,供认 admit sth. / admit doing sth. 承认做某事 I admit having lunch. admit that… 承认…… Sally admitted that she had used your dictionary. deny sth. /deny doing sth. 拒绝做…… ② vt. 准许……进入,准许……加入 Without a ticket you won’t be admitted into cinema. They won’t admit him into/to the government. ★confine v. 关在或局限在某个地方(一个狭小的空间里) sb. was confined to +地点 某人被关在某个地方 sb. was confined to the room. 【课文讲解】 1、Expensive and uncomfortable It is too expensive! 贵得令人不能接受 The book is dear. 这本书有点贵(dear adj.昂贵的, 亲爱的) 2、When a plane from London arrived at Sydney airport, workers began to unload a number of wooden boxes which contained clothing. a number of… 许多,若干…… You’ve made a number of mistakes in typing this letter. unload 的含义为“卸(货)”,它的反义词为load(装货)。 与 形 容词uncomfortable,unsmiling等相似,有些动词加前缀un可以表示做相反的动作。 clothing服装的总称,不可数名词,在分类时强调衣服这一种类,可以包括鞋、帽等;clothes一般指衣服,表示"衣服"的单数名词的复数形式, 表示许多衣服。 3、No one could account for the fact that one of the boxes was extremely heavy. No one could account for the fact that… 谁也弄不清楚……这样一个事实 No one knows… 没有人知道…… account for = explain= give the explanation 说明原因、作出说明(或解释),但也有区别,account 的解释必须是令人满意的,而 explain 却只要是一个解释就行 The bad weather in England accounts for Harrison’s decision to leave the country. How do you account for the battered car? that后面的从句为fact的同位语从句,说明 fact的具体内容。 一个句子跟在一个名词后,可以是定语从句,也可以是同位语从句。两者的区别是同位语从句后的 that是起解释说明的作用,而定语从句是起修饰作用;that 在从句中做主语或宾语成分,则是定语从句,that在从句中不能做主语或宾语成分,则是同位语从句 My friend Lucy 同位语 He couldn’t explain the fact that Mary’s wallet was found in his room. 4、It suddenly occurred to one of the workers to open up the box. sth. occurred to sb. 某人想起某事 open up 打开 When he received the gifts, he opened them up at once. 5、He was astonished at what he found. sb. be astonished at sth. 某事使/让某人吃惊 Sam appears astonished at the news/sound. what引导名词性从句作介词at的宾语,what = the thing which/that… 6、A man was lying in the box on top of a pile of woollen goods. a pile of 一堆…… piles of snow 一堆堆的雪 on top of 在……之上(与顶端有接触面) at the top of 在……上方(at the top of之前的词属于其之后的词的范围之内) 7、He had had a long and uncomfortable trip, for he had been confined to the wooden box for over eighteen hours. have a trip = go on a trip be confined to 把……限制起来 Last weekend, Tom’s mother confined him to his room. for在文中这里强调事实, 而非原因 over = more than 8、The man was ordered to pay $3,500 for the cost of the trip. pay…for… 为……付钱,为……付出代价 She paid $50 for that dress. cost of… ……的花费, 费用 the cost of government 政府开支 【Key structures】 与 to, at, for和 with连用的动词 与to连用的动词:accustom(ed) to(习惯于);amount to(达到);appeal to(呼吁);apply to /for(适用于);attach(ed) to(附属于);attend to(参加);belong to(属于);challenge to(向……提出挑战);compare to /with(比较);condemn(ed) to(判刑);confess to(承认);confine to(限制);consent to(同意);convert to(改信(某宗教));entitle(d) to(享有权利);listen to(听);mention to(提到);object to(反对); occur to(想到); prefer to(更喜欢);react to /against(对……反应);reply to(回答);respond to(响应);see to(注意);submit to(服从于); surrender to(向……投降);turn to(转向);yield to(屈服)。 I prefer listening to music to reading newspapers. Will you see to this flower while I’m away? 我不在的时候你照看一下这花好吗? I shall see to the dinner tonight. 今晚我做晚饭。 与 at 连用的动词:amused at/by(对……感到有趣);arrive at/in(到达);astonish (ed) at/ by(感到惊愕);exclaim at(惊叫);glance at(对……看一眼);guess at(猜测);knock at(敲);look at(看);point at/to(指向);shock(ed) at / by(感到震惊);stare at(盯着……看);surprise(d) at /by(感到惊讶);wonder at/about(感到惊异);work at/on(钻研)。 at 通常用于表达感情的一些词之后,并且这些词往往用被动语态,at 用于其它动词之后一般为主动语态。 He was astonished at what he found. Dan was both surprised and amused at the news. 与 for连用的动词:account for(说明(原因));ask for/of(请求);act for/on(代表);apologize for(因……而道歉);blame for(责备);beg for(乞求);call for(需要);charge for(收费);exchange for(交换);hope for(希望);look for(寻找);mistake for(误认为);mourn for(哀悼);pay for(为……付款);prepare for(准备);provide for(提供);search for(寻求);thank for(感谢);vote for/on 投票支持;wait for/on(等候)。 He was searched for the stolen money. Can you account for his strange behavious? 与 with连用的动词:agree with(同意);begin with(以……开始);communicate with(与……联络);compare with/to(与……比较);compete with/against(同……竞争);comply with(同意;confuse with(误作);contrast with/to(形成对照);cope with(对付);correspond with(与……一致);disgust(ed) with(使……讨厌);finish with(完成);help with/ in(帮助);interfere with/in(干扰);mix with(混合);occupy(ied) with(从事于);part with(放弃);please(d) with(对……满意);quarrel with/about(争论);reason with(规劝);satisfy (fied) with/by(感到满足);threaten (ed) with(威胁)。 I’m pleased with this room. Sam used to mix with those people. 萨姆过去常与那些人交往。 We’ll begin with the exercises. 我们从练习开始。 ★Lesson 47 A thirsty ghost ★thirsty adj. 贪杯的;adj. 渴的 be thirsty for = be hungry for 渴望得到(如饥似渴) I am thirsty for the book. ★ghost n. 鬼魂 ghost强调魂,并不是邪恶的象征 ‘Ghost’ --- 影片《人鬼情未了》的英文名 ★haunt v. (鬼)来访, 闹鬼 haunt=visit 但不能应用于人的拜访,只能用在 ghost the ghost haunt 闹鬼 The ghost haunted the house. 这个房子闹鬼 ★block v. 堵 The pipe was blocked. ★furniture n. 家具, 设备, 储藏物(不可数名词) a piece of furniture 一件家具 a set of furniture 一套家具 ★whisky n. 威士忌酒 Scotch n. 一种上等的威士忌 wine n. 果酒,如葡萄酒,石榴酒 beer n. 啤酒 brandy n. 白兰地 ★suggest v. 暗示 ① vt. 暗示,(间接地)表明 His silence suggested that he knew something about the man. ② vt. 建议,提议 suggest +that从句 I suggest that we meet at the restaurant. suggest +doing sth. I suggest meeting at the restaurant. ★shake(shook,shaken) v. 摇动 ① vt.&vi. 摇,摇动,抖动 Mr. Thompson shook his head. His hands appear to be shaking. 他的手看上去在发抖。 ② vt. 同……握手 Dan shook hands with him. =Dan shook him by the hand/shook his hand. ★accept v. 接受 accept = receive sth.with pleasure) 【课文讲解】 1、A public house which was recently bought by Mr. Ian Thompson is up for sale. a public house 酒吧、酒店,口语缩略为pub up for sale 有待出售,供出售(up 为形容词,“已提出的,供……的) be up for 有待于……,为了某一目的 This problem is up for discussion.这个问题有待于讨论 on sale 打折卖 for sale 拿出来卖的 2、He told me that he could not go to sleep one night because he heard a strange noise coming from the bar. hear sb.doing sth. 听见某人正在做某事 在一些表示感觉的动词如see,hear,feel,watch,notice等之后,往往用“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”这个结构,其宾语补足语既可以是不定式(通常不加 to),也可以是现在分词,两者在意义上区别不大,现在分词表示动作正在发生,不定式则表示动作发生了: I heard someone knocking at the door. 我听到有人正在敲门。 I heard you sing this song yesterday. 昨天我听到你唱这支歌。 bar 为酒吧或酒店中卖酒的柜台 3、Though Mr.Thompson had turned the lights off before he went to bed, they were on in the morning. on为形容词,表示“开着的,接通的”,其反义词为 off。 When he arrived home, he found that all the lights were on/off. Is the TV on? I thought I had turned it off. (turn off 关闭) 4、He also said that he had found five empty whisky bottles which the ghost must have drunk the night before. the night before 前一天晚上 , last night 昨天晚上 the week before 前一个星期 , last week 上个星期 the day before 前一天 , yesterday 昨天 the next day 下一天 , tomorrow 明天 直接引语变成间接引语时间状语要改变。now——>then,last night——>the night before,two days ago——>two days before/earlier,today——>that day,tonight——>that night,tomorrow——>the next/following day,last night——>the night before等。 5、When I suggested that some villagers must have come in for a free drink, Mr.Thompson shook his head. for 表目的,a free drink 免费饮料 shake one's head 摇头,表示异议 nod one's head 点头 6、The villagers have told him that they will not accept the pub even if he gives it away. even if he gives it away 即使他白送人 even if 即使,它引导的让步状语从句含有很强的假定性 I won’t have dinner with him even if he pays for it. give away 捐献,免费的送,赠送 He gave all his books away to the library. ★Lesson 48 Did you want to tell me something? ★pull v. 拔 ① vt.&vi. 拉,拖,牵,扯(反义词push vt. 推) I felt someone pulling my arm. pull one's leg 开某人玩笑 You are pulling my leg. 你在开我玩笑 Don't pull my leg any more. 不要再开我玩笑 You are kidding. 你在开玩笑 No kidding! 不要开玩笑了! You are joking. (joke n.笑话, 玩笑 v.(和……)开玩笑) ② vt.&vi. 拔,抽 You’re pulled out the wrong teeth! He pulled an address book from his pocket. ★collect v. 搜集 ★collection n. 收藏品, 收集品 collect salary 领工资;collect money 筹集资金; collect stamp 集邮;collect children 收养孩子 ★nod v. 点头 ① vt.&vi. 点头,点头示意/招呼 I asked him if he wanted to come and he nodded his head. When we meet each other in the office, he always nods at me. ② vi. 打盹,打瞌睡(常与off连用) He used to nod off during the French class. As he was very tired, he nodded over his reading. 因为他很累,所以他一边看书一边打盹。 ★meanwhile adv. 同时 meanwhile = at the same time = in the same time 用法和 however 一样,不能连接两个句子,但是意思上有承接概念 【课文讲解】 1、Dentists always ask questions when it is impossible for you to answer. impossible通常不以人作主语,而以不定式或从句作主语: It is impossible for him to help you. =It is impossible that he will help you. 2、In answer to these questions I either nodded or made strange noises. in answer to… 作为对……的回答;响应……的请求 In answer to my request, he wrote a letter to George. 应我的请求,他给乔治写了封信。 in return for 作为对……的报答 3、Meanwhile, my tongue was busy searching out the hole where the tooth had been. meanwihile 在此期间,与此同时 He won’t come until ten o’clock. Meanwhile you can have a rest. Mary was talking to me about her new dress. Meanwhile I was thinking about something else. be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事 search out 找出,搜寻 Have you searched out the books I needed? where = 介词 + which That is the house which I lived in. 这是我住的房子 =That is the house where I lived. where称为关系副词,另外还有when也是关系副词 This is the river where I swim. (where作定语从句的标志,修饰前面的river) The tooth had been in the hole. (in the hole = where) 4、When the dentist at last removed the cotton wool from my mouth, I was able to tell him that he had pulled out the wrong tooth. remove可以表示“拿去,除去,去掉”,通常结构为“remove +名词 +from”,也可以单独使用: I’ve removed that picture from the wall. Please remove your hat. ★Lesson 49 The end of a dream ★tired adj. 厌烦的 be/get tired of sth./doing sth. 讨厌做某事 ★real adj. 真正的 (强调东西不是假的) true adj. 真挚, 真诚, 符合标准 (强调符合某个标准) real man 真人;true man 男子汉,好汉 ★spring n. 弹簧 spring n. 春天;泉水 fountain n. 人工喷泉 ★mattress n. 床垫 mat n. 垫子 (如杯垫) cushion n. 座垫 ★gust n. 一阵(阵)风 a gust of anger (一阵)无名火 breeze n. 微风 gale n. 大风,(突发的)一阵风(风力比gust强) wind n. 风的总称 ★sweep (swept[swept],swept) n. 扫刮 ① vt. 扫,打扫 She sweeps the floor/the room every morning. ② vt. (风)吹;刮 A gust of wind swept the bed off the roof. sweep sth. away 把……刮走 The newspaper has been swept away by the wind. blow v. 刮 ★smash v. 碰碎, 摔碎 ① vt.&vi. 打碎,摔碎,(使)碎裂 The cup smashed on the floor. smash sth. into pieces 把……摔成碎片 The bed was smashed to piece. crash v. 受挤压而变碎 The egg is easy to crash. cut sth. into pieces 切碎, 剪碎 tear sth. into pieces 撕碎 break v. 打碎 crack v. 裂开不碎 ② vt.&vi. 重击,殴打,猛砸/撞 Why didn’t you smash the man with your fist? A car smashed into the wall. ★courtyard n. 院子 court n. 院子,庭院;法庭 yard n. 院子 backyard n. 后院 ★glance v. 扫视 glance at 扫了一眼(有意识地看) glare at 瞪着(生气的) stare at 盯着 gaze at 盯着(无限神往, 羡慕地看) ★promptly adv. 迅速地 promptly=at once, immediately 【课文讲解】 1、Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man in Teheran saved up for years to buy a real bed. be tired of 对……感到厌倦,在这句话里省略了现在分词being,用形容词短语直接做原因状语其作用相当于原因状语从句as he was tired of…。 I always go to bed hungry. (用形容词直接做状语) Worried about my daughter, Lucy, she went to London to visit Lucy. I went home. I am tired. => I went home tired I went home excited. save up 攒钱,储蓄 I want to get married in one or two years, so I’m trying to save (some money) up. 2、For the first time in his life, he became the proud owner of a bed which had springs and a mattress. for the first time in one's life 平生第一次 He became the proud father of a baby. 我自豪的成为一个孩子的父亲了. 3、Because the weather was very hot, he carried the bed on to the roof of his house. on to(onto) 类似与 in to(into),用于表示动作方向而不用于表示静态的位置,不但有“去”的概念还有把它放到“on”(上面)的概念。onto/on to有时可用on代替,但表示位置的on不可用onto代替: Lift sth. on to the cart. I put the pen onto/on the table. The pen is on the table. (不能用onto/on to) Mr. Thompson is jumped onto the stage. 汤普森先生跳上了台上。 Mr. Thompson jumped on the stage. 汤普森先生在台上跳了跳。 4、He slept very well for the first two nights, but on the third night, a storm blew up. for the first two nights 头两天晚上 I study hard for the first three days. for the last three nights 最后三天晚上 blow up <adv.> 风越刮越大(程度在加深),(指暴风雨)出现并加剧;刮起 speak up 大声点 5、A gust of wind swept the bed off the roof and sent it crashing into the courtyard below. gust表示“一阵强风,一阵狂风”,既可单独使用,也可用a gust of wind形式: A gust (of wind) blew my hat off. She set off even though the wind was blowing in gusts. 虽然当时阵阵狂风吹着,她还是出发了。 off = down/away from below 直接放在被修饰词之后作定语 crashing into the courtyard below是现在分词短语,作宾语补足语。crash (不及物动词)直接用主动形式,smash(及物动词)可用被动一个句子中不能出现两个动词,如果出现了两个动词,要用 and 或 but 连接;或者把其中一个作为非谓语动词to do(表目的),-ed(表被动),-ing(表主动)。 6、The young man did not wake up until the bed had struck the ground. not…until 表示“直到……才”,until 前面没有 not 时,与表示一段时间的“持续动词”连用;有 not时,常用表示某一时间点的动词(或瞬间动词)连用: I’ll stay here until Monday. 我要在这儿呆到星期一。 I won’t leave until Monday. 我要到星期一才离开。 7、Although the bed was smashed to pieces, the man was miraculously unhurt. although 尽管;though 虽然,意义差不多,以从句出现 to pieces 粉碎地,成碎片地 The cup was broken to pieces. 8、Glancing at the bits of wood and metal that lay around him, the man sadly picked up the mattress and carried it into his house. glancing为现在分词,引导的短语相当于一个时间状语从句after he glanced at…。动词的ing形式一定强调某一个名词之间的主动关系。 glance v. 看一眼,扫视 Joe glanced through the newspaper while talking to me. 乔一边和我聊天,一边浏览报纸。 bits = pieces lie (lay,lain) 不及物动词,后面一定要加“around”,不能说成“lay him” 【letter writing】 大多数书信都以“dear”开头,后接姓名,“dear”这个词一定要在信纸的左手边顶格。第二行如要退格是退5个字符, 现在西方都是顶格写。 【Key structures】 复合句的语序 复合句可用两种方法构成:一是用连词把从句与主句连接起来;二是用分词结构或不定式。 1、用连词连接的复合句 ① 在复合句中,从句可以是名词从句(即起名词的作用)。在句子中,它可以作主语、宾语或be等系动词的表语,一般由that引导,有时也用what(疑问词引导的除外) I know (that) the meeting will be put off. ② 从句可以是关系(或形容词)从句,关系代词通常有who,whom,that,which和whose。 ③ 从句可以是状语(或副词)从句,时间状语连词有 when,after,before,as soon as,until,while,as,since等;地点状语从句连词有where,everywhere,anywhere等;方式状语从句连词有as或短语in the way (that)等,方式状语从句在动词be,feel,seem,appear等后面也可以由连词as if和as though来引导;原因状语从句由 because,as 等引导;条件状语从句可由 if 及其他连词引导;让步状语从句使句子具有对比的因素,它们一般由连词although,though,even though,even if等引导;目的状语从句可由so that,in order that等连词引导;结果状语从句描述结果,可由so+形容词+that引导,也可由such (a) +(形容词) + 名词 + that 来引导;比较状语从句结构包括as +形容词/副词 + as,not so/as … as,形容词/副词的比较级 +than,more…than,less…than等 He has been ill since he came back from his holidays. With a special train ticket, you can travel anywhere/everywhere you like in Europe for just over $100. Type this again as/in the way (that) I showed you just now. As you can’t go yourself, you’ll have to ask Susan go for you. 既然你自己不能去,那你就请苏珊替你去吧。 2、分词结构的复合句 ① 用现在分词结构可以代替时间从句、原因从句、关系从句等,现在分词结构的这种用法仅限于两个动作的主语一致的时候。用它代替时间从句时,分词结构表示的动作如果发生在前,则分词结构要位于主语前;如果两个动作同时发生,那么分词结构既可以位于主句前,也可以位于主句后。分词结构位于主句前面时,要用逗号隔开。 I got very angry speaking to them. Feeling tired, I went to bed earlier than usual. Following his mom, he went there.(主动概念, 跟着他母亲去了那儿) ② 过去分词结构常用于比较正式的文体,往往代替被动语态 Damaged in an accident, the car has now been repaired. Followed by his mom, he went there. (被动概念, 被他母亲带着跟着去了那儿) 3、不定式结构的复合句 这种结构通常可以代替表示目的或表示条件的状语从句: To get into university you have to pass a number of examinations. ★Lesson 50 Taken for a ride ★ride n. 旅行(不走路的);v. 骑(车, 马) trip n.(出差性的)旅行(旅行地方不远或呆的时间不长) travel n.(周游世界性的)旅行 journey n.(陆地上的)旅行 flight n.(空中)旅行 voyage n.(海上)旅行 tour n. 游玩 sightseeing n. 观光游 ★excursion n. 远足,游玩, 郊游(距离不会很远) weekend's excursion 周末游 a day's excursion 一日游 Tomorrow we will have a day's excursion. ★view n. 景色(主观性较强) in one's view=in one's opinion 就某人看来 sight n. 景色, 视线, 视野(强调客观) Can I have a room with a good view? 【课文讲解】 1、Taken for a ride take…for… 把……当作…… taken for a ride 就当作是一次兜风 take sb. for a ride 欺骗 taken for 上当了 2、I love travelling in the country, but I don't like losing my way. love/ like doing sth. 喜欢做某事(强调一种习惯) I love my brother, but I don't like his girlfriend. I love having dinner with you, but I don't like paying for dinner. lose one’s way 迷路 3、I went on an excursion recently, but my trip took me longer than I expected. go on an excursion =have an excursion 作一次短距离的旅行 go on 进行,为(某一目的)而去 I’ll go on holiday next month. Did you go on a trip last month? 花费某人多少时间 take sb. some time It takes sb. some time that… It takes sb. some time to do sth. My trip took me a long time. It took me a month to learn book 2. sb. spend some time (on) doing sth. sb. spend some time on sth I spent a month learning English. . 金钱上的花费cost, pay for sth. than I expected 比我所预料的(口语) The question is easier than I expected. You are more beautiful than I expected. You are better than I expected. The holiday took you longer than I expected. than I thought 比我原以为的 The English class took me longer than I thought. 4、'but I don't know where it is.' where it is 注意单词的连读,音标以元音音标结尾,字母以“re”或“er”结尾的,会与下一个元音之间加“r”这个音。 5、'I'll tell you where to get off.' answered the conductor. get on the bus 上车 ;get off the bus 下车 I will tell you where you can (should) get off. No one got on/off (the bus) at the last bus stop. “特殊疑问词+to+动词原形”可用来取代宾语从句 Can you tell me how I can get there? =Can you tell me how to get there? Can you tell me what I should do ? =Can you tell me what to do? I don't know which to choose. I wonder when to have a meeting. Can you tell me how to begin a letter? 【Key structures】 表示习惯性动作 表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词appear,appreciate,believe,feel,forget,hear,know,like,look,notice,remember,resemble,see,think,understand,belong to,consist of,contain,desire,detest,dislike,hate,hope,love,matter,mean,mind,need,want,wish常用于一般现在时而不用于进行时 【Special Difficulties】 Lose, Loose, Miss. lose vt. 失去,丧失,遗失,丢失 Roy has lost his job again. She lost her parents when she was sixteen. If you bet on that horse you will lose your money. (bet on sth 就……打赌) loose adj. 松动的,松的,松开的 Servral screws have come loose. (come loose,松了(系动词+adj.)) The handle of this suitcase is very / has come loose. miss v. 怀念, 思念, 错过,未能……,缺(课等),惦念,想念 Hurry or you’ll miss the train. I missed my English ★Lesson. missing adj. 不见了的 sth. is lost = sth. is missing missing boy 失踪了的孩子(不能用 “lost” ) Expect, Wait for expect 可以表示“预计……可能发生(或来到),等待,期盼”,它表示等待时往往侧重人的心理而不是具体在某个地方等。 I expect / I’m expecting to hear from you. I’m expecting the bus to arrive in the next ten minutes. My trip took me longer than I expected. wait for主要指“等待”这个动作本身。 I’m waiting for the next bus. ★Lesson 51 Reward for Virtue ★reward n. 报偿;v. 给奖赏 give sb. reward 给……报偿 reward sb. with sth. 用……奖赏... reward sb. for sth. 因为……给某人奖赏 …reward him for the first prize ★virtue n. 美德 strongpoints n. 长处, merit n. 优点 shortpoints n. 短处, weak points 弱点 ★diet n. 节食 go on a diet =be on a diet 实行节食 ★forbid(forbade,forbidden) v.禁止 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 Forbidden City 紫禁城 (被禁止的城市) ;Forbidden fruit 禁果 ★embarrass v. 使尴尬 sth. embarrass sb. ……让……感到尴尬 You embarrassed me. 你让我感到尴尬 embarrassing adj. 令人尴尬地;embarrassed adj. 感到尴尬 embarrassment n. 尴尬 To my embarrassment,… 让我感到尴尬的是…… ★guiltily adv. 内疚地 guiltily conscience 问心有愧 clear conscience 问心无愧 ★strict adj. 严格的 be strict with sb. 对某人严格 My father is strict with me. be strict in sth. 对……严格 ★occasionally adv. 偶而地 on the occasion 偶尔, sometimes 偶尔 ,at times 偶尔 off and on 偶尔 , now and again 偶尔 【课文讲解】 1、My friend, Hugh, has always been fat, but things got so bad recently that he decided to go on a diet. things(要用复数形式)可以表示“情况,情形,状况,形势”等含义: You’re surely made things worse. How are things going on with you? get 作不及物动词时可以表示“变得”: I got interested in French. diet用于表示治疗某种疾病或调节体重的“特种饮食”、“ 规 定 饮 食 ” 时 通 常 与 on连用: The doctor put him on a strict diet. 医生让他严格控制饮食。 I once went on a diet for a week and then I gave up. 2、First of all, he wrote out a long list of all the foods which were forbidden. first of all 首先, 首要 (许多事情中首要的, 即最重要的) First of all I must see your passpart. at first 首先(句型at first…, then… 起先……然后……) write out 写出,(正式)写,全部写出 You should werite out a report. 3、The list included most of the things Hugh loves: butter, potatoes, rice, beer, milk, chocolate; and sweets. most of… 大部分…… includ 和 contain 都有“包含”的意思,但 contain 可以用于表示所包含的全部事物;include 则只表示其中的一部分。contain一定是容器里面装,include 则含义更广,在这里不能用contain。 It included three bags of sweets. Does the bill include a tip? We’re including you in our team. 4、Yesterday I paid him a visit. pay sb. a visit 拜访某人 Pay you a visit. pay a visit to sb./someplace 拜访某人/某地. call up sb./at someplace 拜访某人/某地 have a visit=visit 5、I rang the bell and was not surprised to see that Hugh was still as fat as ever. as…as ever 像往常一样,照旧,依然 as clean as ever;as quiet as ever be surprised to do sth. / be surprised at sth. 6、He led me into his room and hurriedly hid a large parcel under his desk. lead sb. into(进门); show sb. out(出门); see sb. off(送行) 7、It was obvious that he was very embarrassed. obviously <adv.> = it was obvious that…(it 为形式主语) 显然…… 【Letter writing】 如果给一个不很熟悉的人写信, 应按如下方式开头:亲爱的布朗先生,亲爱的史密斯夫人。在姓名之后总要加上一个逗号。对对方熟悉, 但是为了表示一种尊重, 也可这么写。 写信开头:你的姐姐(Dear +姐姐的名字), 你的朋友比尔(Dear Bill), 你的老板(Dear Mr./Mrs. +某人), 你的老校长(Dear Mr./Mrs. +姓)。 在不知道对方性别姓名时 : 如应聘信开头 Dear Sir/Madam, 【Key structures】 一般过去时 与一般过去时常用的两个词是once 和recently,recently在表示“最近一段时期”时也可以与现在完成时连用。 一般过去时可以用于时间状语从句中,一般过去时可以用于与最近的打算比较时。 【Special difficulties】 Raise and Rise. rais作动词时只能作及物动词,即它必须跟宾语。它可以表示“举起,往上提,使……升高”等含义: Will those who agree with me please raise their hands? Why did they raise prices? Heavy rains have raised the level of the river this year. rise作动词时通常为不及物动词,表示“起立,起床,(日、月等)升起”等含义: You’re still in bed and the sun has already risen! All the students rose when the teacher came into the classroom. Lay and Lie. lay(laid,laid) vt. 置,搁,铺,准备 I laid your clothes on the bed so you could put them away. If you can’t cook the dinner, you can at least lay the table. lie(lay,lain) vi. 躺,平卧 Are you going to spend the whole morning lying in bed? Beat and Win. beat vt. 打败,战胜,胜过,超过 They beat their enemy, though they were fewer in number. I beat you. 我打败了你。 表示一个球队打败另一个球队也用beat。 win vt. 在……获胜(成功),赢得,获得,夺得 Who won the race/ the war? beat后面接对手,win不能接对手。 ★Lesson 52 A pretty carpet ★inch n. 英寸(度量单位) foot 英尺(pl. feet ); mile 英里 ★space n. 空间 ★actually adv. 实际上 =in fact 【课文讲解】 1、We have just moved into a new house and I have been working hard all morning. 现在完成进行时用来强调动作在某一段时间内一直在进行,而且动作有现在的结果。现在完成时表示在漫长地时间段,过去发生的, 还一定要对现在产生影响;在过去发生的动作, 一直延续到现在,现在完成时, 动词一定是延续性动词 It has rained for half day. It has been raining. 2、I have been trying to get my new room in order. get sth. in order 使……有秩序,把……整理好(get 使役动词) in order 整齐,井然有序,有秩序, 有次序 Get/Put everything in order before you leave the room. 3、This has not been easy because I own over a thousand books. ★own ① vt. 拥有 I own over a thousand books. ② vt. &vi. 承认 He owned to stealing the wallet. He owned (that) he had made a mistake. ③ adj. 自己的 He has a car of his own. He lives in his own house. 4、To make matters worse, the room is rather small, so I have temporarily put my books on the floor. to make matters worse 更糟糕的是……,插入语 I lost my way in the forest, and to make matters worse, it became dark. rather adj. 相当的 5、At the moment, they cover every inch of floor space and I actually have to walk on them to get in or out of the room. at the moment = now 现在,此刻,目前 every inch 每一英寸(夸张) Gold covered every inch of the ground in America. It is worth every penny of it. 6、A short while ago, my sister helped me to carry one of my old bookcases up the stairs. help sb. (to) do sth. 帮某人做某事(to 可省略) help sb. with sth. 帮某人做某事 He help me to learn English. He help me with my English. with one’s help 在某人的帮助下 With your help i made great progress. 7、'This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen,' she said. “I have ever seen” 做定语从句出现, 是最高级的标志 8、She gazed at it for some time then added, 'You don't need bookcases at all. You can sit here in your spare time and read the carpet!' gazed at 对……向往, 羡慕 not at all 完全不,起强调作用 in one’s spare time 某人空闲的时候,spare表示“空闲的,多余的” I like to read in my spare time. Have you got a spare moment? 你(现在)有空吗? 【Key structures】 现在完成时,现在完成进行时 现在完成时:have done,表示已完成的动作 现在完成进行时:have been doing,强调动作在某一段时间内一直在进行,而且动作现在有结果。到现在为止,该动作可能已不再继续进行,也可能还在继续进行,这要根据上下文来确定。句子中常含有 all+表示时间的词语如all day,all morning等或for 和since。 I have read the book. 书已看完 I have been reading the book. 还没看完, 还要继续 表示持续性的动词,如 learn,lie,live,rain,sleep,stand,可以同 since 或 for 副词短语连用,也可用于以how long开头的疑问句中: I’ve been working for Exxon for 15 years. 现在完成进行时还可以表示经常重复的动作: Jim has been phoning Jenny every night for the last week. 与段时间连用可以用现在完成时, 也可以用现在完成进行时, 但跟次数连用的, 一定只能用完成时, 不能用现在完成进行时 He has rung me up five times since 12 o’clock. 【语法精髓】 1、You should go to bed. You _____ (watch) TV for 5 hours. 2、I _____ (write) letters since breakfast. 3、I _____ (write) 3 letters since breakfast. 4、Sorry, but Mr.Smith _____ (leave) for Beijing. 5、I _____ (look) for him everywhere, where can he be? 1、have been watching/have watched 2、having been writing 3、have written 4、has left 和现在完成进行时连用的, 一定不能是次数;和现在完成进行时连用的动词, 一定不能是短暂动词, leave是瞬间动词 5、have been looking 通过 “where can he be?” 这句话可知人没找到, 还要继续找 【Special Difficulties】 形容词、相应的副词及其用法: 许多副词,特别是表示方式的副词,皆由形容词加-ly构成,如easy(容易的)/easyly(容易地),beautiful漂亮的)/beautifully(漂亮地)。 一 些 频 度 副 词 也 如 此 构 成 , 如 usual(通常)/usually(通常地)。 还有少数几个表示程度及观点的副词也都以-ly 结尾:high(高的)/highly(高度地),real(真的)/really(真正的)。 大 多 数 形 容词加 “ly” 变为副词 : 如 beautiful--beautifully,但是不是所有的形容词都可以加ly(asleep);不是所有的副词都一定以ly结尾(late);不是所有的加 ly的都是副词(lovely) 有些副词虽然由形容词加-ly构成,但在意义上与其相应的形容并不相同,如hard(勤奋的,困难的)/hardly(几乎不),cold(冷的)/coldly(冷淡的),late(迟到的,晚的)/lately(最近,近来),near(近的,接近的)/nearly(几乎,差不多,差点儿)。 有 些 副 词 有 两 种 形 式 。 有的意义相同,如cheap(廉价的)/cheaply(廉价地),但有的意义不同如late(迟,晚)/lately(近来),hard(努力地,猛烈地)/hardly(几乎不)。 late<adj. , adv.> 迟 ; lately adv. 近来(=recently) hard<adj. , adv.> 努力地(表示程度深), 困难地(=difficult) ;hardly几乎不 high<adj.>高的 ,〈adv.>高度地 ;highly〈adv.> 高度地 (不能用尺度测量的, 抽象的) deep<adj. , adv.> 深的; deeply 〈adv.> 深度地 (不能用尺度测量的, 抽象的) near<adj. , adv.> 在旁边的 ;nearly 〈adv.> 几乎, 将近 有些副词在形式上与形容词相同,如fast,past,far等。 大多数方式副词的位置一般在宾语或动词前面,表示时间的副词常位于句尾,有时也可位于句首。程度副词,如almost,enough,hardly,nearly,quite,rather,too等,大部分用在它们所修饰的动词之前。 副词修饰动词(walk quickly), 形容词(very beautiful), 副词词性本身(very much), 还可以修饰句子 Quite and Quiet quite adv. 完全,相当,很 I’m quite ready. 我已全准备好了。 Are you quite certain? 你敢完全肯定吗? quiet adj. 安静的,平静的,静止的,寂静的 The sea was very quiet this morning. 今天上午上海很平静。 The house became quiet again when the children were gone. ★Lesson 53 Hot snake ★hot adj. 带电的, 充电的 hot adj. 热的;新鲜的;棘手的;带电的, 充电的 hot-hot-hot 麻辣烫;hot-wings 辣鸡翅;hot dog 热狗 hot-tempered 火暴(脾气)的 (temper n. 脾气) hot line 热线;hot topic 热门话题 hot cake 热蛋糕 It sells like a hot cake/cakes. 表示一个东西的畅销, 热销 best seller 畅销的东西 hot potato 棘手的问题 hot news 最热点的新闻 ★fireman n. 消防队员 hydrant n. 消防栓, 消防龙头 fire extinguisher 灭火器 (extinguisher n. 熄灭者, 灭火器) extinguish=put out 灭火 ★cause v.& n. 引起;原因 ① v. 引起 cause sth. 引起麻烦 Carelessness causes accidents. 粗心导致事故 Pride causes failure. 骄傲使人失败 cause sb. to do sth. 引起某人做某事, 导致某人做某事 Illness caused him to lose his temper. (lose one’s temper 发火) ② n. 原因,强调事情发生的直接原因(一个) because 因为 reason 理由,其他各种的理由(很多个) ★examine v. 检查 examine the soil check v. 核实, 核对 ★accidentally adv. 意外地, 偶然地 (但更趋向于 “偶然” 的意思) accident->accidental->accidentally accident n. 事故 unexpectedly adv. 出乎意料地(更趋向于 “意外” 的意思) ★remains n. 尸体, 残骸 remains指 dead body ★solve v. 解决 solve the mystery solve the problem ★snatch v. 抓住 catch v. 抓,如抓鱼 hold v. 握着 snatch v. (突然抓起来)强调动作的突然性 seize v. 抓住(用力) seize my arm 【课文讲解】 1、Hot snake hot snake 触电的蛇 get a electric shock 触电 2、At last firemen have put out a big forest fire in California. at last 最后,终于 put out a fire 扑灭火(put out扑灭,熄灭,关掉) Please put the light/fire out. a fire 一场(堆)火 3、Since then, they have been trying to find out how the fire began. since then 从那时起,到现在为止 find out (经过研究、努力等)找出,发现,查出……(这里 find out的宾语是个从句) I’ll try and find out the name of the person who saved my life yesterday. 4、Forest fires are often caused by broken glass or by cigarette ends which people carelessly throw away. broken glass 被打碎的玻璃片 cigarette ends 烟头 5、They were also quite sure that a cigarette end did not start the fire. be able to 能够 ;be not able to 没有能够 be sure that 对……很有把握;quite sure 相当的把握性 rather adv. 相当 fairly adv. 相当, 公正地, 诚实地 quite(=completely)->rather->fairly 程度一个比一个轻 quite a few 颇有几个(相当多的) start a fire=cause a fire (start vt. 使……发生,引起) 6、This morning, however, a firemen accidentally discovered the cause. accidentally =by chance 偶然地 discover本身含有偶然发现(某个已经存在的东西)的含义 I don’t know who discovered America. 7、He noticed the remains of a snake which was wound round the electric wires of a 16,000-volt power line. notice 注意别人没注意的东西 the remains表示“尸体,残骸”,必须用复数形式: The villagers were surprised to see the remains of an aeroplane near the lake. 16,000-volt power line 连字符“-” 一旦加在两个词之间, 这个词之间就失去了加复数的资格, 能够加连字符的概念一定是做定语 ★wind vt. 缠绕,卷在……上;盘旋,蜿蜒 ① vt. 缠绕,卷在……上(常与 around/round连用) Did you wind this piece of wire round the tree? ② vt. 蜿蜒,盘旋 wind one's way 蜿蜒而行 8、In this way, he was able to solve the mystery. in this way 就这样 9、A bird had snatched up the snake from the ground and then dropped it on to the wires. had done 先发生的事 drop 无意掉下去的 10、When it did so, it sent sparks down to the ground and these immediately started a fire. do so 这么做 I refuse to do so. 我拒绝这么做 so常用于一些动词之后,代指前面提过的某个动作/某件事,以免重复 I think/believe so. 【Summary writing】 1 Have firemen put out a big forest fire in California or not? Have they been trying to discover its cause?(Now that ...) 2 Was there any evidence that it was started by broken glass or by a cigarette end or not? 5 Where did the snake wind itself? What had it sent to the ground? Did this cause the fire or not?(In winding... and) 1 Now that fireman have put out a big forest fire in California ,they have been trying to discover its cause. now that 既然 2 evidence n. 证据 区分同位语从句与定语从句地区别:如果 that 做了主语或者宾语, 是定语从句;如果 that 既不作主语也不作宾语, 是同位语从句 fact , evidence 的后面往往是加同为语从句 5 (In) winding itself around the wires the snake had sent sparks to the ground and it caused the fire. 介词“in”“ on”放在动词“-ing”前面的理解方式和没有“in”“ on”的理解方式一样 【Key structures】 一般过去时、现在完成时与现在完成进行时 一般过去时通常与一个表示确切的时间的状语连用,现在完成时则有时与表示一段时间的状语连用,有时不需要时间状语,而现在完成进行时则有时与表示一段时间的状语连用,有时与 all+表示时间的名词连用。现在完成时与一般过去时中既可以用状态动词(表示存在、拥有、感情、思想、需求等的动词)也可以用行为动词,现在完成进行时则通常与行为动词连用。 【Special Difficulties】 Throw to,Throw at and Throw away throw作及物动词主要含义为“投,掷,抛,扔”。 throw to (sb.) 扔给(某人) He threw the ball to me and I caught it. throw at 对准某一目标扔 The boy threw a stone at the window and broke it. throw away 扔掉,丢弃 Many people throw away cigarette ends carelessly. Cause and Reason cause ① n. 原因,起因; Do you know the cause of the war? What was the cause of the delay? ② v. 使……产生/发生,引起 cause sth. 导致, 引起 What caused the accident? cause sb. to do sth. 导致某人做某事 reason ① n. 理由,原因 Give me your reasons for going there. What was the reason for the delay? 作“原因”讲时,reason与 cause可以互换,但reason与介词for 连用;而cause则与介词of连用。 reason后面通常跟why引导的从句: That was the reason why the meeting was put off. ② v. 推理,劝导,说服 reason with sb. 劝说(以道理) How can you reason with him when he is so worried? Drop and Fall drop vi.&vt. (使)掉下,(使)落下,放下(强调的是不小心掉下来) As he walked past the tree, an apple dropped from it. The waiter dropped a fork. fall vi. 落下,(雨、雪)下,降,跌倒,摔倒(强调的是掉下来的概念, 动作) I fell and hurt myself. When leaves fall in autumn, I’ll come back. ★Lesson 54 Sticky fingers ★sticky adj. 粘的 as sticky as glue 和胶水一样粘 ★finger n. 手指 thumb 大拇指;index finger 食指;middle finger 中指; ring finger 无名指;little finger 小指 toe n. 脚趾 ★mix v. 混合, 拌和 ① vt. 使混和,拌和 I was busy mixing butter and flour. You can mix some salt into the flour. ② vi. 交往,相处 I’m not going to mix with those people. 我不打算和那些人来往。 Mary doesn’t mix much. 玛丽不太和人交往。 mixture n. 混合物 ★annoying adj. 恼人的 It is annoying. annoyed adj. 感到烦恼的(比 anger的语气弱) ★dismay v. 失望, 泄气 dismay sb. 让某人感到失望 dismaying adj. 令人失望;dismayed adj. 感到失望 ★recognize v. 认出,听出 ① vt. 辨出,认出,认识 I recognized the voice of Helen Bates. ②vt. 承认,确认,认可 It is recognized that Jane is the most intelligent girl among us. He recognized Dan as one of his best friends. ★persuade v. 说服, 劝说 persuade 表示劝说已经成功 try to persuade 劝说 reason with sb. 劝说,并不能说明是否劝说成功 ★mess n. 乱七八糟 口语中a mess用来指“困境,窘境,一团糟”等含义 What a mess! 真是糟糕透了! You are a mess! 你真邋遢 The man/woman is a mess. make a mess of sth. 把……搅得乱七八糟 He made a mess of my job. 他把我的工作搅得一团糟 Make some jam if you want to, but don’t make a mess in the kitchen. ★sign v. 签字 sign your name(s) here 在这签名 (许多人加 “s” ) sign for 签收 signature n. 签名 I need your signature. 我需要你的签名 autograph n. 明星, 名人的签名 (n. 亲笔签名;v. 签署) ★register v. 挂号邮寄 a registered letter 挂号信 【课文讲解】 1、The children were at school, my husband was at work and the house was quiet. at school 在上学;at work 在上班;at home 在家休息 school和work前都不加冠词,因为不是指具体那个学校或具体干什么工作,只是泛指他们在干什么。 home为副词,所以也不加冠词。 2、In a short time I was busy mixing butter and flour and my hands were soon covered with sticky pastry. be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事 flour 面粉, 不可数名词, 注意发音于 “flower” 相同, 但 “flower” 是可数名词, 一般会用复数 “flowers” be covered with… 盖满…… 3、At exactly that moment, the telephone rang. at exactly that moment 就在那时,恰恰在此时 exactly用于加强语气,表示“正、恰恰”: That’s exactly what I wanted to tell you. 4、Nothing could have been more annoying. No one could be/have been… 没有人…… No one could be /have been fatter. 没有人更胖了 Nothing could have been… 没有……更…… Nothing could have been cheaper. 没有什么东西更便宜了 Nothing could have been more exciting. 没有什么事情更令人激动 No face could be uglier. 没有一张脸更丑了 No books could be more interesting. 没有书更有趣了 5、I picked up the receiver between two sticky fingers and was dismayed when I recognized the voice of Helen Bates. pick up the receiver 捡起话筒 6、It took me ten minutes to persuade her to ring back later. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事 I persuaded him to give up that plan. persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做…… I persuaded him into giving up that plan. It takes sb. some time to do sth. 花费某人多久做某事(“it” 作形式主语) ring back 回电话;再打电话 later表示“过后,以后” Ten minutes later, the bus arrived. Please come back later (on). 7、At last I hung up the receiver. hang up 挂起 hang up the receiver 挂断电话 8、I had no sooner got back to the kitchen than the doorbell rang loud enough to wake the dead. no sooner…than… = hardly…when… 刚……就……(用于过去完成时) ★enough n.& adj.& adv. 足够 ① n. 足够 I have/had had enough. 我已经拥有足够了。 ② adj. 足够的 enough +n. / n. +enough 修饰名词 I have enough time/time enough. ③ adv. 足以…… enough修饰adj.或者adv.时一定要放在被修饰词的后面 enough to do sth. 足以用来做某事 He is rich enough to buy the whole city. 他富有的可以买下整个城市 The water in the pool is warm enough (to swim in). I am hungry enough to eat sth. 【Summary writing】 1 Did the writer return home from the shops or not? What did she begin to make? (As soon as) 1 as soon as= when,时间状语从句引导词,as soon as 强调这个动作一发生, 立即就发生了另一个动作;when 不强调两个动作紧密相连 4 Did she look at the mess she had made or not? (After that) after 作介词, 后接名词或代词作宾语;作连词, 后接句子 文中 “that” 为代词, “after that” 仅为介词短语 【Composition】 2 Two hours had passed.I smelled something burning.(When) Two hours had passed when I smelled something burning. …(time)passed, and then…;…(time)passed, before… 一般不会把 “when” 放在 “…(time)passed…” 之前, 这是一种习惯 something burning burning放在不定代词后面, “-ing” 表主动关系, 即表示东西正在燃烧. 【Letter writing】 在信的第一段里, 你应该提及你已经收到的一封信或促使你回信的某一事件 pleased to do sth. 非常高兴的 I was very pleased to learn that you are well. I was very pleased to learn that you have a baby. 恭喜你做爸爸了 Thank you for +n. 【Key structures】 The, Some and Any 1、some 和 any可用于不可数名词及复数可数名词之前,some 通常用于肯定句,any通常用于否定句或疑问句中。但在期待得到肯定答复的疑问句中也可以用some,而在肯定句中表示“随便哪 个,任何一个”的含义时也可以用any。 These are the only meat pies I have. Do you want some of them? Yes, please. Any meat pies will do. 2、有些形容词可以用于the之后(决不能用于a/an之后),表示作为整体的群体,如 the blind,the deaf,the living,the dead,the rich,the poor,the young,the old。这些形容词后要跟复数动词,不可用这些形容词本身来指个体: The Government always makes sure that the old are cared for. This is a special school for the deaf. 如果想指单数个体,则可以说: Sam is a young man with a lot of money. 3、当下列名词指其“主要目的”,即与其相关的动作时,要用零冠词(即名词前没有冠词)。 这 类 名 词有 bed,church,class,college,hospital,market,prison,school,sea,university,work。 但在特指的东西面前要用the,泛指同类事物中的任何一个时则用a。 4、在形容词/副词的最高级前面要用the,但当most表示“大多数”时它前面则不加the。 the most 最 most of the… 大部分的…… most of the young people 大部分年轻人 Most young men have to work hard. Most buildings in this district belong to the government. ★Lesson 55 Not a gold mine ★gold n. 金子 sth. be made of gold ……由金子做成的 gold watch;gold ring;golden sun 金色的太阳 golden] adj. 金色的, 宝贵的 Silence is golden. 沉默是金 golden opportunity 宝贵的机会 (opportunity n. 机会, 时机) golden sentence 黄金句型 I am honoured to have the opportuneity to do sth. I am glad to have the golden opportunity to do sth. I am glad to have the golden opportunity to stay with you. goldfish n. 金鱼 platinum n. 白金, 铂 ★treasure n. 财宝 (为总称, 没有复数) ‘treasure island’ 《金银岛》 jewel n. 宝石 珠宝, (可数) jewelry n. 珠宝, 珠宝类 珠宝(总称, 不可数) I have some jewels. = I have some jewelry. diamond n. 钻石 jade n. 碧玉 (不可数名词) jade palace 翠宫饭店 ★revealer n. 探测器 reveal v. 揭示 ★invent v. 发明 invention n. 发明 ★detect v. 探测 detective n. 侦探 ★pirate n. 海盗 pirate n. 海盗, 盗印者, 盗版者, 侵犯专利权者 vt. 盗印, 盗版, 掠夺, 翻印 vi.做海盗 ★arm v. 武装 ① n. 手臂;武器 hold one's arm Farewell! Arms 永别了, 武器 farewell int. 再会,别了!(常含有永别或不容易再见面的意思) ② v. 武装 Soldiers should be armed well. 士兵应该要很好的武装。 be armed with … 用……来武装 The youth should be armed with knowledge. 年轻人应该用知识武装自己 The teacher should be patient. =The teacher should be armed with patience. be covered with 被……覆盖 army n. 军队 ★soil n. 泥土 soil n. 土壤 (能生长植物的地方) earth n. 泥土 (泥巴) ★entrance n. 入口 entrance of/to… ……的入口 entrance of the park ; entrance to the park exit n. 出口, 太平门, 退场, 去世;vi. 退出, 脱离, 去世 ★thoroughly adv. 彻底地 completely/thoroughly/totally ★confident n. 有信心的 be confident of doing sth. 有信心做…… be confident that +从句 有信心做…… confidence n. 信心 【课文讲解】 1、Dreams of finding lost treasure almost came true recently. ★dream n. 梦;v. 做梦 ① n. 梦想 dreams come true 梦想成真 dreams ended 梦想破灭了, 梦断了 dream of … ……的梦 Dream of flying in the sky comes true. ② v. 做梦 dream of doing sth. I dream of flying in the sky.(dream v) come true 变成现实,(预言、期望等)成为事实,(愿意)实现 His dream to travel around the world at last came true. 2、A new machine called 'The Revealer' has been invented and it has been used to detect gold which has been buried in the ground. 一句话中只有一个动词, 如果再出现动词, 可以用and并列连接, 也可以变成复合句, 用when, because连接, 还可以使这个动词表示动词意思, 但不做谓语, 即非谓语动词 过去分词做定语, 表示 “被”,如ploughed field n. +called 被称之为……的……(如果用短语修饰其他词, 则把短语放在被修饰词的后边) the plane called a “Pilatus Porter” be used to do sth. 被用来…… used to do 过去常常 同位语从句中的引导词只有一个that,不会用which in the ground (更习惯于用 “under the ground” ) 3、The machine was used in a cave near the seashore where -- it is said -- pirates used to hide gold. it is said是插入语,当“据说”讲。 where = in which翻译时译为 “在那儿”,修饰 cave;一个地点状语从句 This is the river where I swim. 4、The pirates would often bury gold in the cave and then fail to collect it. would表示过去的习惯性动作, 但此处表示 “used to” 过去常做 fail to do sth. 未能、不能、忘记做某事项 (fail后面接动词不定式表示否定) He failed to see the reason why they sent him away. collect的含义之一为“(去)取,接” Don’t fail to collect me before you go to the party. I’ll collect my post on my way home. 5、Armed with the new machine, a search party went into the cave hoping to find buried treasure. 如果几个句子的主语是同一事物, 则可以把几个句子合并为一个句子。保留一个句子做主句, 其他的变成非谓语动词。非谓语动词采用何种形式, 则根据其与主语的关系, 如果是主动关系, 用-ing, 被动关系, 则用动词的-ed形式 主句与其他句子的位置安排要保持句子的平衡, 还要注意动作的连贯 The boy went home. The boy was crying. The boy was beaten. =Beaten by sb, the boy went home, crying. arm(ed) with 可以表示“带着、装着、穿着”等 Don’t worry. I’m armed with an umbrella. You’d better arm yourself with a warm coat. 6、Very excited, the party dug a hole two feel deep. Very exciting, … 形容词短语做状语 Tired of sleeping on the floor, … Tired, I went home./ I went home tired.句子顺序不同, 表达的意思也不同 two feet deep“数词+量词+形容词”结构可以做定语; 也可以做表语 I am five years old. The street is five meters wide. long/wide/high/deep,人有多高用 “tall” 7、In spite of this, many people are confident that 'The Revealer' may reveal something of value fairly soon. in spite of / though / even if 尽管 something of value of表示其所修饰的名词具有某种性质、状况,of加名词往往让人联想这名词对应的形容词 The news is of great importance to us. of value=valuable 有价值的 of small value 价值很小(= almost worthless) 形容词要放在不定代词的后边 something important =something of importance someone patient =someone of patience 【Summary writing】 1 Is‘The Revealer’a new machine or an old machine?Is it used for detecting buried gold or not?(which) 2 Did a search party use this machine or not? Where did they try to find gold recently?(Using this machine...) 3 Did they examine the cave thoroughly or not? Did they only find a small gold coin?Was it valuable or was it practically worthless?(Although...which) 4 Do many people believe that the machine may reveal something of value soon or not?(However) 1、machine 作为先行词, it 指代 machine, 会被which 所取代 2、Using this machine, a seach party tried to find the gold in came near the seashore. 3、Although 会引导让步状语从句, which 会引导一个定于从句 Although they examined the came thoroughly ,they only found a small gold coin which was practically worthless. 4、however 放在句首句中都可以, 要用逗号隔开 【Key structures】 表示过去习惯性动作 当我们提到过去某一特定时间时, 我们有时可用 would来代替used to,有时则不可以,而且 would需要指出具体时间,used to则不需要。 当used to暗示与现在的对照时,不可用would替换: I used to drink heavily, but I have given up drinking now. I never used to eat a large breakfast, but I do now. 当used to描写过去的状态时,也不可与 would互换,would只表示过去特有的习惯或行为: This sort of novel used to be very popular. 这种小说过去很流行. I used to be a waiter, but now I’m a taxi-driver. 当used to不强调与现在的对比时,可与would互换。但一个故事开头时不用would,必须首先用一般过去时或used to描述背景,然后用would表示习惯性动作: When I was a boy we always spent/used to spend our holidays on a farm. We would get up at 5 and we would help milk the cows. 【Special difficulties】 use, be used to, used to use vt. 用,使用,运用,应用 May I use your dictionary/car? I don’t know how to use the word. be used to 习惯于(后面跟名词或动名词,be也可用get等代替) I soon got used to getting up early when I started working as a baker. I’m used to shopping alone. used to 过去习惯……(表示过去有而现在通常已不存在的习惯,只用于一般过去时,后面只能跟动词不定式) I used to get up early when I worked as a baker, but I don’t have to get up early now. You didn’t use to smoke. Gold and Golden glod ① n. 金,黄金,金币,金块 He loves gold more than anything else. ② adj. 金的 When Frank retired, they gave him a gold watch. All that glitters is not gold. (all…is not… 不是所有的,部分否定 not all) golden adj. 金色的,(机会等)非常好的,兴盛的 As the sun set, the sky became golden. As he grew older, he always thought about the golden days of his life. You’ve missed a golden chance to make a lot of money. ★Lesson 56 Faster than sound! ★sound n. 声音 ① n. 声音 sound n. 任何声音都可以 voice n. 人的声音 noise n. 和周围不和谐的声音, 躁音 ② v. 听起来 ③ adj. 合理的(等于reasonable adj.合理的, 有道理的, 通情达理的, 讲道理的) I have a piece of sound advice. 我有一个合理的建议。 soundly adj. 香甜的 sleep soundly ★excitement n. 激动, 兴奋 to one's excitement… 令某人激动的是…… The most exciting thing is that… 最令人激动的是…… The most surprising thing about it is that 最令人惊讶的事情是…… It excited me that… 让我激动的是…… ★handsome adj. 漂亮的, 美观的 handsome adj. 形容男孩, 英俊, 一般与男孩子连如 handsome与人连用有阳刚的美,与物相连表示美观大方,并表示制作精良;handsome跟女性连用的时 候就表示这个女孩子有阳刚气,类似女侠的概念 Your husband is handsome. beautiful 形容人的时候表示内在和外在美的统一, 完美的概念 You look beautiful. Flowers are beautiful. Picture is beautiful. pretty adj. 美丽(用于女孩或小孩),有柔美的意思 pretty跟男性连用就表示没有阳刚气,女性化 Your wife is pretty. pretty boy / pretty girl / pretty woman nice adj. 美好的(人,天气, 食物, 物品的品质等) You are nice. 你长得不错 lovely adj. 可爱的 This is a lovely story. 这是一个可爱的故事 good-looking adj. 很好看的 smart adj. 小巧而美丽的(物)或时髦而美丽的(人) She is smart. cute adj.漂亮, 常用来形容小孩 The baby is cute. What a cute baby! 多漂亮的宝宝啊! How cute you are! 你多漂亮啊!(可爱啊!) ★explosion n. 爆炸, 轰响 explosive n. 爆炸物,炸药;adj. 爆炸(性)的, 爆发(性)的, 暴露 explode vt. 使爆炸;vi. 爆炸, 爆发, 破除, 推翻, 激发 bomb n. 炸弹;vt. 投弹于, 轰炸 The bomb exploded. ★course n. 跑道,行程 ① n. 跑道,行程 on the course 按照轨道运行 off course 偏离轨道 of course 当然 ② n. 课程 This term, I took/take seven courses. 这学期我学了七门课 ★rival n. 对手 competition n. 竞争, 竞赛 The person who takes part in the competition. competitor n. 竞争者, 对手 opposite n. 相反的事物;adj. 相对的, 对面的, 对立的, 相反的, 对等的, 对应的 opponent n. 对手, 反对者(持反对意见的人, 如辩论赛上的和政治上的) enemy n. 敌人 rival adj. 势均力敌的;n. 势均力敌的对手 ★speed(sped,sped) v. 疾驶 ① v. 疾驶,急行 The police car sped past us. The two men sped out of the room. ② n. 速度 at the speed of 以……的速度 The car goes at the speed of 40 miles an hour / at 40 miles an hour. 在车后的3 speed/4 speed表示档位 speed up 速度的增加, 加速;slow down 减速 blow up 风力的增加 ★downhill adv. 下坡 downstairs 下楼;upstairs 上楼 go down stairs go downhill 下山 downtown n.&adj.&adv. 市中心的商业区(反意词uptown 远离商业区) I'll go to the downtown. 【课文讲解】 1、Once a year, a race is held for old cars. =Old car race is held once a year. once +表示时间的名词 每……一次 The postman calls once a day. be held for 比赛为……而举行 2、A lot of cars entered for this race last year and there was a great deal of excitement just before it began. enter for 报名参加 a great deal of +不可数名词 大量的…… There was/is a great deal of excitement. 人们非常激动 a great number of +可数名词 a great many +可数名词 许多…… a large amount of +不可数名词 just before =just 起强调作用 3、One of the most handsome cars was a Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. one of 直接作主语的时候, 它是做单数看待的 One of the answers is ture. One of those people is good. 如果在定语从句中出现了one of作为先行词,它后边的关系代词指代的是后面的复数名词;如果在one of前面还有一修饰词only,那么后边的关系代词将指代one这个词,才作单数看 He is the only one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. 4、Built in 1885, it was the oldest car taking part. The car was built in 1885. taking part 理解为taking part (in the race) 5、After a great many loud explosions, the race began. after explosions 许多爆炸声之后 6、Many of the cars broke down on the course and some drivers spent more time under their cars than in them! many cars 许多车子;many of the cars 车子当中的许多 many students 许多学生;many of my students 我教过的许多学生 some pictures 一些照片;some of the pictures 那些照片中的一些 break down 车子抛锚,(机械等)出故障,出毛病 This morning I was late for work, because my car broke down twice. under the car指在车下面修理;in the car指正常驾驶。句中的under 和in都是斜体,英文中的斜体字起强调作用 spent more time under their cars than in them 他们花在车下的时间比在车里的时间还多 7、The winning car reached a speed of forty miles an hour -- much faster than any of its rivals. the wining car 获胜车 a speed of +数量词 速度为…… You must have been driving at a speed of seventy miles an hour. much faster 快得多;a little faster 快一点 any of its rivals=any rival 任何一个 any 在比较级中一旦出现, 它往往要加可数名词的单数 Beijing is bigger than any other city. (注意 “other” 不能丢) 如果是不定代词, 可以说someone else, anyone else;如果不是不定代词, 要在名词前加other. any other competitor 8、It sped downhill at the end of the race and its driver had a lot of trouble trying to stop it. at the end of… 在……的末尾/最后部分 He spoke a few words at the end of the meeting. have trouble (in) doing sth. 干……有麻烦,做……很困难(trouble既可数又不可数) They had some trouble finding out the cause of the fire. 9、The race gave everyone a great deal of pleasure. give sb.+n. 给某人…… give sb. pleasure It will give sb. a great deal of pleasure. =There was a great deal of excitement. give sb. a fright 吓了某人一跳 give sb. a surprise 给某人一个惊喜 10、It was very different from modern car races but no less exciting. modern car race 现代车赛 be different from 和……不同 no more和no less都表示“和……一样”, 相当于only, the same There are no more than 100 students. 这个房间仅有一百个学生。 no less exciting 一样的激动 no more than you 和你一样 表示“和……不相同”用not more= more;not less= less not less exciting 更令人激动 【Letter writing】 常用开头语: I am sorry it has taken me so long to write, but… I was glad to hear from you at last and to learn that… 【Key structures】 比较关系的句型 as…as 和……一样 the same (…) as 与……相同/同样 You’ve made the same mistake as Tom. 有时the same可以单独使用: My mother is much younger than yours. She isn’t! They’re about the same age. Those two dress are the same. not so…as / not as…as 不如…… different from 与……不同(different前面可加very,much,a little等修饰语) Is French food very different from Italian food? A Frenchman could tell you better than I can! We’re planning something different this year from what we did last year. litte和 few在口语中多用not much,not many代替: There isn’t much sugar/aren’t many sweets, but you can have a little/few. much 和 many 通常用于否定句和疑问句(正式文体除外)。在日常谈话中,通常避免在肯定句中使用much和many,而用别的数量词。口语中用得最多的表示“许多”的数量词是 a lot of,它既可以与复数可数名词连用也可以与不可数名词连用,后面的动词用单数还是复数取决于名词。比a lot of正式一些的表达方式有:a great/good deal of+不可数名词,a great/good/large number of+复数名词,a great/good many of+复数名词。 在what引导的感叹句中不用much/many: What a lot of sweets Tom’s bought! I am less lucky. 我还不如他们幸运. more exciting 更激动 = not less exciting. 【Special difficulties】 Handsome, Beautiful, Pretty, Good-looking handsome adj. 漂亮的,英俊的,一般用来形容男子,也可以指东西的制作精良 beautiful adj. 美丽的,给人美感的,令人愉悦的,完美的,强调内在和外在的结合,用来形容女子、孩童、花草、服饰等,一般不用来形容男子的长相 pretty adj. 漂亮的,可爱的,令人怜爱的,强调女孩和小孩的外表美丽 good-looking adj. 好看的,标致的,美貌的,男女均适用 My furniture is good-looking. Reach and Arrive in/at reach vt. 到达,达到(适用的范围比较广,不仅仅限于地点) When you reach my age, you’ll be able to understand it. Can you get that book down for me please? I can’t reach it. arrive vi. 到达,抵达 在表示到达某个较大的地方时用arrive in,到达某个较小的地方/场所用arrive at When I arrived at the station, the train had already gone. Take part and Take place take part (in) 参加,参与 I didn’t take part in their conversation. It was the lodest car taking part. take place=happen 发生,进行,举行 What happened? = What took place? All these took place before you were born. The Olympic Games will take place in our country in four years’ time. ★Lesson 57 Can I help you,madam? ★madam n. (对妇女的尊称)太太; 夫人 ma’am n. <口>夫人, 太太, 女士, 小姐 = madam ★jeans n. 牛仔裤 trousers n.裤子, 长裤 pants n.裤子, 短裤 ★hesitate v. 犹豫, 迟疑 hesitate to do sth. 犹豫做…… make up one's mind 下决心做…… hesitation n. 犹豫, 踌躇 without hesitation 毫不犹豫 Without hesitation he refused my request. ★serve v. 接待(顾客) ① vt.&vi. 帮佣,当仆人,给……干活 serve sb. 为某人而服务 Mary served (in) the family as a cook for more than ten years. ②vt.&vi. 服务;服役;供职 She served the firm as a secretary for two years. Have you ever served in the army? ③ vt.&vi. 接待(顾客) The assistant was eager to serve her this time. Tom served in a restaurant when he was 18. service n. 服务, 服务性工作, 服役, 仪式;vt. 保养, 维修 adj.(军队)服现役的, 服务性的, 仆人的, 耐用的 At your service. 乐于为您效劳。 ★scornfully adv. 轻蔑地 look down upon/on 看不起,瞧不起…… He looks down on me. ★punish v. 惩罚 punishment n. 惩罚 capital punishment 极刑 ★fur n. 裘皮 mink n. 貂皮 ★eager adj. 热切的, 热情的 be eager to do sth. 急于做某事 【课文讲解】 1、A woman in jeans stood at the window of an expensive shop. do window shopping (表示在橱窗外面购物) a woman in jeans 一个穿牛仔裤的妇女 2、Though she hesitated for a moment, she finally went in and asked to see a dress that was in the window. for a moment 不一定要与现在完成时连用, 也可以是一般现在时, 只要这个动词是延续性动词就可以 ask to do sth. 请求做某事 3、The assistant who served her did not like the way she was dressed. dress sb. 给某人穿衣服 Mother is dressing her baby. I dress myself. 自己给自己穿衣服(反身代词是不能做主语的,故 I am dressed.) dress表示“穿着,打扮”时常用被动语态 be dressed in She is dressed in jeans. Why is your aunt dressed in black? the way 可以直接加定语从句, 不需要引导词 I don’t like the way she eats. 我不喜欢她吃饭的样子 The way she eats annoyed me. 她吃饭的样子让我烦 I cooked in the way you taught me. 4、She returned to the shop the following morning dressed in a fur coat, with a handbag in one hand and a long umbrella in the other. with sth. in hand 手上拿着 He went to the theatre with a book in one hand. 他手上拿着一本书去了电影院 She went to her monther’s carring her baby with a chicken in one hand and a duck in the other. (go to one’s monther’s 回娘家) 5、After seeking out the rude assistant, she asked for the same dress. seek out 找出, 找到 He sought out the thief in the crowd. Seek him out quickly. I want to speak to him. 6、Not realizing who she was, the assistant was eager to serve her this time. 现在分词短语代替一个分句位于句首时,其否定形式是在它前面加上not,without 或 never等否定词。这些词有时可互换,有时则不可: Not/Without/Never hesitating for a moment, he ran after the thief. Not being able to open the door, I asked my neighbour for help. tell sb. not to do sth. 告诉某人不要做某事 像eager,glad,pleased,sorry等描述感觉的形容词作表语时后面往往跟不定式: They are all eager to come. I’m pleased to work with you. 【Letter writing】 在信的开头常的下面两个句型: What a surprise it was to … What a surprise it was to send me flowers. 在to do sth. 的结构当中,可以在前面表达动作由谁做, 加一个“for sb.” It is important for me to do sth. (“for” 一定要加在 “to” 的前面) What a surprise it was for you to send me flowers. Forgive me for not writing earlier, but … 我很抱歉我这么久没给你写信 I apologize. / I do apologize. 我真的很抱歉!(do 其强调作用) You apology is accepted. 【Key structures】 At, In, Off and With 在表示地点和位置时,说话人的个人角度会影响对介词的选择。at 通常用于表示居住地点和某个停留地点、工作地点等,而in表示里面或包围的含义: I'll see you at the station. 我将到车站送你. On the way home, we stopped at a small village called Puddleton. There were a lot of people in the street. 街上有许多人. Let's go for a walk in the park. 让我们到公园去散散步. off常与动词连用,表示位置的变化,即“与……分离”,可译为“脱掉,脱落”(相当于away from或down from的意思)等,其反义词为on: The lid came off easily. 这个盖子很容易掉. The pencil rolled off the table. 铅笔滚到桌子下面去了. 描写人时,in 通常用于表示穿着,后面加衣服或颜色,with 则表示身上的某个具体特征或随身带着、拿着什么: He looks handsome in that uniform. That man with long hair is supposed to be a poet. 那个留着长发的男人应该是个诗人. The police are looking for a man with a scar on his face. The woman with the brown handbag and long umbrella is a famous novelist. A child came along with a brown dog. 【Special Difficulties】 Make and Let make和let 后面都跟不带to的不定式,但意义上和用法上有区别: make+名词/代词+不带to的不定式,表示“迫使,致使”: She enjoyed herself making the assistant bring almost everything in the window. What made him change his mind? That beard makes you look much older than you really are. 在被动语态中含有上述意义的make后面必须带to: He was made to work fourteen hours a day. He was made to change his mind. let用于祈使句,建议包括说话者在内的人采取某一行动: Let’s not waste any more time. 其否定形式除“Let’s not…”外也可以用“Don’t let’s…”: Don’t let’s waste any more time. let+名词/代词+不带to的不定式,表示“允许”: Don't let him persuade you. 不要让他把你说服了. Let me try. 让我试一拭. Don't let the children touch anything in this room please. 如果宾语是us,则不能缩写成let’s: Please let us have more time, will you? let后面可以跟一个被动的、不带to的不定式: He let it be known that the house was his. 但let一般不用于被动意义来表示“被允许”,这时可用allow。 We were not allowed to speak. ★Lesson 58 A blessing in disguise? ★blessing n. 福气, 福分 bless v. 保佑 God bless you! =Bless you! 上帝保佑你 Bless my country. 保佑我的国家 ★disguise n. 伪装 in disguise 穿着伪装的 a wolf in disguise 披着羊皮的狼, 被伪装的狼 a blessing in disguise 因祸得福 a curse in disguise (curse] n. 诅咒, 咒语, 祸根, 祸因;vt. 诅咒, 咒骂, 降祸, 使受罪) ★tiny adj. 极小的 tiny = very very small ★possess v. 拥有 sb. possess sth. 某人有某物 possession n. 拥有, 占有, 所有, 着迷, 领土, 领地, 财产(常用复数), 自制 in one's possession 某人有某物 ★cursed adj. 可恨的 cursed adj. 被诅咒的, 邪恶的 如果有-ed构成形容词, 做为形容词读音要读/id/ ★increase vt. 增加 add为及物动词;grow为不及物动词 ★plant v. 种植 plant 强调把东西给种下去 plant tree 种树(只是种, 活不活不管) Tree Planting day 植树节 grow v. 生长 grow sth. 种庄稼(不但种, 还要让它生长) ★church n. 教堂 church加the 表示地点;church不加the 和功能有关 go to the church 去教堂玩 I am at the church. 在教堂玩 go to church 去教堂做礼拜 I am at church. 做礼拜 ★evil adj. 坏的 evil = wicked adj. 邪恶的 ★reputation n. 名声 good reputation 好名声; bad reputation 坏名声 fame n. 名声(一定是好名声), 名望, 传说, <古>传闻 famous adj. 著名的, 出名的, <口>极好的, 令人满意的 ★claim v. 以……为其后果 claim = take 拿, 索取 claim可以表示(疾病、意外等)夺去(生命) The accident claimed a few lives. ★source n. 来源 resource n. 资源(一次又一次的来源,re-又) reread vt.重读, 再读 sauce n. 沙司, 酱油, 调味料;vt. 调味, 使增加趣味(读音与 source相同) ★income n. 收入 rent v. 租,租借,出租;n. 租金 interest n. 兴趣,关心,重要性,影响,利息,利益,利害 vt. 使发生兴趣,引起……的注意 bonus n. 奖金, 红利 DINK-丁克家族 : D-double,I-income,N-no,K-kids kid n.哄骗,取笑,开玩笑,小孩,小山羊;v. 哄骗,取笑,开玩笑,欺骗 【课文讲解】 1、The tiny village of Frinley is said to possess a 'cursed tree'. There/名词主语/代词主语 +be said to do sth. 据说……(是对不太有把握的事发表看法时一种谨慎的说法) There is said to be a great deal of oil in Africa. Dan is said to be the most intelligent student in his class. It’s not as old as it’s said to be. 它并不像人们所说的那么古老。 it is said that… 据说…… It is said that he is very good. = He is said to be very good. 据说他人非常好 用于这种结构的动词除了say之外,还有believe,know,find,fear,think等: It is feared that many lives have been lost in the train. 在这次列车事故中,恐怕有不少人丧生。 the tiny village of Frinley 弗林利这个小村庄,其中介词of表示的是同位关系: the city of Beijing 名叫北京的城市 at the age of twenty 20岁时 a height of three feet 三英尺的高度 2、Because the tree was mentioned in a newspaper, the number of visitors to Frinley has now increased. mention vt. 提到, 提及 My father ofter mentions you. in a newspaper 强调报纸里面的内容 on the newspaper 与报纸内容无关, 如你自己在报纸上记了什么东西时用 “on” a number of…=lots of… 许多……(后跟可数名词的复数,做复数看待,从前往后翻, 强调后面的东西) a number of students 许多学生 the number of… ……的数量/总数(后跟可数名词的复数,但做单数看,从后往前翻, 强调数量) the number of students 学生的数量 3、The tree was planted near the church fifty years ago, but it is only in recent years that it has gained an evil reputation. it is/was …(被强调部分 that/who(m)+ 从句) 万能强调结构 It is I that am looking for you. 强调 “I” It is Jack who(m) Frank phoned last night. gain=get 得到 4、It is said that if anyone touches the tree, he will have bad luck; if he picks a leaf, he will die. 英语中分号可以断开两个句子 anyone 任何人,与 he 相对应 If anyone wanted to go there, he will do sth. 5、The vicar has been asked to have the tree cut down, but so far he has refused. sb. be asked to do sth. 被请求做某事,sb.做事 have sth. done 使某事被做,叫别人完成某事 I will go to have my bicycle repaired. (别人修车) I will go to repair my bicycle. (自己修车) I will have my hair cut. make sth. done 让某事被做 Could you make yourself known? 你能让别人知道你吗?(你的自我介绍) =Could you introduce yourdself? 你能自我介绍一下吗? Could you make youself heard ? 你能让别人听到你吗?(你能大声点吗?) make的用法:make +宾语+宾补;make +sb.+do 让某人做某事;make +sth.+done 让别人做某事 so far 迄今为止(常与现在完成时连用) He hasn’t returned my books so far. 6、He has pointed out that the tree is a useful source of income, as tourists have been coming from all parts of the country to see it. point out = explain 指出,解释 I realized that he had make a mistake, so I pointed it out to him immediately. He pointed out that it was a mistake not to help them. 7、In spite of all that has been said, the tourists have been picking leaves and cutting their names on the tree-trunk. in spite of 尽管,虽然;不顾,不管 He set off in spite of the heavy rain. in spite of all that… = in spite of what 尽管…… (in spite of 介词后面不能接从句, 只能加what引导的从句) In spite of what you have told me, I still believe (that) he has stolen the money. 8、So far, not one of them has been struck down by sudden death! not one of=none of 一个人也没有……,单数≠no one of(no one不能加of) be struck down 被打倒(stike down 使……生重病,杀死) Many people were struck down in that war. He was stuck down by cancer last year. poverty-struck 穷困潦倒 (poverty n. 贫穷, 贫困, 贫乏, 缺少) 【Letter writing】 常用开头语: You will be glad to hear that… Thank you for letting me know that… 【Special difficulties】 Increase and Grow increase vt. &vi. 增加,增大,增长,增强 The firm has increased his salary. His salary has increased. grow vi. 增长,长,成长,生长 The number of vistors to Frinley has now grown/increased. The students in this university has grown in number. How tall you’ve become! How you’ve grown! She has grown so much she is nearly as tall as I am. grow=increase(表示数量增长) The number is increasing/growing. Gain and Earn gain vt. 获得,得到(=get sth.);受益,获益(earn无此含义) Jane has gained much from her year in Australia. earn vt. (通过努力)获得,得到;赚钱(gain无此含义) earn money 挣钱 earn one's living 谋生 Try to save as you earn. 挣了钱时要设法存起来。 She earns $500 a month. It has gained/earned an evil reputation. Pick and Cut pick vt. 采摘,采集 They picked a lot of flowers yesterday. cut vt. 切,割,剪 She cut an apple in two. Can you cut your own hair? ★Lesson 59 In or out? ★bark v. 狗叫 The dog is barking. sb. is barking. 某人在咆哮 ★press v. 按, 压 ① vt.&vi. 按,挤,压 She pressed my hand warmly. 她热情地握我的手。 Can you press that button for me please? ② vt. 挤取,榨取(……的汁) This is the time of the year when they press their grapes. If you prefer juice, you can press some oranges. ③ vt. 催促,敦促,竭力劝说 My parents pressed me to enter for the competition. I don’t like to be pressed. 我不喜欢被人催促。 pressure n. 压, 压力, 电压, 压迫, 强制, 紧迫 ★paw n. 脚爪 cat's paw 被利用的人(由寓言而来) I don't want to be a cat's paw我才不想被人利用 ★latch n. 门闩 latch n. 门闩(庭院,花园中的门闩) bar n. 门闩(与 latch不同) ★expert n. 专家 expert at/in sth. 在某一方面是专家 expert at/in doing sth. expert at/in opening the door ★develop v. 养成 ① vt. &vi. 发展,扩展 The village has developed into a town now. Do you believe that you can develop your mind through watching TV? 你相信通过看电视能开发你的智力吗? It’s hard to develop your business in this city. developing skills 发展技巧 fluency in English 流利英语 (fluency n.流利, 流畅, 雄辩) developing country 发展中国家 ; developed country 发达国家 V-ed 强调已经,V-ing 强调正在,有时态的区别 boiling water 滚开水 ; boiled water 开水 develop the film 冲洗胶卷 ② vt. &vi.(逐渐)显现出,产生,获得,养成 She developed an interest in swimming. 她对游泳产生了兴趣。 ★habit n. 习惯(指个人习惯) custom n. 风俗,习俗 ; customs n. 海关 ; customer n. 顾客 ★remove v. 拆掉, 取下 remove sth. from 从……挪走 【课文讲解】 1、Our dog, Rex, used to sit outside our front gate and dark. front gate 前门 would=used to 过去常常 2、Every time he wanted to come into the garden he would bark until someone opened the gate. The dog used to bark the front gate to let(make) somebody open the door. every time=when 每当,每次,无论何时(后面可以是点时间,也可以是段时间) Every time I turn to Lesson 59, I will remember my teacher. the monment=as soon as 一……就……(强调的是瞬间) 3、As the neighbours complained of the noise, my husband spent weeks training him to press his paw on the latch to let himself in. complaim of… 抱怨…… sb. spend time (in) doing sth./on sth. 花费某段时间去做某事(人作主语) Why don’t you spend more time on studies? I spent two weeks (in) reading this book. It takes sb. some times to do sth. 某事花了某人多少时间(事情做主语) train sb. to do sth. 训练某人做某事 let sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 let sb. in 让某人进来 ; let sb. out 让某人出去 let sb. down 让某人失望 press his paw on the latch = press the latch press the button / press the figure on the button 4、Rex soon became an expert at opening the gate. become an expert at doing sth. 成了……能手/专家/权威 John is an expert at driving a car. She is an expert in flowers. Sam is an expert on that problem. 5、However, when I was going out shopping last week, I noticed him in the garden near the gate. going out shopping 加了out 强调外出 6、Yesterday my husband removed the gate and Rex got so annoyed we have not seen him since. so…that… 如此……以至于,结果状语从句,可以省略一个词,so 或 that 都可以 so that 以便于……,为了(目的状语从句) This time he was barking so that someone would let him out! since(在句尾) = since then : 从那时起到现在为止 【Special difficulties】 To,In order to,So as to,So that,In order that表达目的几种方式 带to的不定式及in order to和so as to可以用来表示目的: I went to live in France to/in order to/so as to learn French. not to可以用来表示取舍: I went to France not to study French, but to study chemics. so as not to/in order not to可以用于表示“以防”: I shut the door quietly, so as not to/in order not to wake the bady. 在bring,buy,need,take,use,want等动词后经常用宾语加to不定式,用来表示宾语的目的。 I need a spoon to eat this ice cream with. 连词so that,in order that可以引导目的状语从句。目的状语从句必须具备一个特征, 在动词前面一定要出现情态动词,当主句用一般现在时、现在完成时或一般将来时的时候,so that和in order that后面可以跟may,can或will;当主句用一般过去时、过去进行时或过去完成时的时候,so that和in order that后面可以跟should,could,might或would。 I’ve arrived early so that/ in order that I may/ can /will get the tickets. I arrivd early so that/in order that I might not miss anything. 当前后主语不一致时,不 定式前面加 for +名词/代词比that结构更简洁,不定式的逻辑主语for sb. to do sth. He was barking for someone to let him out. =He was barking so that someone would let him out. ★Lesson 60 The future ★relation n. 亲属 ① n. (事物间的)关系,关联(不可数) I know little about the relation of/between time and space. Is there any relation between the hot snake and the forest fire? ② n. (国家、人民等之间的)关系,往来(可数) Friendly relations have been developed between the two cities. They have broken relations with that firm. ③ n. 亲戚,亲属(可数) A near relation of yours is coming to see you. 【课文讲解】 1、A relation of yours is coming to see you. a relation of yours 您的一个亲戚(双重所有格) 句中的现在进行时并不表示目前正在进行的动作,而表示将要发生的事情。 2、The moment you leave this tent, you will get a big surprise. the moment = as soon as 一……就……(在这个连词引导的时间状语从句中要用一般现在时来表示将来时) 3、That is all. 在口语中表示“完了,就这些,事情就是这样”。 He borrowed some money from me. That’s all. 他向我借了些钱,仅此而已。 4、As soon as I went outside, I forgot all about Madam Bellinsky because my wife hurried towards me. 这句话中的all是代词,表示“一切,全部,所有的事”,它作主语时被视为单数: All I can remember is her name. hurry towards sb. 向某人匆匆走去 5、Your sister will be here in less than an hour and we must be at the station to meet her. must be表示用现在时态指将来的状况,这句话也可变成: We must go to the station to meet her. 【Key structures】 表示将要发生的事情 在英语中,现在进行时也可用来表示为将来安排好的活动和事件。这种用法通常需要一个表示时间的状语(往往是不久的将来)。 arrive,come,go,leave等动词的进行式经常有这种用法,表示行程安排有关的“将到达,将离去”等意思: He’s arriving this evening. We’re spending next winter in Australia. He’s meeting the vicar in two days’ time. 当时间状语从句表示将来时,在 after,as soon as,before,by the time,the moment,till,until和when等后面通常不用一般将来时而用一般现在时;不用将来完成时而用现在完成时。这两种现在时态在时间连词后面常常可以互换: The Thompsons will move to a new flat when their baby is/ has been born. I’ll make it before he comes. 在第1类条件句中,if之后通常用一般现在时表示将来可能发生的事: If he gets the job, he’ll be going abroad. I’ll give her a meal if she’s hungry. 【Special Difficulties】 由名词+名词构成的复合名词 第一个名词通常起形容词(或修饰语)的作用,而且一般都用单数。这类复合名词可以代替of结构,如a car key(汽车钥匙),a chair leg(椅子腿);也可以理解为第一个名词指地点,第二个词指该地点中的东西,如a village pub(乡村酒吧),a world record(世界纪录),a kitchen sink(厨房洗涤槽);也可以表示时间,如a Christams card(圣诞卡),an evening dress(晚礼服),afternoon tea(下午茶);也可以表示分类,如a horror film(恐怖电影),a flower shop(花店),a taxi-driver(出租车司机);也可以表示材料,如a fur coat(裘皮大衣),a gold watch(金表),cigarette ends(香烟头)。 ★Lesson 61 Trouble with the Hubble ★space n. 空间(指宇宙空间) room n. 空间(不可数);房间(可数) Could you make room for me? 你能为我腾一点空间吗? ★robot-arm n. 机器手 robot n. 机器人, 遥控设备, 自动机械, 机械般工作的人 ★atmosphere n. 大气层 atmosphere n. 大气,空气,气氛,氛围 I went to the New Concept English of New Oriental school for its good atmosphere. 【课文讲解】 1、The Hubble telescope was launched into space by NASA on April 20,1990 at a cost of over a billion dollars. at a cost of … 造价为……,耗资,以……的价格/费用 He has just built a new house for his family at a cost of $10,000. NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration (美国)国家航空和宇宙航行局(单词縮写一般都是组织或者机构) 2、Right from the start there was trouble with the Hubble. right from the start 从最开始(right 起强调作用) He didn’t want to work at the firm (right) from the start. trouble with… 关于……有麻烦 What's the trouble with you? 你有什么麻烦? (医生常这样问) There is (engine) trouble with my car. 3、The pictures it sent us were very disappointing because its main mirror was faulty! fault n. 错误 ; faulty adj. 有错误的 Sorry, it's my fault. 4、NASA is now going to put the telescope right, so it will soon be sending up four astronauts to repair it. put sth. right 修好(故障等),校正,纠正 Remember to put the lights right tomorrow. send up 往上送 5、A robot-arm from the Endeavour will grab the telescope and hold it while the astronauts make the necessary repairs. hold it 抓住它 6、The Hubble will tell us a great deal about the age and size of the universe. a great deal 大量 a great deal of… 大量的…… 7、By the time you read this, the Hubble's eagle eye will have sent us thousands and thousands of wonderful pictures. by the time 到那时 engle eye 鹰眼,锐利目光 His father’s eagle eye is always on him. thousands and thousands of 成千上万的 There are hundreds of thousands/thousands and thousands of cars in this city. 【Letter Writing】 常见的书信开头: I have not heard from you for some time, so… It was very kind of you to… 【Key structures】 将来完成时、将来进行时和将来完成进行时 将来完成时的构成:will have done,表示到将来某一时刻已经完成的动作,必须和某个时间状语连用,强调到将来某一点时间动作的结束。 Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of this year. 将来进行时的构成:will be doing,表示将来某个时候正在进行的动作或表示计划好的事,陈述将来的事实。 They will be arriving here tomorrow. 将来完成进行时的构成:will have been doing,表示某种状况一直持续到说话人所提及的时间,从某一点发生, 一直延续到将来的某一点, 并且将可能延续下去,强调到将来某一点时间动作可能结束或延续。 By this time next week, I will have been working for this firm for twenty years. By Friday midday, they will have been working on it for seven days. (work on sth. 关于……的工作) 在时间状语从句中,要用现在完成时代替将来完成时: By the time I’ve completed this one, I’ll have been writing for six years. 到我写完这本书时,我将已经写了6年书了。 When I’ve built this one, I’ll have built five altogether. 【Special Difficulties】 Cost, Price, Value cost ① n. 价格,价钱,费用(侧重指某项服务、工程等),成本(复数) at the cost of 以……的费用,造价…… They built the bridge at a cost of over $600,000. I don’t know the costs of these cars. 我不知道这些车的成本是多少。 ② vt. 价钱为……,(使)花费(不用于被动语态) The new car cost him $5,000. How much did it cost to launch the Hubble telescope into space? What does this blouse cost, please? 请问, 这件衬衣多少钱? price ① n. 价格,价钱(侧重于指某个具体东西或商品的价钱),物价(复数) How much is that blouse? Let's ask the price. What’s the price of the dress, please? Prices are going up again. 物价又上涨了。 ② v. 问……的价钱,查明/查询……的价格;给……定价/标价 They priced cars for two days before they bought one. The dress is priced at $50, but you can have it at $40. I want to price the bed linen in a few other shops before I buy any. 我想在买床单之前打听几家商店的价格. value ① n. 表示抽象的价值或重要性,价值观(复数) The stolen items were of sentimental, rather than financial value. 被盗物品更具有情感上的涵义, 而不是经济上的价值. This book is of great value to me. His values are different from those of mine. ② vt. 尊重,重视 value sth. 认为……有价值 value sth. owned by oneself 敝帚自珍 Value your time. 珍惜时间 If you don’t value my advice, I’ll speak no more. Exercise练习 1 There has been a sharp rise in the(price)(cost)(value) of living. 2 Whenever I buy anything new, my father always asks me the(value)(cost)(price). 3 If you have to work for something you will(value)(price)(cost) it more. 4 That house(valued)(cost)(priced) a fortune to build. 5 Dr. James's work is of enormous(value)(cost)(price) to the community. 6 Jane has(valued)(cost)(priced) the alternative products and she recommends this one. 7 So far, ten countries have given money towards the(value)(price)(cost) of rebuilding after the earthquake. 1 sharp rise: 大幅上升的 the cost of living 生活的费用 2 price 价格 3 value : 表示认为有价值 4 fortune : 一大笔财产 cost 花费 5 community : 社区,社会 value : 价值 of great (enormous)value有巨大的价值(enormous adj. 巨大的) 6 alternative 另外的 recommend : 推荐 price sth. 比较价格 7 towards = to the cost of rebuilding 重建费用 ★Lesson 62 Affer the fire ★control n. 控制 in control 在控制之内 under control 在控制之下,被控制 out of control 失控 control<v.> sth. I can control it. =I can manage it. 我能对付(口语) under arrest <n.> 被逮捕 ★smoke n. 烟(雾) full of smoke 充满烟雾 smokey adj. 多烟的(名词加-y, 变为形容词) smokey area 吸烟区 ; nonsmokey area 禁烟区 rain – rainy ; cloud - cloudy smoker n. 抽烟的人 heavy smoker 烟瘾重的人 ; nonsmoker 不抽烟的人 smoke v. 吸烟 Don't smoke! = No smoking! He smoked heavily. smoking area / smoking room 吸烟室 smoking apartment 火车上的吸烟车厢 cigarette = cigar n. 香烟 ★desolate adj. 荒凉的 desolate adj. 荒凉的(与地方相连,表示无人居住, 荒无人烟的);极度孤独的(与人相连时) lonely adj. 孤独的,荒凉的,偏僻的(与地方连表示孤零零的,但并不表示无人居住) ★threaten v. 威胁的 threaten to do sth. 威胁着要做……(与人相连);有迹象表明…… It threatened to rain. 有迹象表明天要下雨了。 threaten sb. with sth. 以……来威胁/恐吓某人 The thief threatened him with a knife. The whole village is threatened with destruction. ★surrounding adj. 周围的 surroundings n. 环境(在周边的事物) atmosphere n. 大气层, 氛围(在周边的人文环境) ★destruction n. 破坏, 毁灭 destroy v. 破坏 destructive adj. 毁灭性的 construct v. 建设(为……创造更好的条件) construction n. 建设, 建筑 construction bank 建设银行 constructive adj. 建设性的(意见) build v. 建设(具体的建某物) ★flood n. 洪水, 水灾 flood = floods 都对,都可以用,无区别 ★authority n. 当局(常用复数 authorities) authority n. 权威(单数) ★spray v. 喷撒 spray sth. over/on 往……上喷洒 spray water over/on flower spray grass-seed over/on the ground ★quantity n. (数)量 quantities of 大量的…… quality n. 质量 sth. with good quality 具有好质量的东西 ★root n. 根 What is the root cause? 根本原因是什么? root of… ……的根 take root 生根 come out 长出来 shoot come out 发芽(shoot n. 芽) flower come out 开花 get out 出去 ★patch n. 小片,颜色和周围不同的部分 patch n. (平面上的)一片, 补丁(本意) What is that yellow patch on the wall? 墙上那块黄斑是什么? a patch of 一小片 ;patches of 许多片 There are patches of cloud in the sky. a piece of / a bit of / a sheet of 一片,一块…… ★blacken v. 变黑,发暗 The smoke has blacken the walls. 烟把墙熏黑了。 -en后缀表示动词,译为“使……变得……” weak adj. 虚弱的 ——> weaken v. 使……变弱,削弱 复合词(由两个词组合而成一个词),如fireman 派生词(加前缀或后缀的词)如-tion —— 名词后缀; - less —— 形容词后缀 【课文讲解】 1、Firemen had been fighting the forest fire for nearly three weeks before they could get it under control. fight sth. 和……作搏斗 get it under control 表示“使它得到控制”,get有“使……处于某种状态”的含义,“get+宾语+介词短语”作宾补: The Government can no longer keep prices under control. 政府已控制不住物价。 Get the room in order. 2、A short time before, great trees had covered the countryside for miles around. a short time before和a short time ago都可以与段时间相连 a short time before 不久以前,从过去某一点时间算起,一段时间以前 a short time ago 过去某段时间,从现在算起,一段时间以前 for miles around 方圆几英里(around表示“在周围,向四周”) This is the only modern building for miles around. 3、Now, smoke still rose up from the warm ground over the desolate hills. rise up (from) 升上来 smoke rise up (烟、雾)弥漫 4、Winter was coming on and the hills threatened the surrounding villages with destruction, for heavy rain would not only wash away the soil but would cause serious floods as well. winter was coming on 冬季即将来临 (季节的来临的通用表达式),come on的过去进行时形式表示的是过去将来时,它在这里表示季节的“到来,来临”: When spring comes on, there will be flowers everywhere. I was still in the forest when night came on. wash away 冲掉,冲走,洗掉 A wooden bridge was washed away by the flood. I can’t wash the spot away. 5、When the fire had at last been put out, the forest authorities ordered several tons of a special type of grass-seed which would grow quickly. put out 扑灭 order 定购 type 强调与其他同类的东西有明显不同的特征的种类,与 kind有区别 6、The seed was sprayed over the ground in huge quantities by aeroplanes. quantity单数时仅表示“数量”,既可以用于表示多也可以用于表示少: They drank a large /great /small quantity of beer last night. quantity复数时表示“大量”: He bought books in (large) quantities. 7、By then, however, in many places the grass had already taken root. take root 表示“生根”,这个短语也可以表示某处思想/想法等“扎根”: This type of grass takes root easily. The idea has taken root in his mind. 8、In place of the great trees which had been growing there for centuries patches of green had begun to appear in the blackened soil. in place of 替代,取代 (只能指代位置、空间,原来放的东西现在不在了) In place of a cup , I put a vase there. 以前放的是茶杯,现在放的是花瓶。 Jane answered the phone in place of Mary. instead of 替代+没做的事 Instead of staying home, I went to school. (此句就不能用“in place of”,而指地点空间时,既可以用“in place of”也可以用“instead of”。) 【 Summary writing】 2 Had all the great trees been burnt or not? Was there danger that heavy rain would cause serious floods or not? Would the floods destroy the surrounding villages or not?(Now that… which) 3 Did the forest authorities order grass-seed to prevent this or not ? For how long was it sprayed over the ground by planes?(To prevent this…which…) 4 Did it begin to rain or not? Where had the grass taken root? (By the time that…) 2 Now that all the great trees had been burnt, there was danger that heavy rain would cause serious floods which destroy the surrounding villages. now that 既然 ; which 定语从句 3 To prevent this the forest authorities ordered grass-seed which was sprayed over the ground by planes for nearly a month. to prevent… 为了预防…… 4 By the time it began to rain, the grass had taken root in the soil. by the time(that) 到……时候为止 (that可以省略),应理解为“before” 【Key structures】 过去完成时和过去完成进行时 过去完成进行时的构成:had been +现在分词 过去完成进行时用于强调某动作在过去更早的某一段时间内一直在进行,并对过去某一时刻产生结果,过去完成进行时也可用来表示过去经常重复的动作,还可以表示根据直接或间接的证据而得出结论。与它经常连用的表示时间的词有before,for,since,all day等。 She was very tired. She had been typing letters all day. Jill was angry. Jim had been phoning her every night for a whole week. Her eyes were red. It was obvious she had been crying. 在包含间接引语的句子中,如果引述词是过去时态,则现在完成进行时要改为过去完成进行时。 过去完成时与过去完成进行时有时可以互换。但需要表示某个工作已经完成时,只能用过去完成时。 When I arrived, they’d alredy put the fire out. 【Special Difficulties】 Control and Check control ① vt. 控制,指挥,支配,管理 Don’t try to control other people. ② n. 控制(能力),支配(能力) It’s hard to keep the number of people coming into the country under control. check vt. 检查,核对,查看 They’re going to check our passports. Great and Big great adj. 大的(强调重要性),伟大的,重大的,重要的 Frank has just made a great decision. big adj. 大的(强调面积、体积、规模上的大) Sam is a big man. Soil and Ground soil n. 泥土(能让植物生长的),土,土地,土壤 Trees and grass grow quickly in rich soil. ground n. 地表,地面(与土壤无关),场地,土地 He threw the cup to the ground. ★Lesson 63 She was not amused ★admire v. 赞美,钦佩 ① vt. 钦佩,赞赏 I admire his music more than anyone else’s. admire sb. for sth. 因为……羡慕某人 I admire him for his richness/house/clever daughter/konwledge. ② vt. 欣赏,观赏 While admiring the new building, I heard someone calling my name. ③ vt. (口语)夸奖,称赞 She likes to hear her children admired. ★close adj. 亲密的 close friend 亲密的朋友 ★reception n. 招待会 reception = party wedding reception 婚宴 news conference 新闻发布会, 记者招待会 ★sort n. 种类,类型(常与of连用) type 种类(有特殊特征的) sort和kind有时可以互换,但在下面两种情况下用sort: ① that sort of person 那种人 ② sort可含有讽刺意味 That's the sort of thing you like best. You mustn’t mix with that sort of people. 你不得与那种人交往。 【课文讲解】 1、Jeremy Hampden has a large circle of friends and is very popular at parties. have a large circle of friends 有一个很大的朋友圈子, 交际很广 =sb. has/have a lot of friends He has a large circle of friends. 他有很多朋友 circle的含义之一是“(具有共同利益或兴趣等的人形成的)圈子,……界” Such things are never talked about in business circles. Jeremy used to have a large circle of friends, but now he likes being alone. popular adj. 受欢迎的,得人心的 Mary is always popular with/among children. 2、Everybody admires him for his great sense of humour -- everybody, that is, except his six-year-old daughter, Jenny. admire… for 钦佩……的…… that is为插入语,一旦插在句子当中, 是作为固定结构, 意思是“那就是说,亦即”,起解释作用 He is coming home next Monday, that is, April 5th. sense of humour 幽默感 George has no sense of humour. He is a man without humour. 3、This is the sort of thing that Jeremy loves. the sort of, the kind of的后面加单数 4、He prepared the speech carefully and went to the wedding with Jenny. prepare sth. 准备做……,后面跟内容有关系 I am preparing a speech. (speech n. 发言) prepare for sth. 为……作准备,后面不一定跟内容有关系 5、He had included a large number of funny stories in the speech and, of course, it was a great success. included 包含(把里面内容的一部分挑出来说) contain强调容器里的包含, 后面一定要把所有的东西都列举出来 It was a great success. 表示“这事做的不错,不同凡响,很成功” 6、Jeremy was a little disappointed by this but he did as his daughter asked. a little 稍微, 有一点 be disappointed by… 因为……感到失望 as +从句 如同……那样,以……的方式(方式状语从句) do as you are told 按你被告知的做 This fish isn’t cooked as I like it. 7、Jeremy asked her why this was so and she told him that she did not like to see so many people laughing at him! why this was so(this 可以作主语, 也可以作宾语,so 只能作宾语, 只能放在动词后面) I think so. / I hope so. / I guess so. / I expect so. I refuse to do so. 我拒绝这样做 see sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在作某事 so many people 跟数字相连的前面一定要用so ★laugh ① vi. (大)笑 You’re very kind to laugh when I tell a funny story. Everybody laughed out loud when he said that. ② vi. 嘲笑(介词用at) If you go round daying things like that, everyone will laugh at you. 如果你到处说那种话,所有的人都会嘲笑你的。 如果laugh at后跟的是物,表示“因……而发笑”: You’re very kind to laugh at my funny stories. 【Summary writing】 1 Is Jeremy Hampden greatly admired for his great sense of humour or not? What was he invited to do? Did he immediately agree to do so or not? (When Jeremy... who is...) When Jeremy Hampden, who is greatly admired for his great sense of humour , was invited to make a speech at a wedding reception, he immediately agreed to do so. 在不使句子产生歧义的前提下,定语从句可放在其所修饰的整个句子的后面, 如以下两句: The brother, who was standing near the house, wanted to go swimming. The brother wanted to go swimming who was standing near the house . 但下面的就容易产生歧义: The brother, who was standing near the house , wanted to talk with the girl. The brother wanted to talk with the girl who was standing near the house. (有歧义) 【Letter Writing】 书信常见开头: You must be very annoyed with me for… I have just heard that… ★Lesson 64 The Channel Tunnel ★tunnel n. 隧道 channel n. 海峡 (The Channel 英吉利海峡) ★ventilate v. 通风 ventilation n. 通风 Forced Ventilation 强制排风系统 (forced adj. 被迫的,强迫的,动用武力的) air v. 通风 Air the room, please! 给房间通通风 ★double adj. 双的 字母W 的读音就是“double u”,意为两个u 构成 w . couple,pair 两个 a couple of weeks a pair of shoes/socks/glasses 一副眼镜 ★fear v. 害怕 ① vt. 害怕,畏惧 sb. fear doing sth. 害怕做…… She fears speaking in public. sb. fear sth. 害怕…… I feared darkness. be afraid of 害怕…… I am afraid of dogs. be afraid of / fear 人做主语 ② vt. 恐怕,猜想(比be afraid要正式) fear that… 恐怕…… We fear /It is feared/ We’re afraid that many lives have been lost in the crash. be afraid that… = I am sorry. 恐怕……(婉言谢绝) Can you help me? I am afraid I can't. = I am afraid not. fright / frighten / frightening / frightened / frightful sth. frighten sb. = sth. scare sb. ……吓了……一跳 You frightened/scared me. The doy frightened me. frighten = scare是因某件突然的事情才让某人产生了害怕的情绪,句子后边的部分是人 horrify v. 使恐怖, 使极度厌恶, 惊骇 horrified adj. 惊悸的, 带有恐怖感的, 惊骇的 ★invasion n. 入侵, 侵略 invade vt. 侵略, 侵袭, 拥挤 ★officially adv. 正式地 official adj. (官方的)正式 formally adv. (一般的)正式 ★connect v. 连接 connect sth. with/to… 把……和……连接 connect A with B (A和B平等) connect A to B (A连到B上去) This road connects the village with/to London. ★European adj. 欧洲的 ★continent n. 大陆 European Continent 欧洲大陆(不包括欧洲岛国) 【课文讲解】 1、In 1858, a French engineer, Aime Thome de Gamond, arrived in England with a plan for a twenty-one-mile tunnel under the English Channel. plan for +名词/动名词 ……的计划 twenty-one-mile 加连字符,用单数,作定语 2、This platform would serve as a port and a railway station. serve as… =serve for… 起……作用,用作……,充当…… It will serve as a swimming pool. This sofa can serve as/for (a) bed. 3、In 1860, a better plan was put forward by an Englishman, William Low. put forward (plan/suggestion) 提出(计划、建议等) You know they wouldn’t accept your plan. Why did you put it forward? 4、He suggested that a double railway-tunnel should be built. suggest ① vt. 暗示,用法与其他的词相同 ② vt. 建议,用虚拟语气,后接动词是要用-ing 形式,后接 that 从句采用一种固定的用法“should+动词原形”(should 可省略) I suggested (that) he (should) go home. (that, should 都可省略) He suggested that I should go with him. 他建议我一定要跟他去. insist作“坚持”讲时用法同suggest He insisted that I should stay to lunch. 他坚持要我留下来吃晚饭. 5、This would solve the problem of ventilation, for if a train entered this tunnel, it would draw in fresh air behind it. draw in 吸进,如用bring没有 draw in 形象、贴切 6、If, at the time, the British had not feared invasion, it would have been completed. 虚拟语气(非真实条件句)中,与现在事实相反,从句用一般过去时;与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时,此时主句格式为would have done,would/could/should 都可以 情态动词加have done 表示对过去的推测,如must have done,can't have done等 7、The world had to wait almost another 100 years for the Channel Tunnel. wait for sb. wait (for) some times I have waited five minutes. (for 可不要) I have waited for you (for) five minutes. I have waited five years for you. 【Summary writing】 1 Who planned to build a tunnel under the English Channel in 1858? How would it be ventilated? (The tunnel, which…) 4 Did work begin forty-two years later or not? Why was it stopped? (Though…because) 5 When was the Channel Tunnel officially opened? (However) 1 先行词, which : 非限定性定语从句 The tunnel, which a French engineer planned to build in 1858, would be ventilated if tall chimmeys were built above sea level. 4 Though it was begun (work begin forty-two years later), it was stopped because… 5 However 起了副词的作用,后面可以直接加一个句子 【Composition】 1 The English Channel separates Britain from Europe. The country has not been invaded since1066. (Thanks to…which) 2 Modern warfare is far more complex. Such fears no longer exist.(However, now that…) 3 Britain benefits enormously from a Channel Tunnel. Europe benefits enormously from a Channel Tunnel. (Both…and) 1 thanks to 幸亏(to是介词) Thanks to the English Channel which separates British from Europe, the… 2 now that 即使;既然 Howwever, now that moden warfare is far more complex ,such fears no longer exist. 即使现代战争越来越复杂了,然而这样的害怕都已经不存在了 3 Both Britain and Europe benefit... (注意benefit不能加s) benefit n. 利益,好处;vt. 有益于,有助于;vi. 受益 【Key structures】 第3类条件句 第 3类条件句是在 if从句里设想纯粹想像的事情,在主句里讲述想像的结果,谈的是没有或永远不可能有的结果,指的是过去没有过的事情。第 3类条件句的基本结构是if从句用过去完成时,主句用would have/ should have +过去分词: If it had rained, we would have stayed at home. If I had worked harded at school, I’d have got a better job. 在if从句中可用could have +过去分词代替had been able to +动词原形: I’d have read that book if I could have bought it. 特殊结构 : suggest/insist, 后接that从句(should+动词原形) 【Special difficulties】 动词 draw的一些短语 draw vt. 拉,拖 draw in 使……进入;吸入 The smell of flowers in the shop drew us in. 花的香味使我们走进了这家商店。 draw back 后退,后缩;收回,撤回 You must finish the work by yourselves now. They have drawn back their people. 你们得靠自己完成这项工作。他们已把他们的人员撤走了。 draw up 停住,使……停住;起草,制订,拟订 I was waiting for Jill in front of a shop when a taxi drew up beside me. Have any new agreements been drawn up between the two countries? draw off 撤走,离开 The villagers had to draw off because of the flood. When the others were talking loudly, he quickly drew off. ★Lesson 65 Jumbo versus the police ★versus prep. 对 (对抗的概念) vs. ……对……(vs.是versus的缩写,读音不变) Have you watched the game last night? It was France versus Italy. ★Christmas n. 圣诞节 Christmas Eve 圣诞前夜 Father Christmas 圣诞老人 Santa Claus 圣诞老人(美国常用)(Santa [美]=Santa Claus) ★present n. 礼物 present = gift 礼物 ★accompany v. 陪伴, 随行 I'll accompany you to your hotel. I'll accompany you home. 我陪你回家。 ★approach v. 走近 ① v. 走近( = come nearer and nearer ) The old man approaches 80 years old. approach sb. 离某人越来越近 He is approaching me. ② n. 途径, 方法 We have found an approach to success. ★ought modal verb 应该 ought to do sth. 应该(义务上) You ought to knock at the door. should do sth. 应该(我认为) You should knock at the door. ★weigh v. 重 sb./sth. weigh +体重 ……的体重/重量是…… weight n. 重量 lose weight 减肥 ★fortunate adj. 幸运的 fortunate = lucky 有运气的,幸运的 【课文讲解】 1、Last Christmas, the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, decided to take some presents to a children's hospital. take…to 把……送到 2、Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a 'guard of honour' of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street of the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. dress up as… 装扮成为……(的样子) dress up 打扮 a guard of honour 仪仗队 of six pretty girls中的of表示“由……组成的” A group of six Chinese boys took part in the competition. set off 出发 3、He should have known that the police would never allow this sort of thing. should have done 原本应该发生而没发生 You should have come earlier. needn't have done 过去不必做但是做了 ought to have done 也表示原本应该做而没做 所有的情态动词+have done都跟过去有关 4、A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side street as Jumbo was holding up the traffic. as=because hold up the traffic 阻碍交通 If you park the car in the street, it’ll hold up the traffic. 5、Though Jimmy agreed to go at once, Jumbo refused to move. agree to do sth. 同意做某事(to 为不定式 ) agree with sb. 同意某人(的建议等) I agree with you. agree to sth. I agree to your advice. I agree to go with you. 6、Fifteen policemen had to push very hard to get him off the main street. get off 从……移去/除去 (off=away from 离开什么地方) Please get the box off the boat. 7、'Jumbo must weigh a few tons,' said a policeman afterwards, 'so it was fortunate that we didn't have to carry him. Of course, we should arrest him, but as he has a good record, we shall let him off this time.' afterwards =later后来 It was fortunate that… 幸运的是…… let sb. off 饶恕某人,放过……,对……从轻处理 record n. 纪录;(警察局的)记录,历史,成绩 set up a new world record sb. have a good record 表现一贯很好 Her record as a secretary in the firm isn’t very good. resume n. 摘要, 概略, <美> 履历 vt. 再继续, 重新开始, 重新占用, 再用, 恢复 【Summary writing】 1 What did he decide to take to a children's hospital? How did the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, dress up? Did he set off down the main street of the city, or did he go down a side street? Was he riding an elephant called Jumbo or not? (After having... and... riding) 2 Was he told that he was holding up the traffic or not? Did Jimmy agree to go at once, or not? Did Jumbo agree to go, or did he refuse to move? How many policemen had to push him off the main street? (On being…but…so…) 1 After having decided to take presents to hospital and dressed up as Father Christmas, he set off down the street riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. After的后面可以直接加 doing,也可以加having done After knocking at the door. / After having knocked at the door. decided 和 dressed 共用after having 动词ing 强调时间上的同时 2 On being told that he was holding up the traffic, he agreed to go at once, but Jumbo refused to move,so fifteen policemen had to push him off the main street. on 加在动词前面,相当与as soon as be 在这儿要跟done相连 【Letter Writing】 书信常见语: I really hate to complain, but … Some time ago, I … 【Key structures】 Must, Have to, Should and Ought to must通常只用于现在时和将来时,其他时态则用have to代替。have to比must往往更强调客观的要求或外在的原因。should和ought to都可译为“应该”,表示义务、责任或某个正确的行为。ought to比should语气略强些,多用于肯定句;疑问句与否定结构则多用should。should/ought to +have +过去分词表示过去应该做(或完成)而没有做的事。 He ought to have returned by now. He had to change his plans, but he should be returning soon. 【Special difficulties】 带 let的短语 let vt. 允许,让 let sb. in 允许进来 The woman who let me in had a baby in her arms. let sb. out 放走,释放,放出去 Every evening they let the dog out. let off 放过,饶过,宽恕,对……从轻处理 I think we shall let him off this time. 我想这次我们饶了他。 The thief never dreamt that the police would let him off. let down 使……失望,(在紧要关头)抛弃 They need your help. Don’t let them down. He failed in the exam again and his parents left let down. agree and accept agree vi. 同意(计划、建议等),常与to和with连用 They invited me to their wedding and I’ve agreed to go. accept vt. 接受,收受 She offered me some of her children’s clothes and I accepted them. I don’t accept your opinion/ agree with your opinion. dress and dress up dress vt.&vt. 穿衣,打扮 Tom has nearly learned how to dress/dress himself now. dress up 穿上盛装,精心打扮,装扮(成……) He dressed up as Father Christmas. ★Lesson 66 Sweet as honey! ★bomber n. 轰炸机, 炸弹手, 轰炸员, 投弹手 bomb n. 炸弹 ★remote adj. 偏僻的,偏远的 remote village 遥远的村庄 lonely adj. 偏僻的(孤零零的) lonely island 孤岛 ★Pacific n. 太平洋 Atlantic大西洋 ; Indian ocean印度洋 ; Arctic ocean 北冰洋 ★wreck n. 残骸 wreck强调坏了没用的东西 (一个坏了的整体,完整的);wrekage强调坏成碎片的东西 ★rediscover v. 重新发现 re-表示“再, 又”的意思,如review复习,reread再读,rewrite改写,retell复述等 ★survey n. 调查(一定要跟数据有关系) aerial survey 航空调查(跟数据有关系) investigation n. 调查,研究 ★package v. 把……打包 ① v. 把……打成大包 pack n. 小包;v. 把……打成小包 Pack it for me. Wrap it up for me. ② n. 大包 package deal 一揽子交易,一揽子交易中的条款 parcel n. 包裹(邮局邮寄) ★imagine v. 想像 ① vt. 想像 Imagine it. 想象一下吧! (口语) ② vt. 料想,猜想 imagine doing sth. 想象…… imagine that + 从句 想象…… I imagine you’re like to rest after your long journey. ★colony n. 群, 殖民地 colony n. 殖民地,侨民,(聚居的)一群同业,一批同行,(生物)群体 a colony of ants 一群蚂蚁 ;a colony of bees 一群蜜蜂; a colony of artists 一群艺术家 a flock of goats 羊群 a herd of cows 一群奶牛 a crowd of 一群(用于人) ★preserve v. 保护,保存(经过特殊手段而保存下来) preserved bean curd 豆腐乳 (bean curd 豆腐) preserved fruit 果脯; preserved meat 腊肉; preserved fish 腊鱼 smoked fish 熏鱼 keep v. 保存,保持 Can I keep your photo? 我能保存你的照片吗? How long can I keep it? Can I keep it for you? Store v. 储存,保存(以便日后使用) store the cabbage 【课文讲解】 1、In 1963 a Lancaster bomber crashed on Wallis Island, a remote place in the South Pacific, a long way west of Samoa. crash vi. 从上往下掉 crash in the mountain 掉到山里 a long way to go 有很长的路要走 在英文中跟方位感相连的介词有三个 in, on, to in 隶属关系 Haerbin’s in the north of China. on是指跟一个地方有接触面 Korea is on the north of China. to是相离的概念 Japan is to the east of China. west of=to the west of (west of前面没有任何词修饰的时候,认为处于相离的概念) 2、The plane wasn't too badly damaged, but over the years, the crash was forgotten and the wreck remained undisturbed. over 在……期间/之中(相当于during,over后如有数字则译为“超过”) over the years 这些年来 over the new year 在新年期间 ; over the Christmas 在圣诞期间 over Spring Festival 在春节期间 He worked very hard over the last two years. remain+adj. remain看作系动词be理解 The room remained warm. 房间还是那么暖和 (注意与 “the room was warm.” 的区别, “remain” 有保持的意思) 3、By this time, a Lancaster bomber in reasonable condition was rare and worth rescuing. by this time 到这时 in condition 处于……状态 in reasonable condition=in good condition in perfect condition 处于完美状态 in poor confition 状态不好 Keep the house in good condition. reasonable在这里表示“尚好的,过得去的”,用于表示价钱时,指“公道的,合理的,不贵的”等 The house is in reasonable condition. The price of the dress is reasonable. be worth doing sth. 值得……,具有……的价值(表达了被动含义, 用主动ing表达被动含义) The cake is worth eating. The books are worth reading. 4、The French authorities had the plane packaged and moved in parts back to France. have sth. done 让别人做某事 in parts =little by little,bit by bit 一部分一部分 5、Imagine their surprise and delight when they broke open the packing cases and found that the fourth engine was sweet as honey -- still in perfect condition. imagine后面可以直接加宾语 Imagine my excitement when I found my mother outside. Imagine their excitement and delight when the People’s Republic of China was founded. break sth. open 打开…… cut it open 剪开(信封) tear it open 撕开(信封) 在固定短语中as…as中的第一个as可省略 I am busy as a bee. (as busy as a bee中第一个as省略) sweet as honey 甜得象蜜 (在文中是双关语, 注意体会) sticky as glue 胶水一样粘 strong as horse 马一样强壮 turn…into… 把……变成 When it is cold enough, water is turnd into ice. 【Key structures】 使役式 使役式:have +名词/宾语代词 +动词过去分词,使役式表示对某物(或某人)……。 I have my wallet lost/stolen. 我丢了钱包 While I’m away, I’ll have you looked after. 我不在的时候,我会让人照顾你的。 have sth. done的另一个意思是“遭遇不幸” I have my leg broken. 我摔断了腿 【Special difficulties】 集合名词 集合名词表示的是由若干个体组成的集合体,如 family(家庭,一家人),team(队),crew(船、飞机等上的全体工作人员),audience(观众),government(政府),staff 全体职员/教员),class(班,班级)等。如果要强调作为整体的集体,则后面的动词用单数;如果要强调组成集体的每个人,则后面的动词用复数。 The national team is travelling to London tomorrow. 国家代表队将于明天去伦敦. The team are all highly talented young people. 全队人员都是天赋极高的年轻人. The audience is made up of school children. 观众是由学校的学生组成的. The audience were spellbound by the magic of the performance. 观众们被表演的魅力迷住了. My family are watching TV. My family is happy ★Lesson 67 Volcanoes ★active adj. 活动的 active adj. 积极的 passive adj. 消极的, 被动的 ★violently adv. 猛烈地, 剧烈地 violent adj. 猛烈的, 激烈的, 暴力引起的, 强暴的 violence n. 猛烈, 强烈, 暴力, 暴虐, 暴行, 强暴 ★manage v. 设法 manage to do sth. = try to do sth. and succeed I can manage it. = I can manage it myself. = I can do it. ★escape v. 逃脱 ① v. 逃脱 escape sth. escape death 死里逃生 escape doing sth. He escape punishment/being punished. ② n. 逃脱 narrow escape 九死一生 ★alive adj. 活着的 alive 做定语时一定要放在被修饰词后面, 属于表语形容词,后置定语 light ahead 前面的灯光 Every man alive has his/her own troubles. living sth. 活着的…… living elephant 活着的象 live ① adj. 现场的,活着的(永远不和人连用) live concert 现场演唱会 live fish 活鱼(不能和人连) ② v. 活着 【课文讲解】 1、Haroun Tazieff, the Polish scientist, has spent his lifetime studying active volcanoes and deep caves in all parts of the world. spend some time (in) doing sth. 花多少时间干…… lifetime n. 毕生精力 spend most of his lifetime 花了毕生大部分精力 spend his lifetime 花了毕生精力 in all parts of the world 世界各地的 2、Tazieff was able to set up his camp very close to the volcano while it was erupting violently. close to 离……很近,与……靠近 He parked the car close to the river. Don’t sit so close to the fire. for long=for a long time 3、He noticed that a river of liquid rock was coming towards him. =He notice a river of liquid rock coming towards him. notice that + 宾语从句 notice sth. notice sb. do/doing sth. 注意到某人做某事/正在做某事 a river of… ……形成的河流 a river of soil and stone 泥石流 Rivers of blood flowed during World war II. (rivers of blood 血流成河) When she heard the news, a river of tears came down her face. 4、It threatened to surround him completely, but Tazieff managed to escape just in time. threaten to 威胁着要……,有迹象表明…… He threatened to leave the team. 他扬言要离开这个队。 in time 及时,来得及,just表示“正好,差一点” I caught the train just in time. Shall we still be in time for/to see the performance? 5、This time, he managed to climb into the mouth of Kituro so that he could take photographs and measure temperatures. manage to do sth. 设法做到某事,努力完成某事(虽然很费劲,但仍然做到/完成某事) try to do sth. 设法做某事,努力做某事(但并不一定成功) the mouth of Kituro 火山口 so that 以便于(目的状语从句),一定含有情态动词 6、Tazieff has often risked his life in this way. risk one’s life 冒着生命危险 take a risk of… =at a risk of… 冒着……的危险 risk sth.=risk losing sth. 冒着失去……的危险 risk doing sth. 冒着做……的危险 7、He has been able to tell us more about active volcanoes than any man alive. 在两相比较中, 如果前者属于后者, 那一定要在比较时用other, else 排除前者 than any other man alive 【Key structures】 Can, Be able to and Manage to 表示能力时用can/could,在将来时中表示“能力”时通常用 will be able to,在表示成功地完成过去某个动作时用was able to而不用could。 He thought he could pass the exam easily, but he failed. I can’t remember where I’ve seen him. Jane can’t swim yet. She’ll be able to swim in a few months’ time. manage to在表示成功地完成过去某个动作时,经常代替 be able to,它更强调“虽然困难很大,但仍然……”。在否定句中,manage to与be able to经常可以互换。 He was able to finish the job yesterday. (表示可能) He managed to finish the job yesterday. (暗示他克服了不少困难才完成) What do you think of the film? I’m afraid I haven’t managed to/been able to see it yet. 【Special Difficulties】 带 say与tell的短语 1、say 在表示“说,讲”时,say后面不跟间接宾语(人)。如果一定要指明,则用“to +名词/代词”。表示“道别,诵读(祈祷),背诵”等含义时用 say而不能用tell。say有“表达(思想、意见等)”、“ 据 说 ”含义,tell则没有。 John is said to be very interested in art. Do you have anything to say about the accident? 关于这次事故你有什么想说的/想法? He knelt down and said his prayers. 他跪了下来作祷告. He said goodbye and left. 他告辞后离开了. say a good word for 为……说好话/辩护;推荐 Don’t expect that he’ll say a good word for you. 2、tell 在表示“说,讲”时,tell 后面可以跟双宾语。tell 经常用于表示“讲(实话,谎话,秘密等)”。tell可以表示“辨别,分辨”,say则不可以。在英国英语中,tell the time(美语为tell time)表示根据钟表等“说出时间,识钟” Can you tell me anything about it? 你能告诉我有关的任何事情吗? He is only five, but he can already tell the time. tell (sb.) a lie 说谎(谎言有很多个,为可数名词) He often tells lies. 他经常说谎. tell (sb.) the truth 讲真话(真话只有一个,故要特指, 加the) I want you to tell me the truth. 我要你讲真话. tell (sb.) the difference between 区分, 区别 Can't you tell the difference between an Austin and a Morris? 你能区分奥斯丁舞和莫利斯舞吗? say和tell后面跟so时含义不一样: I told you so! 我告诉过你是这样的!(用于情况被证实之后) Who says so? 谁这么说的? I say so. 我这么说的。 ★Lesson 68 Persistent ★persistent adj. 坚持的, 固执的 stubborn adj. 顽固的, 固执的, 坚定的, 坚决的, 难应付的, 难处理的 You are stubborn. 你这个死脑筋 persist v. 坚持(不顾阻拦一味的坚持): persist in doing sth. He persist in making noise. ★avoid v. 避开 avoid doing sth. 避免做…… ★insist v. 坚持认为,坚持说(是人的一种态度) vt. &vi. ①坚持,坚决认为 insist on doing sth. 坚持做…… My brother insist on going with me. He insists on the importance of the meeting. persevere v. 坚持,坚持不懈地努力(褒义词) persevere in sth./doing sth. We should persevere in studying English. perseverance n. 坚持不懈 vt. &vi. ②坚决主张/要求,一定要 I insist on speaking to the manager. My wife insists that I (should) have my hair cut. 【课文讲解】 1、I crossed the street to avoid meeting him, but he saw me and came running towards me. cross v. 穿过 I cross the garden. across adv.&prep. 穿过 I go across the garden. avoid doing sth. 避免…… come running towards sb. 向某人跑过来 2、It was no use pretending that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. It is (of) no use doing… 做……是没有用处的,做……是徒步的/无益的 It is no use pretending … 假装……是没有用了 It is no use crying over the spilled milk. 覆水难收 It is no use punishing him. wave to sb. 向某人招手 3、I never enjoy meeting Nigel Dykes. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做…… appreciate sth./doing sth. 喜欢做…… 4、He never has anything to do. 用不定式做定语, 修饰anything,不定式放在不定代词后面 anything to do sth. 任何要做的事 anything to eat sth. 可以吃的东西 ; anything to drink 可以喝的东西 5、No matter how busy you are, he always insists on coming with you. no matter常与how,when,where,what,who等引导的从句连用,译为“无论……” No matter how old you are,… No matter where you are,… No matter who you are,… No matter how tired you are, your children insisted on listening to stories. insist on doing sth. 坚持做…… 6、I had to think of a way of preventing him from following me around all morning. think of a way of doing sth. 想一个做某事的方法 think of a way of solving prevent sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事, 让某人不做某事 stop sb. from doing sth. 让某人不做某事 keep sb. from doing sth. 让某人不做某事(保持不做某事) forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 7、Fancy meeting you here! =Imagine meeting you here! 真想不到会在这见到你! (fancy=imagine) “fance+名词”表示惊讶 ★fance ① vt. 设想,想像 Fancy Ian not knowing the answer to such an easy question! vt. ② 想要,喜欢(往往用于指个人爱好) It’s a fine day and I fancy driving down to the coast. 8、You're not busy doing anything, are you? be busy doing sth. 忙着做…… 反意疑问句的回答, 根据事实回答 9、Would you mind my coming with you? “Would/Do you mind +动名词/if引导的从句”用来表示客气的请求或征求意见,表示同意/不介意时,用“No, not at all”或“Certainly not”回答;不同意时往往用一些委婉的说法,如“I’m sorry, but…”等回答,不用“yes, I so”。 Would you mind if I open the windows? Certainly not. /Sorry, but it’s cold here. mind (sb’s) +doing sth. 介意某人做某事 -ing的逻辑主语有四种形式,分为两大类 ① 作为代词, 可以用人称代词的宾格, 又可以用形容词性物主代词 ② 作为名词, 可以保持本身不变, 也可以变成名词所有格 作主语时必须是所有格(名词所有格, 形容词性物主代词), 但作宾语时可以用所有格, 也可用普通格(人称代词宾格) Would you mind my parents' having dinner with me? Would you mind me opening the door? Would you mind my/me smoking? Would you mind me making myself at home? 你介意我把这儿当成家吗? 【Composition】 1 There was a dentist nearby. She knew him well. Elizabeth decided to go there. She would explain what had happened.(As…whom…in order to) 3 Elizabeth left. The dentist went into the waiting room.‘Do you want to have your teeth examined?’he askeb Nigel. (After…and asked Nigel if…) 1 as(因为) whom(引导定语从句)…in order to (目的状语) There was a dentist nearby whom she knew well Elizabeth decided to go there in order to explain what had happened. 3 Afrer Elizabeth left, the dentist went into the waiting room and asked Nigel if he wanted to have his teeth examined. 【Key structure】 动名词的用法 有些动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。这些动词包括 avoid,admit,deny,fancy,finish,enjoy,mind(在乎,在意),suggest,stand(容忍)等。 有些结构通常要接动名词,如 busy,worth,it is no/little use,bored with,interested in,insist on,prevent…from等: I was looking forward to reading those books. Well, you can’t read them, so it’s no use thinking about them. 动名词可以有自己的逻辑主语(即动作执行者,而不是句子的主语): Please excuse his not writing to you. Do you mind my smoking? come和go之后可以跟与户外活动相关的动名词(climbing,driving,fishing,riding,shopping,walking等),表示建议、邀请或叙事。 There’s no point in my coming climbing with you. 我和你们去爬山毫无意义。 (there’s no point in =it is no use) 感知动词(hear,see,fell,watch等)后面既可以跟宾语加分词结构,也可以跟宾语加不带to的不定式。现在分词往往强调动作正在发生,用于叙述中时使人身临其境;不定式则可以表示动作发生了或过程结束了。有时它们之间的区别不大,可以互相替换使用。 ★Lesson 69 But not murder! ★acquire v. 取得,获得,学到(知识、技术、语言等),养成(习惯等) Mary acquired a good knowledge of Chinese in five years’ time. acquire a habit of doing sth. 养成……的习惯 Tom acquired a habit of smoking. acquire confidence 获得信心 【课文讲解】 1、I was being tested for a driving licence for the third time. a driving licence 驾驶执照 2、I had been asked to drive in heavy traffic and had done so successfully. heavy adj. 大量的,多的,密集的 Traffic is heavier on this road than on the other one. 3、The examiner must have been pleased with my performance, for he smiled and said, 'Just one more thing, Mr. Eames. Let us suppose that a child suddenly crosses the road in front of you. As soon as I tap on the window, you must stop within five feet.' must have been表示对过去的事情的猜测 performance n. 表现,表演,工作情况 be pleased with 对……满意 They are pleased with his work. The manager isn’t very pleased with his secretary. let us suppose that… 让我们假设…… Let us suppose that there is a forest fire. 4、The examiner looked at me sadly. 'Mr. Eames,' he said, in a mournful voice, 'you have just killed that child!' in a … voice 以……的声调 in a mournful voice 用悲伤的声调 He told them the news in a sad/excited voice. 【Key structures】 被动语态 被动语态可以用于“介词+动名词”结构中,在英语中是很正式的用法,一般不用于口语。“介词(after,before,on)+动名词”这个结构通常相当于一个时间状语从句。如果两个动作中有一个在另一个开始之前已经完成,则可以用“after +动名词的完成式”表示第一个动作;如果只表示先后顺序,则可用“after/before +动名词”结构;“on +动名词”通常表示两个动作几乎同时发生: The man called the police after being robbed. He killed a child before being arrested. On/After being told that her mother was seriously ill, she hurried back to England. 被动语态用于want 后面的不定式中时,to be可以省略,want 后跟被动语态时往往表示希望别人完成所说的动作: I want the luggage fetched from the hotel this afternoon. 被动语态还可用于过去进行时,以强调动作的持续性: I was being asked about the film all day yesterday. 【Special Difficulties】 Practice and Advice practice n.(反复的)练习,实践,实行 Your spoken English will improve with practice. Have they put their plan into practice? 他们把计划付诸实施了吗? practise vt.& vi. 练习,经常做 Jimmy used to practice (playing) football every afternoon. She practises on the piano for three hours every day. advice n. 忠告,劝告,建议(不可数名词) She gave me some good advice / a piece of advice about jobs. advise vt.& vi. 劝告,向……提供提议 She advised me against going to the party. 她建议/劝我不要去参加聚会。 Enjoy, Entertain and Amuse enjoy vt. 欣赏,喜爱,享受……之乐(后跟名词、动名词或反身代词,用于主动语态) I enjoy swimming in summer. We’re really enjoying ourselves. entertain vt. 款待,招待,请客;使……快乐,给……娱乐(=amuse) We often entertain friends at weekends. Uncle Sam entertains/amuses the children for hours at a time. 萨姆叔叔一连好几小时地逗孩子们乐。 My children can entertain/amuse themselves for hours with telling stories to each other. amuse vt. 逗乐,逗笑(常用于被动语态) She was amused by her father’s funny stories. His story amused the children very much. ★Lesson 70 Red for danger ★sensitive adj. 敏感的,神经过敏的,易生气的,介意的(常与to+名词连用) Mary is sensitive to smells. You’re too sensitive. 你太敏感了(太容易生气)。 Mary has a sensitive ear. ★charge v. 冲上去 ① vt. &vi. 要价,收费 They charged us too much for repairs. How much do you charge for this dress? ② vt. 指控,指责 The police charged him with murder. He charged Gary with speeding. ③ vt. &vt. 猛攻,冲向,冲锋,向前冲 The bull charged at the drunk. ★bow v. 鞠躬 ① vt. &vt. 鞠躬,欠身,低下(头等) The crowd broke into cheers and the drunk bowed. As she couldn’t answer the question, she bowed her head. ② vi. 让步,屈服,服从 Why did you bow to their decision? He finally bowed before money and married the other girl. ③ vt. 压弯,压倒 My mother is bowed with age. 我母亲因年老而腰弯背驼。 The little tree is bowed with snow. 【课文讲解】 1、The crowd began to shout, but the drunk was unaware of the danger. be unaware of… 不知道,没有觉察…… While she read the book, she was unaware of the noise around her. I was unaware that you were coming. 我不知道你要来。 2、The bull was busy with the matador at the time, but it suddenly caught sight of the drunk who was shouting rude remarks and waving a red cap. catch sight of… 突然看到…… As I came out of the shop, I caught sight of Dan in the crowd. 3、The drunk, however, seemed quite sure of himself. be/feel sure of oneself 有自信心 She’s always so sure of herself. 4、Apparently sensitive to criticism, the bull forgot all about the matador and charged at the drunk. sensitive to criticism 对挑衅/批评敏感 charge at … 向……攻击 5、The crowd broke into cheers and the drunk bowed. break into cheers 突然喝起彩来 break into… 突然发出,突然……起来 On hearing the news, she broke into tears. When Sally saw the woman wearing a hat that looked like a lighthouse, she broke into laughter. 6、Even the bull seemed to feel sorry for him, for it looked on sympathetically until the drunk was out of the way before once more turning its attention to the matador. look on 旁观,观看 Many people just looked on while the two men robbed a woman. out of the way 不碍事,不挡路 While making meat pies, I always order the children to keep out of the way. 在做肉馅饼时,总是命令孩子们不要碍事。 【Letter Writing】 常用开头语: I have not forgotten that… You will find it hard to believe, but… I am afraid I… 【Key structures】 与 for,with,of,to,at,from,in,on和 about连用的形容词 与 for 连用的形容词:eager for(渴望),enough for(足够),famous for(以……而闻名),fit for(合适),grateful for/to(因……而感激),qualified for/in(能胜任),ready for/to(准备好),responsible for(对……负责),sorry for(对……感到遗憾),sufficient for(充足的),thankful for/to(感谢),valid for(有效期为……) We have enough apples for the children. They were eager for the performance to begin. My aunt is famous for her beauty. 与 with连用的形容词:angry with sb./at sth.(因某人或某事生气),busy with/at(忙于……),consistent with(与……一致),content with(对……满足),familiar with/to(与……熟悉),patient with(有耐心), popular with(为……所喜爱) Why was Mary angry with you? She wasn’t content with her life. Uncle Sam is always popular with children. 与of 连用的形容词:afraid of(害怕),ahead of(在……前面),aware of(知道),capable of(能够),careful of/with(小心),certain of(确信),conscious of(意识到),envious of(妒忌),fond of(爱好),guilty of(有……罪的),ignorant of(不了解),independent of(独立于),jealous of(妒忌),kind of/to(对……和蔼),north/south/east/west of(在……的北/南/东/西面),short of(缺乏),shy of(顾虑),sure of(肯定),worthy of(值得) She is careful his coming. 她注意衣着。 I was short of money at that time. 与to连用的形容词:close to(接近于),contrary to(与……相反),cruel to(对……残忍),dear to(对……很重要),equal to(与……相等),faithful to(忠于……),fatal to(对……是致命的),harmful to(对……有害的),identical to(与……相同的),indifferent to(对……不关心),inferior to(劣于……),liable to(对……有义务的),new to(对……没有经验),obedient to(对……服从),obvious to(对……清楚的),polite to(对……有礼貌),previous to(先于),rude to(对……粗暴无礼),sensitive to(对……敏感),similar to(与……相似),useful to(对……有用) Most people are sensitive to criticism. Though the bicycle is old, it is very dear to me. 虽然这辆自行车破旧,但我很珍视它。 All these words are new to me. 所有这些单词我都是第一次遇到。 It’s obvious to everyone that he’s lying. 大家都清楚他在撒谎。 My car is similar to yours. 我的车与你的车相似。 与 at 连用的形容词:bad at(不善于……),clever at(擅长),efficient at(能胜任的),expert at/in(能熟练做……),good at(善于),indignant at(对……感到愤慨),quick at(很快),sad at/about(因……而悲伤),slow at(对……迟钝),skillful at/in(熟练) I am good/bad at swimming. Tom is quick/slow at learning new things. 与 from 连用的形容词:away from(距……远的),different from(与……不同的),far from(远离),safe from(无危险的) The man was far from comfortable while being confined to the wooden box. 那人被闷在木箱里时一点儿也不舒服。 与 in连用的形容词:deficient in(缺少),fortunate from(在……很幸运),honest from(对……很诚实),weak from(在……薄弱的) You’re fortunate in having a house of your own. Frank is honest in business. I’m weak in/at chemics. 与 on连用的形容词:dependent on(依赖于……),intent on(专心于……),keen on(热心于……) She was keen on tennis. You shouldn’t be so intent on making money. Are you still dependent on your father? 与 about连用的形容词:curious about(对……好奇的),doubtful about/of(对……有疑问),enthusiastic about(对……热心),reluctant about/to(勉强),right about/in(在……是正确的),uneasy about(对……感到不安) She is uneasy about her future. 她为自己的前途担心。 I’m doubtful about/of his words. ★Lesson 71 A famous clock 【课文讲解】 1、When you visit London, one of the first things you will see is Big Ben, the famous clock which can be heard all over the world on the B.B.C. the B.B.C. =British Broadcasting Corporation 英国广播公司 2、If the Houses of Parliament had not been burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have been erected. the Houses of Parliament 国会大厦(英国议会是由上议院(House of Lords)和下议院(House of Commons)组成) burn down (使)烧成平地,烧毁 The hospital was burned down last month. 3、Big Ben takes its name from Sir Benjamin Hall who was responsible for the making of the clock when the new Houses of Parliament were being built. take one’s name from 以……命名 Sir用于英国人的全名(或名字)之前时表示“爵士”(不单独用于姓之前),如Sir John Gilbert(约翰.吉尔伯特爵士)或 Sir John(约翰爵士),但不能称为Sir Gilbert。 be responsible for 对……需负责任/承担责任的 Who is responsible for the accident? John is responsible for the building of the bridge. -ing形式前面无冠词时可直接跟宾语:making the clock;-ing前有冠词时则其后不能直接跟宾语,而必须用of:the making of the clock。 4、It is not only of immense size, but is extremely accurate as well. be of… 表示人或物的特征 We are of the same age/size. This letter is of great importance. 5、Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. go wrong (机器等)发生故障,出毛病 My watch/the engine of the car has gone wrong. Something has gone wrong with my car. 6、A painter who had been working on the tower hung a pot of paint on one of the hands and slowed it down! slow down (使……)慢下来/减速(可分开使用) He slowed his car down while driving in heavy traffic. 【Letter Writing】 常见开头语: I wonder how you learnt that… You will never guess who/what… 【Special Difficulties】 Official, Employee and Shop assistant official n. 官员,公务员,高级官员 Bank officials get high salaries. Before he retired, Jeremy had been a government/city official. employee n. 雇员,雇工(包括各个层次的) Later he became a government employee. shop assistant 零售店的店员(美语中用 salesclerk) The shop assistant who served her did not like the way she was dressed. Hang/Hung and Hang/Hanged hang(hung,hung) vt. 悬挂 I’m hanging this picture on the wall. hang(hanged,hanged) vt. 绞死,吊死,上吊 As he has murdered three men, he ought to be hanged. I wonder why she hanged herself. ★Lesson 72 A car called bluebird ★burst v. 爆裂 ① vi. 爆炸,爆裂 A tyre burst during the second run. The balloon burst. ② vt.& vi. 突然打开 We burst the door open. While I was reading, the door burst open and John came in. 【课文讲解】 1、The great racing driver, Sir Malcolm Campbell, was the first man to drive at over 300 miles per hour. 在the second,the next/the last以及表示最高级的如the best,the most intelligent 等后可以用to引导的不定式短语做定语,这些词语后面可以接名词或one(s),也可以不接: She’s always the first to arrive and the last to leave. You’re the best person to advise me about buying a house. 你是我买房子的最好顾问。 the only后必须接一个名词或one(s): You’re the only person/one to complain. per 表示“每一,每”,通常用于商业及技术用语,日常用语大多用a/an: You can stay at the hotel at $10 per person per night. You must have been driving at seventy miles an/per hour. 2、It was over 30 feet in length and had a 2,500-horsepower engine. 30 feet in length 30英尺长 3、Although Campbell reached a speed of over 304 miles per hour, he had great difficulty in controlling the car because a tyre burst during the first run. have difficulty (in) doing sth. 做……有困难 He has grown a beard and I had difficulty (in) recognizing him. the first run 开始的行程 the next run is forty miles. 下一段赛程为40英里。 4、Following in his father's footsteps many years later, Sir Malcolm's son, Donald, also set up a world record. follow in one’s footsteps 步某人的后尘,仿效某人,继承某人的事业 He intends to follow in his father’s footsteps and to become a dentist. ★Lesson 73 The record-holder ★record-holder 纪录保持者 n.+ v.+ er 构词法 tennis player ★truant n. 逃学的孩子,逃学者 The three boys who are fishing over there are truants and ought to be sent back to school. play truant 逃学(英) the boy who played truant 逃学的孩子 play hooky 逃学(美) be absent from class unpurpose 逃学 (unpurpose adv. 故意的) He did it unpurpose. evade school 逃学 ★unimaginative adj. 缺乏想象力的 imagine v. 想象,设想 imaginative adj. 有想象力的 She is an imaginative painter. Painters should be imaginative. imagination n. 想象力 -tive 一般是形容词的后缀;-tion 一般是名词的后缀 ★shame n. 惭愧,羞耻 What a shame! 真可耻! Shame on you! 替你感到可耻! shameful adj. 令人羞愧 ashamed adj. 感到羞愧 put sb. to shame 让某人感到羞愧 对别人赞美的回答: Thank you. You are flattering me. (你过奖了。) You put me to shame. (你比我好的意思) put sb. to trouble 给某人带来麻烦 ★hitchhike v. 搭便车旅行 hitchhike = take a lift 搭便车 hitchhiker n. 搭便车的人 ★meantime n. 其间 in the meantime = meanwhile 与此同时 ★evade v. 逃避,逃离 ① vt.(巧妙地)逃脱,躲开 She evaded a blow from the man and then called out for help. ② vt. 回避,逃避(尤指不当地) evade doing sth. 逃避做…… He always tries to evade paying taxes. Many children dream of evading school. avoid v. 逃避,逃离,避免 avoid 指通过一种合理的,正当的手段来避免做某事;evade 指通过欺骗的手段来避免做某事。 tax avoidance 避税 tax evasion 逃税 【课文讲解】 1、Children who play truant from school are unimaginative. play truant from school = play truant 逃学 As a boy, Tom used to play truant (from school). 2、A quiet day's fishing, or eight hours in a cinema seeing the same film over and over again, is usually as far as they get. 动词ing前面如果出现定语,若是名词,则采用名词所有格或名词短语本身。 eight hours' seeing the film 非谓语动词做主语,一律作单数看。 Three hours in the room,It is tiring. Three hours(') listening to the teacher is tiring. Three hours in the room listening to the teacher is tiring. Events such as the March 5th shooting at a high school in San Diego bring the problem into focus. 比如三月五日圣地亚哥一所高中学校发生的枪击事件问题成为焦点。 over and over again = again and again 一次又一次,一再地,反复许多次地 As my grandmother can’t hear very well, I had to say it over and over again. as far as +从句 最大程度……,到……程度,就……而言 As far as I know, his operations successful. 3、They have all been put to shame by a boy who, while playing truant, travelled 1,600 miles. while 引导时间状语从句,一般放在前面或后面,放在中间就加上逗号。while doing 省略句,省略了主语和be 动词,这个主语一定就是主句的主语。 put…to shame 使……蒙羞,使……相形见绌 What he has done put his parents to shame. He saved the child at the risk of his own life and put all those who looked on to shame. 他冒着生命危险救了那个孩子,使所有旁观者都相形见绌。 4、He hitchhiked to Dover and, towards evening, went into a boat to find somewhere to sleep. hitchhike to… 搭便车去…… Dover n. 多佛(英国著名的港口) towards evening 快到晚上 somewhere to sleep 可以睡觉的地方 anything to do/drink 可以做的事/可以喝的东西(这里 to do 做定语) 5、When he woke up next morning, he discovered that the boat had, in the meantime, travelled to Calais. wake up 自己醒来 Calais n. 加来(法国城市) in the meantime 在此期间 I feel tired and would like to take a nap. In the meantime, you may do some reading. 6、No one noticed the boy as he crept off. creep off = creep away ★creep ① vi. 爬行,匍匐,(像爬行似地)慢慢前进 The old car crept along the country road. A snake crept into the garden while she was writing a letter. ② vi. 悄悄地/蹑手蹑脚地走;渐渐产生/出现 We crept upstairs so as not to wake Grandpa. He noticed that age had crept on him. 7、The next car the boy stopped did not take him into the centre of Paris as he hoped it would, but to Perpignan on the French-Spanish border. take … into 带到…… not…but… 不是……而是…… as sb. hoped 正如某人所希望的 I became a good teacher as my mother hopes. than sb. expected 比某人所期待的还…… Don't ask what the country do for you, but ask what you do for the country. the French-Spanish border 法国与西班牙的边界 (边界地带属于哪个地方由第一个国籍确定) 8、There he was picked up by a policeman and sent back to England by the local authorities. pick up 逮捕,拘捕 After the accident, he was picked up by the police. 【Letter Writing】 每封信包含有三个主要部分:引言、目的和结束语。其中最重要的部分是目的。在这部分中必须说明为什么要写此信。 【Summary writing 】 5 Fares have increased. The railway company is still losing money. The employees have demanded higher wages. (In spite of the fact that . because) 7 I made sure. The alarm clock worked. I set it. It would ring at six o'clock. (After making…that…so that) 5. In spite of the fact that fares have increased, the railway company is still losing money because the employees have demanded higher wages. fare n. 费用 in spite of 尽管 lose money 亏损 7. After making sure that the alarm clock worked, I set it so that it would alarm clock 闹钟 set the clock 定闹钟 be sure of +n. ;be sure to do sth. ;be sure that 【Key structures】 简单句、并列句和复合句 简单句是英语中最小的句子单位,一般有一个限定动词,它有一个主语和一个谓语,但可以用连词and将两个或两个以上的动词合并为一个简单句。根据动词后所使用的不同成分,简单句可有5种基本句型: ① 主语 +动词 ② 主语 +动词 +主语补足语: ③ 主语 +动词 +直接宾语: ④ 主语 +动词 +间接宾语+直接宾语 ⑤ 主语 +动词 +宾语 +宾语补足语 将几个简单句连接起来构成并列句。在并列句中不存在单独的主句和从属于它的从句;各小句根据上下文的要求按逻辑次序排列,但各小句都同等重要并独立存在。我们常常把并列句中的各小句看成是并列主句。可采用下列任何一种方式构成并列句: ① 用分号 We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing. ② 用分号,后面跟一个连接副词(短语),如however、above all、in addition、as far as等 We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch a thing. ③ 用并列连词,如 and、but、so、yet等,前面常加逗号: We fished all day, but (we) didn’t catch a thing. 复合句的构成方法可以是把简单句连接在一起,但复合句的各个组成部分并非同等重要(此点与并列句不同),其中总有一个独立小句(或称“主句”)和一个或一个以上的从属小句(或称“从句”);主句往往可以独立存在。复合句的构成方法: ① 用连词将从句与主句连接起来: If you’re not good at figures, it is pointless to apply for job in a bank. 如果你不擅于计算,向银行求职就毫无意义。 ② 用动词不定式或分词结构。它们是非限定性动词,是短语而不是从句,但它们构成复合句(而非简单句)的一部分。 之所以如此是因为它们可以用从句的形式表现出来。 To get into a university you have to pass a number of examinations. 从句可分为:名词性从句;关系/形容词从句;副词从句。 Holiday resorts which are very crowded are not very pleasant. 那些拥挤的度假场所令人感到不很愉快。 Howerver hard I try, I can’t remember people’s names. ★Lesson 74 out of the limelight 【课文讲解】 1、Out of the limelight limelight 的原义为舞台照明用的“石灰光”,其引申意义为“众人注目的中心”,这里的 limelight 是指舞台。 She has been in the limelight since she became an actress. Although he is a government official, he tries to keep out of the limelight. 2、An ancient bus stopped by a dry river bed and a party of famous actors and actresses got off. river bed指河床,名词river 作形容词用,类似的还有flower bed(花坛) party作量词用时表示“一行,一伙,一群”等,如 a party of tourists/boys(一群旅游者/男孩)等。 3、Why don't we come more often? “Why +don’t/doesn’t +主语 +动词?”结构可用来提出建议: Why don’t you change a watch? 4、'Now you get out of here, all of you!' he shouted. get out of here 从这里走开,滚出去,滚开 get fuck out of here 给我从这滚出去 5、'I'm sheriff here. Do you see that notice? It says "No Camping" -- in case you can't read!' I'm sheriff here. (sheriff 是一种官衔,官衔前面不加冠词) He is president. 总统(官衔) Who is monitor? 谁是班长(官衔) I am a teacher. teacher 不是官衔,加不定冠词 in case +从句 假使,万一……的话,免得,以防万一(常用于引导条件或目的状语从句,当句子表示将来的时间时,in case后面必须用现在时态或 should/might) in case you can't read 除非你们不识字。 I’m taking a raincoat with me in case I need it. In case he comes/should come, give him this letter. 6、'don't be too hard on us. I'm Rockwall Slinger and this is Merlin Greeves.' be hard on… 对……(过分)严厉 Don’t be too hard on that child. He is always hard on his employee. 【Special Difficulties】 与get有关的一些短语动词 get out ① (使)出去/出来(反义词为get into) Why don’t you get the dog out? The door is locked. I can’t get out. ② 走开,滚开(常用于祈使句) Now you get out of here fast! get into 进来 I’ve lost my key. I can’t get into the house. get on ① 前进,进展(与get along同义) He is getting on quite well in his new job. ② 继续干;相处融洽(常与 with连用) Tom talked with his brother for a while, and then got on with his homework. He’s so difficult. I can’t get on with him. 他这个人这么别扭,我无法和他相处。 get…off 脱下,除去/取下 Please help me to get the box off the boat. When he got the lid off the box, he saw a man lying in it. get off 没受重伤/重罚而逃脱(常与with连用) Tom was punished, but Jim go off lightly. I can hardly believe that the thief got off with just a warning. get over ① 恢复过来,痊愈 Has your mother got over her illness? ② 解决/结束(某件不愉快但必要做的事)( 常 与 with连用) They wanted to get the job over as quickly as possible. get though ① 通过(考试、测验等) Have you got through your driving test last week? ② 吃掉,喝完,用光 Fancy Helen getting through all the food! 用于公共标语的 no 公共标语通常字数很少,语言精练。在表示“禁止……”时往往用no+名词/动名词或名词短语,如No Camping(禁止野营),No Smoking(禁止吸烟),No Parking(禁止停车),No Left Turn(禁止左转弯)。在 真 正 的 公 告 牌 上 ,这些标语往往全部用大写字母,不加标点,如 NO SMOKING等。 On public notices we write No Camping instead of Do not camp. 在公告牌上我们不用Do not camp,而用 No Camping。 ★Lesson 75 SOS ★survivor n. 幸存者(指人) survival n. 幸存的东西 survive v. 生存;存活下来 the person who survived I learn how to live, but now I know how to survive. (生存) I survived after the fire. (存活下来) survive + sth.(灾难) 经过某种灾难还存在,还活着 I survived the fire. The house survived the earthquake. ★scene n. 现场 ① n.(事件发生的)地点,现场 A helicopter soon arrived on the scene to rescue the survivors. 一架直升飞机很快飞抵出事现场,搭救幸存者。 These things were found at the scene of the murder. ② n. 风景,景色;景象 A beautiful scene always makes me delighted. I have just seen a sad scene. 【课文讲解】 1、When a light passenger plane flew off course some time ago, it crashed in the mountains and its pilot was killed. off course 脱离轨道 fly off course 飞行偏离航线 During the storm, the ship went off course. kill v. 杀(仅表示死了,不一定是人为的杀死,有可能是火灾等) Fire in Tokyo. Five people killed. Ten persons injured.(受伤) murder v. 谋杀(故意杀死) 2、It was the middle of winter. middle of winter 隆冬 middle of summer 盛夏 3、Snow lay thick on the ground. lay 是系动词,thick是形容词作表语,表示主语的状态或性质。 The old man lies ill and neglected in bed. 4、The woman knew that the nearest village was miles away. miles away 几英里之外(距离的表达方式) 5、When it grew dark, she turned a suitcase into a bed and put the children inside it, covering them with all the clothes she could find. turn…into… = change sth. into … 把……变成…… 6、The woman kept as near as she could to the children and even tried to get into the case herself, but it was too small. as…as sb. can/could = as…as possible 尽可能的…… He got through as much food as he could and set out. Tell Jim to come to my office as soon as he can. near to = close to 7、Early next morning, she heard planes passing overhead and wondered how she could send a signal. hear sb. doing sth. 听见某人正在做某事 overhead adv. 从头顶 wonder = want to know 8、Then she had an idea. She stamped out the letters 'SOS' in the snow. stamp out 踩出 out 在这里为副词,表示“出现,显露”等 The writer has brought out another book. He wrote out a long list of all the foods which were forbidden. SOS = Save Our Souls 国际通用的呼救信号 in the snow 在雪地上 9、Fortunately, a pilot saw the signal and sent a message by radio to the nearest town. by radio 通过广播 10、It was not long before a helicopter arrived on the scene to rescue the survivors of the plane crash. long before = long long ago 很久以前 It was not long before + 从句 不久就……(指过去) It was not long before he went abroad. It was not long before I finished my homework. It will not be long before… 不久就……(将来可能发生的事) It will not be long before he gets over his illness. before long 不久以后(一般将来时,从现在算不久以后会怎么样) Before long, he will go abroad. shortly before ……之前不久 shortly after ……之后立即 on the scene 在现场(固定短语) 【Special Difficulties】 可以表示“变成”的一些动词 grow,turn,go,get,com,fall等动词均有“变成”的意思,但它们在用法上有时有差别。 grow表示“(逐渐)变得”,比get要正式些: He has grown fat. He has grown to like studying mathematics. grow dark(变黑) grow = get slowly慢慢变得 turn表示“把(状态、性质)改变(成)……”或“使变颜色”等 Leaves will turn yellow in autumn. A colony of bees had turned the engine into a hive. His face turned red. go表示“变成(某种状态)”,通常表示不好的变化: Some foods go bad easily. The milk went sour. get 在口语中使用较多,表示“成为(某种状态)”,强调的是变化的过程(一下子变得)。 天气变化,一般用get,get cold(变冷) Things got so bad recently that he decided to go on a diet. come可表示“变成,成为,达到”等,与true连用时表示“实现” Her dream to swim across the channel has come true. come + true/right/loose The dream comes true. 梦想成真。 Take it easy. Everything will come right. come loose 变松动 fall可表示“变成……的状态” fall + asleep/ill 坠落梦乡/病倒了 You fell asleep while I was talking to you. He fell ill last week, so he didn’t come to your wedding. ★Lesson 76 April Fools' Day 【课文讲解】 1、we're going over to the macaroni fields of Calabria. go over 往……走过去 I went over to the blind man to help him across the road. 2、Here you can see two workers who, between them, have just finished cutting three cartloads of golden brown macaroni stalks. between作介词时含义之一是“作为……共同努力的结果,协力”: Between them they killed the snake. Between us we pulled down the tree. 我们协力把树拉倒了。 3、The whole village has been working day and night gathering and threshing this year's crop before the September rains. rain n. 雨水;雨季,季节性的雨(常用复数) the September rains 9月雨季 We haven’t had much rain this year. Sometimes spring rains are really annoying. 有时绵绵春雨真让人心烦意乱。 【Special Difficulties】 Usual and Usually usual adj. 通常的,平常的,惯常的 It is usual with him to get up late. I parked the car at the usual place. usually adv. 平常,通常 When do you usually have supper? Between and Among between prep. 在(两者)之间 I picked up the receiver between two sticky finger. 当表示两两之间的相互关系时,between可用于3个(或3个以上)的名词前: The village lies between a river, a mountain and a road. among prep. 在……中间,被……环绕(指三者以上) The church lies among mountains. Among those boys, Dan is the tallest. Manager,Director and Headmaster manager n. 经理 I entered the hotel manager’s office and sat down. director n. 主任,董事 Mr. Jones is the director of several companies. headmaster n.(中学)校长 I haven’t met the headmaster of this school yet. ★Lesson 77 A successful operation ★last vi. 持续,延续(常跟一个表示时间的名词或短语,没有被动语态) last直接加时间或加for+时间 The meeting lasts (for) three hours. The war between the two countries lasted (for) over three years/until 1453. ★prove v. 显示出 ① vi. 显示,表明 prove +adj. It proves difficult to do the job by herself. prove +to be +adj. It proves to be difficult. ② vt. 证明,证实(后面可跟从句、形容词、名词、不定式等) I will prove it to you. 我将会证明给你看 We’re been trying to sell our house, but it’s proved to be very difficult. You should first prove that you bought these goods here. 【课文讲解】 1、The mummy of an Egyptian woman who died in 800 B.C. has just had an operation. B.C. = Before Christ 公元前,放在年代的后面。 A.D. 公元,放在年代的前面,常常可以省略。 2、The mummy is that of Shepenmut who was once a singer in the Temple of Thebes. that 指代上文当中出现的名词 the mummy。在指代特指事物时,尤其是在比较状语从句中,常用 that和those指代提到的事物: The cost of living here is lower than that in London. that of和those of一般用于较正式的文体中: It's colder than Guangzhou. × (北京、广州是地点,只有大小之分,本身没有冷和热) The weather of Beijing is colder than Guangzhou. × The weather of Beijing is colder than the weather of Guangzhou. = The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Guangzhou. ∨ The texts of Book Two are more difficult than those of Book One. The area of the USA is larger than that of Britain. Temple of Thebes 底比斯神庙 3、As there were strange marks on the X-ray plates taken of the mummy, doctors have been trying to find out whether the woman died of a rare disease. take plates of sth. 给……拍片子 take photos of the mountain take plate 拍片子,take photo 拍照片 4、As there were strange marks on the X-ray plates taken of the mummy, doctors have been trying to find out whether the woman died of a rare disease. find out + 从句 die 是瞬间动词,不 能 和 段 时 间 连 用。要和段时间连用,就必须变成系表结构be dead。die不能用be doing形式。若用了 be doing,表示即将发生的动作。 He has died for three years. × die in the accident 死于车祸 die of + 内因 死于…… die of hunger die of grief 死于悲哀 die from + 外因 死于…… die from wound (枪伤) He died from the heart disease. 在日常生活表达当中,die of和 die from可以互换。 5、The only way to do this was to operate. way + of 做……的方式(做定语) way + to do 做……的方式(做定语) 6、The doctors have not yet decided how the woman died. what 对名词提问,how对副词或介词短语提问。 how 在这里是对 of sth.提问的。要想用what提问,died后面加of。 decide v. 做出最终的判断,对……下判决,解决(悬案) The police cannot decide yet which of the two men is guilty. 7、They feared that the mummy would fall to pieces when they cut it open, but fortunately this has not happened. fear v. 害怕(长时间的) cut open 切开 fall to pieces =go to pieces 碎成碎片,散掉 During the storm, the old house fell to pieces. After two years their marriage fell to pieces. 【Special Difficulties】 B.C. and A.D. B.C. = Before Christ 公元前(位于年代之后) The Romans invaded England in 55 B.C. A.D. = anno Domini(=in the yeare of the Lord=since Christ was born) 公元前(位于年代之前) George I died in A.D. 1727. Skin,Leather and Complexion skin n. 人体的皮肤;指某人是什么颜色的皮肤(可与 complexion互换) We are wet to the skin. He has a dark skin/complexion. leather n. 皮革 Shoes made of real leather have become very expensive. This sofa is made from real leather. complexion n. 肤色 Look at her rosy cheeks. She has a lovely complexion. Wax and Candle wax n. 蜡(不可数名词) All the figures in this shop are made of wax. candle n. 蜡烛(可数名词) I keep a candle by my bed in case the lights go out suddenly. ★Lesson 78 The last one? ★entitle vt. 以……为名,取名,给……题名, 给……称号;v. 授权, 授权 entitle + 宾语 + sth. 给……题名为…… The writer hasn’t entitled his new book yet. The book was entitled The Sun Also Rises. call sb. sth. name sb. sth. ★calm v. 使镇定 calm down 镇定下来 ★nerve n. 神经 lose one's nerve 失去勇气 I lost my nerve. nervous adj. 神经紧张的 mental disorder 神经病 ★concentration n. 集中,专心 concentrate v. 专心 concentrate on doing sth. 集中精力做某事 concentrate on learning English ★suffer v. 受苦,受害 ① vi. 受痛苦,爱苦难;患病 During this time, my wife suffered terribly. What is the patient suffering from? ② vt. 遭受(痛苦、损害等) The village suffered serious damage from the floods. Many people are suffering cold and hunger in that district. ★temper n. 脾气 keep one's temper 别发火 lose one's temper 发火 Since his illness, he always loses his temper. 名词 + ed 为形容词: hot-tempered 脾气火爆 ;good-tempered 好脾气的 ;bad-tempered 坏脾气的 ★appetite n. 胃口,食欲 appetite for sth. 关于……的食欲 (appetite 表示的胃口仅对食物而言) I have good appetite for the ice cream. 我很想吃冰淇淋 to one's taste 对某人的胃口 This book is not to my taste. ★produce v. 拿出 produce=take ★urge v. 力劝,怂恿 urge sb. to do sth. 怂恿某人做…… persuade sb. to do sth. 说服/劝说某人做某事 ★satisfaction n. 满意,满足 satisfactory adj. 令人满意的 ★delighted adj. 感到高兴的,欣喜的 delight n. 欣喜,高兴 delight +人 让某人高兴 glad/happy/pleased 感到高兴的 I'm glad/happy/pleased. glad 是一种客套的话 Glad to hear that. happy 是相对稳定的一种快乐 He is a happy man. pleased 高兴的,含有很满足的概念 I'm pleased. delighted 突如其来的事情让人感到的开心 I'm delighted. 【课文讲解】 1、After reading an article entitled 'Cigarette Smoking and Your Health' I lit a cigarette to calm my nerves. an article entitled 题名为……的文章 在英语中,文章名与书名中的每个单词的第一个字母均大写,不在开头位置的连词、冠词、小品词除外。 lit (light,light) v. 点燃 I lit a cigarette. lighted adj. 被点燃的 This is a lighted cigarette. 2、My friends kept on offering cigarettes and cigars. keep on doing sth. = continue doing sth. 持续不断的做 The child was crying loudly, but he kept on watching TV. cigar n. 雪茄 offer sb. sth. 给某人某物 3、They made no effort to hide their amusement whenever I produced a packet of sweets from my pocket. make every effort 尽全力,尽一切努力 He made every effort to get/at getting the job. make no effort 根本不作努力,毫不费力 make no effort to persuade him She wrote the letter with/without effort. 她费力/毫不费力地写了那封信。 make effort + to do sth. 努力做…… no matter when = whenever 无论何时 no matter who = whoever 无论是谁 no matter where = wherever 无论在哪里 no matter how 无论怎样 4、When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a cigarette, it was more than I could bear. was more than I could bear = I couldn't bear more than后面跟一个从句或一个形容词时可以表示“超出”(多用于口语): He was more than pleased with his new room. This was more than I had expectd. 5、Anyway, as Brian pointed out, it is the easiest thing in the world to give up smoking. anyway 不管如何 Anyway I love him. Thank you anyway. point out = explain 指出,指明 Why didn’t you point out his mistake to him at that time? He pointed out that we still had to get a few other things. 【Special Difficulties】 与 keep 有关的短语动词 keep on +doing sth. 反复,持续 My friends kept on offering me cigarettes. He kept on saying that he was tired. 他不断地说他累了。 keep off 不靠近,从……离开 Keep off the flower bed. 请勿进入花坛。 Keep your hands off the food. 别动吃的东西。 keep away from (使……)不靠近,避开 Why do you always keep away from me? 你为什么总躲着我? Keep the children away from the river. 别让孩子们去河边。 keep it up 不松劲,保持成绩,继续下去 You've made much progress. Keep it up! 你已取得了很大进步。继续努力! If you keep it up, you'll be able to set up a new world record. 你如果保持下去/不松劲,你就能创一项新的世界纪录。 keep up with 跟上,不落在……后面 Although he walked as fast as he could, he still couldn't keep up with his father. 虽然他尽快走,但他仍跟不上他父亲。 In order to keep up with his classmates, he worked harder than ever. 为了跟上同学,他比以往任何时候都更努力。 keep out (使)留在外面,(使)不进入 He shut all the doors and windows to keep out the wind. 为了挡风,他关上了所有的门窗。 16,000-volt power line. Keep out! 16,000 伏高压线,不可靠近! keep in (把……)留在里面/关在屋里,不出外 It's very cold today. We'd better keep in. 今天很冷。我们最好别出去。 When the dog was kept in, it barked loudly. 那条狗被关在屋里时狂吠不止。 ★Lesson 79 By air ★plant v. 安放 ① vt. 种植;在……内种植 They planted grass seed on the desolate hills. ② vt. 放置,安置;布置 A bomb was planted on the plane. On that day many policemen were planted along the main street. 【课文讲解】 1、A flight attendant would take charge of me and I never had an unpleasant experience. take charge (of)… 照顾……,接管,开始管理 She took charge of the child after his parents died. The new manager will take charge (of the company) from next week. 2、I am used to travelling by air and only on one occasion have I ever felt frightened. 倒装句,倒装句的结构为“副词+助动词(be,do,have,can,must等)+主语 +句子的其余部分”。 用倒装句的情况: ① 句首为否定或近似否定的副词(never,rarely,little,on no occasion,hardly,no sooner…that等): Little does he realize how important this meeting is. Never has he got so many letters. On no occasion must you accept any money if he offers it. ② 句首为only构成的词组(如 only after,only then等): Only then did I realize what a mistake I have made. Only after she had taken off her coat and hat could I recognize her. 如果only 加上一个状语放在句首,那么就要用倒装语序。即把肯定句语序变成一般疑问句语序。 It is only in recent years that it gained bad reputation. 强调句型 Only in recent years did the tree gain bad reputation. 倒装句也表示强调 be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事 3、After taking off, we were flying low over the city and slowly gaining height, when the plane suddenly turned round and flew back to the airport. take off 起飞 gain height (飞机)增加高度,爬高 (gain vt. 增加) The car gained speed when it was outside the town. He has gained so much weight that he decides to go on a diet. touch down (飞机)着陆,降落 Don’t stand up before the plane has touched down. 4、Everybody on board was worried and we were curious to find out what had happened. on board 在……(如飞机)上,搭乘(船、飞机、火车、汽车等) Tom has never been on board a plane before. 【Special Difficulties】 与take有关的短语动词 take off ① 脱下(衣服、鞋子等) Why don’t you take off your coat/hat/glasses? ②(飞机)起飞,(鸟)飞起 The plane will take off in half an hour. ③(嘲弄地)模仿(口语) He takes people off so well he ought to go on the stage. He is always taking his teacher off. =He is always making fun of him by imitating him. take after (长相、性格等)像(父母等) Jane isn’t easy to get along with. She takes after her mother. take up ① 占(时间、地点等) This work won’t take up too much of your time. Your books have taken up too much space. ② 开始(从事、产生兴趣等) He took up tennis/painting two years ago. He has taken up French. =He has begun to learn French. take to 养成……的习惯,开始沉缅于(后跟名词或动名词) When did he take to drinking/smoking? take in 欺骗(口语,常用被动语态) On one occasion I was taken in. take down 写下,记下 I forgot to take down his telephone number. The reporter took down everything I said. take over 接收,接管 We all hope that things will get better when the new manager takes over. ★Lesson 80 The Crystal Palace ★profit n. 利润 ① n. 利润,赢利;得益 Stores haven’t made as much profit as usual this year. The profits from the exhibition were used to build museums and colleges. ② vi. 获益,得益;获利 I have profited much from your advice/this book/ living abroad. 【课文讲解】 1、Perhaps the most extraordinary building of the nineteenth century was the Crystal Palace, which was built in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851. the Great Exhibition 世界博览会 2、The Crystal Palace was different from all other buildings in the world, for it was made of iron and glass. be different from… 与……不同 be made of… 用……制造(指原材料没有发生化学上的变化) 3、It was one of the biggest buildings of all time and a lot of people from many countries came to see it. of all time 空前的,有史以来(常与形容词的最高级连用,表示范围) He is one of the greatest men of all time. “one of =最高级+复数名词”结构的语气比直接用形容词最高级+名词结构要缓和些,不那么绝对。 Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. Yesterday was one of the hottest days of the year. 4、There was also a great deal of machinery on display. machinery n. 机器,机械装置(集合名词,与单数动词搭配) 某个具体的机器可用machine或者a piece of machinery来表示: This is a wonderful piece of machinery/a wonderful machine. on display = on show 展出,陈列 Shall we put all these flowers on display/show? 5、There were six million visitors in all, and the profits from the exhibition were used to build museums and colleges. in all 总共,合计 at the wedding there were over 100 people in all. 6、It remained one of the most famous buildings in the world until it was burnt down in 1936. remain在这里为系动词,表示“保持不变,仍然”(后面可跟形容词、名词、动名词等) Why did you remain silent/quiet at the dinner party? They all remained standing while the manager talked. 【Special Difficulties】 带on的短语: on display/show 展出,陈列 This is the best dress on display/show. 这是展出的最好的衣服。 on business 因公(与for pleasure相对) Last month he went to New York on business and had little time to visit friends. on foot 步行(与by bus,by car,by air 等相对) I usually go to work by car, but this morning I went on foot. on duty 值班,值班的 It was Sunday and there was only one doctor on duty. on the whole 总的看来,总的来说,大体上 On the whole, he is a hard-working student. on fire 起火,着火 Soon the whole building was on fire. on purpose 故意地,有意地,特意地(与 by chance相对) They have come here on purpose to see you. She broke the vase on purpose. on the average 平均,通常 On the average, he works more than ten hours a day. on any account 无论如何,不管怎么说(通常用否定句) Do not interrupt him on any account. You mustn’t on any account sign the contract before you read it. on second thought(s) 经重新考虑后(thought用单数或复数均可) I intended to go to the party, but on second thought(s), I decided to stay at home. ★Lesson 81 Escape ★march v. 行进 ① v.(部队)行军,行进 ② v.(威风凛凛/从容不迫地)走,迅速地走 Jane marched out of the room without saying a word. 【课文讲解】 1、When he had killed the guard, the prisoner of war quickly dragged him into the bushes. the prisoner of war 战俘(缩写为POW) 2、Working rapidly in the darkness, he soon changed into the dead man's clothes. change into 换(衣) He changed into his new dress and went to the party. 3、Now, dressed in a blue uniform and with a rifle over his shoulder, the prisoner marched boldly up and down in front of the camp. up and down 来回,前后 He was worried about his mother and walked up and down in the room. 4、Lights were blazing and men were running here and there: they had just discovered that a prisoner had escaped. here and there 到处,四处 They went here and there looking for the lost child. 5、The officers got out and the prisoner stood to attention and saluted as they passed. stand at/to attention 立正 The students stood at/to attention while the headmaster made a speech. 【Letter Writing】 结束语 Please give my love/regards to… I hope you feel better soon. 【Special Difficulties】 Cloth,Clothes and Clothing cloth ① n. 布,布料(不可数名词) There’s enough cloth for a skirt. Do you think the cloth will wear well? 你认为这布料会耐穿吗? ② n. 抹布,桌布(可数名词) Wipe up the mess with a cloth. clothes n. 衣服,服装(后面动词用复数形式) My clothes are mostly bought from abroad. clothing n. 服装的总称(不可数名词,包括衣服、鞋、帽等) He still needs some winter clothing. Salute and Greet salute v. 行军礼,(向……)敬礼 The guard saluted as the officers passed. The guard saluted the officers. greet v. 打招呼,欢迎,迎接 When we arrived, the whole family stood up to greet us. He greeted Dan with a nod. Clear and Clean clear ① adj. 清澈的,明亮的,晴朗的 He was rather elderly with clear blue eyes. Seeing that it was a clear day, he drove to the countryside. ② adj. 清楚的,明确的,明了的 I want to make it clear that I’m not paying the bill. ③ adj. 畅通的,无障碍的,无危险的 You can drive fast only when you are on a clear road. clean ① adj. 干净的 These cups are not very clean. ② adj. 无污点的,无犯罪历史的 He has a clean record. 他一贯表现很好(没有前科)。 ★Lesson 82 Monster or fish? 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(7) monster n. 怪物 sailor n. 海员 sight v. 见到 creature n. 动物,生物 peculiar adj. 奇怪的,不寻常的 shining adj. 闪闪发光的 oarfish n. 桨鱼 ★claim ① vt. &vi.(对……)提出要求,认领,索取 Has anyone claimed the child/wallet? ② vt. 声称,断言 They claim to have seen monsters in the sea. He claimed that Tom had stolen his wallet. 【Text】 Fishermen and sailors sometimes claim to have seen monsters in the sea. Though people have often laughed at stories told by seamen, it is now known that many of these 'monsters' which have at times been sighted are simply strange fish. Occasionally, unusual creatures are washed to the shore, but they are rarely caught out at sea. Some time ago, however, a peculiar fish was caught near Madagascar. A small fishing boat was carried miles out to sea by the powerful fish as it pulled on the line. Realizing that this was no ordinary fish, the fisherman made every effort not to damage it in any way. When it was eventually brought to shore, it was found to be over thirteen feet long. It had a head like a horse, big blue eyes, shining silver skin, and a bright red tail. The fish, which has since been sent to a museum where it is being examined by a scientist, is called an oarfish. Such creatures have rarely been seen alive by man as they live at a depth of six hundred feet. 参考译文 渔夫和水手们有时声称自己看到过海里的妖怪。虽然人们常常对水手们讲的故事付诸一笑,但现在看来,人们有时看到的这些“妖怪”很多不过是些奇怪的鱼。一些异常的生物偶尔会被冲到岸上来,但它们在海上却极少能被捕到。然而不久前,在马达加斯加附近的海里却捕到了一条奇怪的鱼。一条小渔船被一条咬住钩的强壮的大鱼拖到了几英里以外的海面上。那位渔民意识到这根本不是一条普通的鱼,于是千方百计不让它受到丝毫伤害。当终于把它弄上岸后,人们发现它身长超过了 13 英尺。它长着一个像马一样的头,有着大的蓝眼睛和闪闪发光的银色皮肤,还有一条鲜红色的尾巴。此鱼叫桨鱼,被送进了博物馆,现正接受一位科学家的检查。人们很少能看到活着的这类动物,因为它们生活在 600英尺深的水下。 【课文讲解】 1、Fishermen and sailors sometimes claim to have seen monsters in the sea. to have seen是不定式的完成式结构。不定式的完成式用于不定式的动作发生在谓语动作之前的情况。 不定式的完成式常用于believe,declare,find,say,see,know,think,understand等动词之后(这些动词常用被动语态): I’m sorry to have taken up so much of your time. He is thought/believed to have been killed in an air crash. I meant/intended to have invited him, but I forgot to do so. 我本想/本打算邀请他的,可是我忘记了。 I hope/plan to have finished by 12. 我希望/计划到12点钟以前就已完成。( 相当于将来完成时) 2、Though people have often laughed at stories told by seamen, it is now known that many of these 'monsters' which have at times been sighted are simply strange fish. at times 有时,偶尔 At times I feel that he is not honest. 3、Occasionally, unusual creatures are washed to the shore, but they are rarely caught out at sea. out at sea 在远海,在外海 Don’t sail out to sea in this weather. 4、Realizing that this was no ordinary fish, the fisherman made every effort not to damage it in any way. no的否定意味比not (a/an)要重(用于名词或形容词之前、系动词 be之后) They are no friends of ours. 他们根本不是我们的朋友。 This is no easy work. 这绝对不是件容易干的活。 5、Such creatures have rarely been seen alive by man as they live at a depth of six hundred feet. creature指包含人在内的“生物,动物”。指人时它可以表示怜爱等感情,多用于指女性: The poor creature has suffered a lot during that time. 【Letter Writing】 结束语: I shall be looking forward to hearing from/seeing you soon. I hope you will soon settle down in your (new job, school, etc.). 【Special Difficulties】 Laugh and Laugh at laugh v. 笑 Everybody laughed when the circus clown made his appearance. laugh at 嘲笑…… Don’t laugh at me. Wash and Wash up wash ① v. 洗,洗涤 I must get up and wash. wash oneself 洗澡 Sally can almost wash herself now. ②v. 冲走,卷走 Occasionally, unusual creatures are washed to the shore. The little wooden house was washed away by the floods. wash up ① v. 洗餐具 When you phoned, she was busy washing up (the dishes). ② v. 把……冲上岸 The dead body of a huge fish has been washed up on the shore. ★Lesson 83 After the elections 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(9) election n. 选举 former adj. 从前的 defeat v. 打败 fanatical adj. 狂热的 opponent n. 反对者,对手 radical adj. 激进的 progressive adj. 进步的 ex- prefix(前缀,用于名词前)前…… suspicious adj. 怀疑的 ★ex- prefix(前缀,用于名词前)前……(相当于 former) ex-husband 前夫; ex-wife 前妻;ex-taxi-driver 前出租汽车司机 ex-manager 前任经理; ex-headmaster 前任校长 ★suspicious adj. 怀疑的 ① adj. 猜疑的,认为可疑的,对……起疑心的,多疑的 Customs officers are suspicious of nervous-looking travelers. Don’t be so suspicious. Everything’s all right. ② adj. 可疑的,令人起疑的 You get a lot of suspicious-looking people in this bar. The car crash looks suspicious. 【Text】 The former Prime Minister, Mr. Wentworth Lane, was defeated in the recent elections. He is now retiring from political life and has gone abroad. My friend, Patrick, has always been a fanaticalopponent of Mr. Lane's Radical Progressive Party. After the elections, Patrick went to the former Prime Minister's house. When he asked if Mr. Lane lived there, the policeman on duty told him that since his defeat, the ex-Prime Minister had gone abroad. On the following day, Patrick went to the house again. The same policeman was just walking slowly past the entrance, when Patrick asked the same question. Though a little suspicious this time, the policeman gave him the same answer. The day after, Patrick went to the house once more and asked exactly the same question. This time, the policeman lost his temper. 'I told you yesterday and the day before yesterday,' he shouted, 'Mr. Lane was defeated in the elections. He has retired from political life and gone to live abroad!" 'I know,' answered Patrick, 'but I love to hear you say it!' 参考译文 前首相温特沃兹.莱恩先生在最近的大选中被击败。他现在退出了政界,到国外去了。我的朋友帕特里克一直是莱恩先生的激进党的强烈反对者。大选结束后,帕特里克来到了前首相的住处。当他询问莱恩先生是否住在那里时,值班的警察告诉他这位前首相落选后出国去了。第二天,帕特里克再次来到首相的住 处。昨天的那位警察正从门口慢慢走过,帕特里克上前问了和昨天同样的问题。虽然那位警察这次有点疑心,但还是对他作了同样的回答。第三天,帕特里克又去了,提出了同前两天完全一样的问题。这一次警察火了。“我昨天和前天都告诉过您了,”他大叫着,“莱恩先生在大选中被击败了,他已经退出了政界去国外了!” “这我都知道,”帕特里克说,“可我就是喜欢听你说出这此!” 【课文讲解】 1、After the elections the elections 大选(英文中election常用复数形式,后接表示复数的动词,用来指全国性的选举;一般的选举用单数) He hopes to defeat his rival in next year’s elections. 2、The former Prime Minister, Mr. Wentworth Lane, was defeated in the recent elections. former adj. 以前的,从前的,前任的(后跟名词) Yesterday, he received a letter from his former wife/English teacher. Prime Minister 首相 3、Though a little suspicious this time, the policeman gave him the same answer. 这是一个让步状语从句。如果从句的主语和主句的相同而谓语带系动词 be,则主语+be 可省略;但原因状语从句的省略形式要带分词being: If possible, please let me know by this evening. 如果可能的话,请今晚以前告诉我。 Being worried about his child, he walked up and down in the room. 4、This time, the policeman lost his temper. lost his temper 发脾气 【Letter Writing】 结束语: I am very sorry for all the trouble this has caused you. I wish you good luck/every success in… 【Special Difficulties】 Temper and Mood temper ① n. 脾气,性情 This time, the policeman lost his temper. Whatever happens, remember to keep our temper. My sister is of a calm/quick temper. 我姐姐/妹妹性情平和/脾气急躁。 The boss is in a temper today. 老板今天脾气不好。 ② n. 心情,情绪(与mood同义) That morning he was in a good mood/temper. mood n. 心情,情绪;有意/想要(做某事)( 不 能 用 temper) When he is in a bad temper, he gets angry easily. But when he is in a bad mood, he likes to sit alone. (bad mood和bad temper稍有区别) 当他脾气不好时,他很容易生气。但当他心情不好时,他喜欢独自坐着。 At that time I was not in the mood for talking/to talk. (不能用temper) Although Jeremy is well-known for his great sense of humour, he is in no mood for telling funny stories today. (不能用temper) ★Lesson 84 On strike 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(11) strike n. 罢工 busman n. 公共汽车司机 state v. 正式提出,宣布 agreement n. 协议 relieve v. 减轻 pressure n. 压力,麻烦 extent n. 程度 volunteer v. 自动提出,自愿 gratitude n. 感激 Press n. 新闻界 object v. 不赞成,反对 ★relieve v. 减轻 ① vt. 缓解,减轻 This will relieve pressure on the trains to some extent. This medicine has relieved my toothache. ② vt. 使……宽心/宽慰,松一口气 He was much relieved to hear that the operation had been successful. The news relieved te whole family. ★volunteer v. 自动提出,自愿 ① vt. &vi. 自愿,自动提出,自愿提供 Some college students have volunteered to drive buses while the strike lasts. After the fire, many people volunteered their services. Frank has volunteered for the army. ② n. 自愿参加者,志愿者 Are there any volunteers for a try? 有自愿试一试的人吗? ★Press n. 新闻界(集合名词) Ian is a member of the press. The press is/are waiting to see the president. 记者们在等着见总统。 【Text】 Busmen have decided to go on strike next week. The strike is due to begin on Tuesday. No one knows how long it will last. The busmen have stated that the strike will continue until general agreement is reached about pay and working conditions. Most people believe that the strike will last for at least a week. Many owners of private cars are going to offer 'free rides' to people on their way to work. This will relieve pressure on the trains to some extent. Meanwhile, a number of university students have volunteered to drive buses while the strike lasts. All the students are expert drivers, but before they drive any of the buses, they will have to pass a special test. The students are going to take the test in two days' time. Even so, people are going to find it difficult to get to work. But so far, the public has expressed its gratitude to the students in letters to the Press. Only one or two people have objected that the students will drive too fast! 参考译文 公共汽车司机决定下星期罢工。罢工定于星期二开始,谁也不知道会持续多久。司机们声称此次罢工将一直持续到就工资和工作条件问题达成全面协议的时候为止。多数人认为此次罢工至少会持续一个星期。很多私人汽车的车主正准备为乘车上班的人们提供“免费乘车”的服务,这将在某种程度上减轻对火车的压力。与此同时,有一部分大学生自愿在罢工期间驾驶公共汽车。所有的学生都是开车的能手,但在驾驶公共汽车之前,他们必须通过一项专门测验。学生们准备在两天后就接受测验。即使这样,人们仍会感到上班有困难。但到目前为止,公众已经向新闻界写信表达他们对学生们的感激之情了。只有一两个人提出反对意见,说学生们会把车开得太快! 【课文讲解】 1、Busmen have decided to go on strike next week. go on strike 举行罢工 on strike 在罢工 It is not clear yet when the teachers on strike will return to their classrooms. 2、The strike is due to begin on Tuesday. due adj. 预定的,约定的 be due to do sth. 定于(某时做某事) The plane is due (to arrive) in London at 9 o’clock. be due to +n. 由于……,因为…… Our delay was due to the heavy traffic. 3、Many owners of private cars are going to offer 'free rides' to people on their way to work. free ride 免费乘车 4、This will relieve pressure on the trains to some extent. to some extent =to a certain extent 在某种程度上 The weather has helped me to some/a certain extent. 5、Only one or two people have objected that the students will drive too fast! object that… 提出异议,反对 They objected that the book was too difficult for them. object to 名词/动名词 反对,不喜欢,不赞成 A lot of people object to smoking in public places. Do you object to my sitting beside you? 【Special Difficulties】 it 作先行宾语 在主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语的句型中,常用 it 作先行宾语,真正的宾语为后面的动词不定式或从句: People are going to find it difficult to get to work. 常用这种结构的动词有:find,think,consider,feel,make,keep等: She felt it right for them to arrest the thief. They consider it impossible to finish the work in three days. ★Lesson 85 Never too old to learn 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(14) inform v. 告诉,通知 headmaster n. 校长 contribute v. 捐助,援助 gift n. 礼物,赠品 album n. 签名簿,相册 patience n. 耐心 encouragement n. 鼓励 farewell n. 告别 honour n. 敬意 coincidence n. 巧合 total n. 总数 devote v. 致力于 gardening n. 园艺 hobby n. 爱好,嗜好 ★inform v. 告诉,通知 ① vt. 通知,告知 inform sb. of sth. 通知某人…… Who informed you about/of this? inform that… 通知…… he was informed that he would receive an extra thousand pounds a year. tell sb. sth. 告诉某人某事 tell sb. that 告诉某人…… ② vi. 告发,检举(与 against/on连用) He used to inform against his classmates. Several people have informed on him. ★devote v. 致力于 devote to + doing 致力于……(to 是介词) I devote myself to teaching. He devoted himself to making money. object to + doing sth. ★farewell n. 告别 farewell n. 告别,再见;adj. 告别(比goodbye更正式) Farewell! 再会!一路平安! He said farewell to his mother and got on the plane. When Frank retired, they held a farewell party. ★honour n. 敬意 guard of honour 仪仗队 in one's honour 为纪念某人,对某人表示尊重 We will give him a party in his honour. We will give him a dinner in his honour. It's my honour. 是我的荣幸 It's my honour to do sth. 做某件事情是我的荣幸 It's my honour to talk with you. I'm honoured to do sth. 我感到荣幸 I'm honoured to talk with you. I'm honoured to stand here and give you ★Lessons. I'm honoured to be your teacher. 【Text】 I have just received a letter from my old school, informing me that my former headmaster, Mr. Stuart Page, will be retiring next week. Pupils of the school, old and new, will be sending him a present to mark the occasion. All those who have contributed towards the gift will sign their names in a large album which will be sent to the headmaster's home. We shall all remember Mr. Page for his patience and understanding and for the kindly encouragement he gave us when we went so unwillingly to school. A great many former pupils will be attending a farewell dinner in his honour next Thursday. It is a curious coincidence that the day before his retirement, Mr. Page will have been teaching for a total of forty years. After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening. For him, this will be an entirely new hobby. But this does not matter, for, as he has often remarked, one is never too old to learn. 参考译文 我刚刚收到母校的一封信,通知我说以前的校长斯图亚特.佩奇先生下星期就退休了。为了纪念这个日子,学校的学生——无论老同学还是新同学——将送他一件礼物。所有凑钱买此礼品的人都将自己的名字签在一本大签名簿上,签名簿将被送到校长的家里。我们不会忘记佩奇先生对我们既有耐心又充满理解,也不会忘记在我们不愿去上学时他给予我们的亲切鼓励。很多老同学都准备参加下星期四为他举行的告别宴会。佩奇先生退休的前一天正好是他执教满 40 年的日子,这真是奇妙的巧合。他退休后,将致力于园艺。对于他来说,这将是一种全新的爱好。但这没有关系,因为正如他常说的那样,人要活到老学到老。 【课文讲解】 1、I have just received a letter from my old school, informing me that my former headmaster, Mr. Stuart Page, will be retiring next week. former adj. 前任的,以前的 2、Pupils of the school, old and new, will be sending him a present to mark the occasion. student 通指所有的学生;pupil 指中小学的学生 mark the occasion 纪念这一时候 mark n. 标记;v. 做标记,给……作记号/留痕迹;纪念 He marked all the foods which were forbidden with a red pencil. send sb. sth. 送某人…… 3、All those who have contributed towards the gift will sign their names in a large album which will be sent to the headmaster's home. contribute towards/to sth. 为……捐款,提供给…… Before his death, he contributed a large sum of money to the church. A few of us contributed towards Mary’s present on her birthday. all those who … will do sth. 所有那些人都…… All those who want to go on an excursion will sign their names. 想去郊游的人签名 All those who will take part in the sports meeting will sign their names. present和gift都表示“礼物,赠品”,但gift 相对要正式些: She has just received a beautiful birthday present. He made a gift of $60,000 to his old school. 4、We shall all remember Mr. Page for his patience and understanding and for the kindly encouragement he gave us when we went so unwillingly to school. remember sb. for sth. 因为……记住某人,记得……的…… be willing to do sth. 心甘情愿做某事 We shall all remember him for his hard work 5、A great many former pupils will be attending a farewell dinner in his honour next Thursday. in one’s honour = in honour of sb. 为向……表示敬意,为纪念某人 Many people attended the party in honour of the new manager. This is a farewell performance in her honour. 6、It is a curious coincidence that the day before his retirement, Mr. Page will have been teaching for a total of forty years. It’s is a curious coincidence that… 纯属巧合,……真是奇异的巧合 the day before 前一天 ;two days before 前两天 a total of 总共 The money she spent on the dinner party reached a total of $200. 7、After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening. devote oneself to… 致力于……,献身于,专心于(to为介词,后跟名词或动名词) Mary devotes herself to helping the poor. As a boy, Jim devoted himself to tennis. 8、For him, this will be an entirely new hobby. entirely = completely 完完全全地 9、But this does not matter, for, as he has often remarked, one is never too old to learn. as +从句 正如… As you know,… 正如你所知道的…… 【Letter Writing】 一封信的结尾: I am looking forward to seeing you soon. Best regards, Tom 可以用Best wishes,Yours或Love结尾。 签名必须清楚,必须落在信末尾的下面。如果信写完后还想作些补充,可以写在签名下面。在所写的附言之前必须加上P.S.两个字母,这是“又及”的意思。 【Special Difficulties】 Too and Enough too adv. 太,过分 enough adv. 足够,十分 too和enough都可作程度副词,但too通常位于它所修饰的形容词/分词之前,enough则位于它所修饰的词之后。在含有不定式的句型里,too经常具有否定的含义,enough则表示达到必要的程度: He is too heavy for me to lift. The pear is ripe enough for me to eat. ★Lesson 86 Out of control 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(11) swing v. 转向 speedboat n. 快艇 desperately adv. 绝望地 companion n. 同伙,伙伴 water ski (由快艇牵引水橇)滑水 buoy n. 浮标 dismay n. 沮丧 tremendous adj. 巨大的 petrol n. 汽油 drift v. 漂动,漂流 gently adv. 缓慢地,轻轻地 ★swing v. 转向 ① vt. &vi.(使……)摆动/摇动 He can’t stand those who swing their legs while eating. She tried to swing the baby to sleep. ② vt. &vi. 突然转向,使……转向/转身 The man tried to swing the speedboat round. He swung round and looked at the two men. 【Text】 As the man tried to swing the speedboat round, the steering wheel came away in his hands. He waved desperately to his companion, who had been water skiing for the last fifteen minutes. Both men had hardly had time to realize what was happening when they were thrown violently into the sea. The speedboat had struck a buoy, but it continued to move very quickly across the water. Both men had just begun to swim towards the shore, when they noticed with dismay that the speedboat was moving in a circle. It now came straight towards them at tremendous speed. In less than a minute, it roared past them only a few feet away. After it had passed, they swam on as quickly as they could because they knew that the boat would soon return. They had just had enough time to swim out of danger when the boat again completed a circle. On this occasion, however, it had slowed down considerably. The petrol had nearly all been used up. Before long, the noise dropped completely and the boat began to drift gently across the water. 参考译文 当那人试图让快艇转弯时,方向盘脱手了。他绝望地向他的伙伴挥手,他的伙伴在过去的15分钟里一直在滑水。他们两个还没来得及意识到究竟发生了什么事情,就被猛地抛入了海里。快艇撞上了一个浮标,但它仍在水面上快速行驶着。两个人刚开始向岸边游去,就突然惊愕地发现快艇正在转着圈行驶,它现在正以惊人的速度直冲他们驶来。不到1分钟的工夫,它从离他们只有几英尺远的地方呼啸着驶了过去。快艇过去之后,他们以最快的速度向前游去,因为他们知道快艇马上就要转回来。他们刚刚来得及游出危险区,快艇就又转完了一圈。然而这一次它的速度慢多了。汽油几乎已经用光。没过多久,噪音便彻底消失,快艇开始在水面上慢悠悠地漂流。 【课文讲解】 1、Out of control out of 失去,欠缺 We are out of bread. He has been out of work for two months. The plane got out of control and crashed in the mountains. 2、As the man tried to swing the speedboat round, the steering wheel came away in his hands. come away 脱落,离开,脱离,脱开 When I tried to lift the suitcase, the handle came away. 3、On this occasion, however, it had slowed down considerably. on this occasion 这一次 4、The petrol had nearly all been used up. use up 耗尽,用光,用完 They have just bought a house and a car. They must have used up all their money. up表示“彻底地,完全地”,也可与其他一些动词连用: The child soon ate up the cake. She burned up all his letters. Can you read up the book in two hours? 5、Before long, the noise dropped completely and the boat began to drift gently across the water. drop vi. 减少,变弱,消失 When he saw that Mary was annoyed, his voice dropped. We had to stay at home before the wind had dropped. 【Special Difficulties】 Enough and Fairly enough表示“足够”,用在形容词或副词之后,有“为了某种目的”的含义 I’m old enough to know I’m doing. I didn’t arrive at the station early enough. 我到车站到得不够早(我误了火车)。 fairly表示“相当”,通常修饰表示肯定意义的词: The water in the pool is fairly warm, but not warm enough to swim in. He is fairly quick, but not quick enough to take part in the race. ★Lesson 87 A perfect alibi 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(7) alibi n. 不在犯罪现场 commit v. 犯(罪、错) inspector n. 探长 employer n. 雇主 confirm v. 确认,证实 suggest v. 提醒 truth n. 真相 ★alibi n. 不在犯罪现场,不在场证明,当时不在场的申辩(不可数名词) Ian had an alibi/alibis for that morning. ★commit v. 犯(罪、错) ① vt. 犯(罪),做(错事、坏事等) He has never committed any crime before. A murder was committed at 8 o’clock this morning. ② vt. 承诺,使承担义务,卷入(经常与反身代词连用) You should know each other better before committing yourselves to marriage. He has committed his friend to taking part in the race. ★confirm v. 确认,证实 ① vt. 证实,确定 My employer will confirm that I was there on time. His words are confirmed. ② vt. 巩固,加强 His experiences in that company that confirmed his decision to have a factory of his own. What he saw and heard that night confirmed his belief that the pub was haunted. 【Text】 'At the time the murder was committed, I was travelling on the 8 o'clock train to London,' said the man. 'Do you always catch such an early train?' asked the inspector. 'Of course I do,' answered the man. 'I must be at work at 10 o'clock. My employer will confirm that I was there on time.' 'Would a later train get you to work on time?' asked the inspector. 'I suppose it would, but I never catch a later train.' 'At what time did you arrive at the station?' 'At ten to eight. I bought a paper and waited for the train.' 'And you didn't notice anything unusual?' 'Of course not.' 'I suggest,' said the inspector, 'that you are not telling the truth. I suggest that you did not catch the 8 o'clock train, but that you caught the 8.25 which would still get you to work on time. You see, on the morning of the murder, the 8 o'clock train did not run at all. It broke down at Ferngreen station and was taken off the line.' 参考译文 “在凶杀发生的时候,我正坐在8点钟开往伦敦的火车上。”那人说。 “您总是赶这样早的火车?”探长问。 “当然是的,”那人回答。“我必须在10点钟上班,我的雇主会证明我是按时到了那儿的。” “晚一点儿的车也能送您按时上班吗?” “我认为可以,但我从来不乘晚一点儿的车。” “您几点钟到的火车站?” “7点50分。我买了张报纸,等着车来。” “您没有注意到有什么异常情况发生吗?” “当然没有。” “我提醒您,”探长说,“您讲的不是实话。您乘的不是 8点钟的火车,而是 8点 25分的,这次车同样能使您按时上班。您看,在凶杀发生的那天早晨,8 点钟的那次车根本没有发。它在芬格林车站出了故障而被取消了。” 【课文讲解】 1、And you didn't notice anything unusual? 这是一个陈述疑问句,如: You’re out of work? 不定代词anything,something等被形容词修饰时,形容词必须跟在不定代词之后: This isn’t anything important. I’d like something cheaper. 2、I suggest,' said the inspector, 'that you are not telling the truth. I suggest (that)… 依我看……,恐怕…… I suggest that he is not so honest as he looks. I suggest that the car crash was not accidental. 3、You see, on the morning of the murder, the 8 o'clock train did not run at all. you see在口语中经常作为插入语出现,句首、句中或句尾均可以,表示“你知道,事实上”等含义: He was not really interested in film, you see. My leg isn’t all right yet, you see, so I can’t climb the hill with you. run可以指火车、公共汽车、船等“定时/定期行驶,(在两地间)往来”: This ship runs between Dover and Calais. ★Lesson 88 Trapped in a mine 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(12) trap v. 陷入,使陷于困境 surface n. 地面,表面 explosive n. 炸药 vibration n. 震动 collapse v. 坍塌 drill v. 钻孔 capsule n. 容器 layer n. 层 beneath prep. 在......之下 lower v. 放下,降低 progress v. 进展,进行 smoothly adv. 顺利地 ★collapse v. 坍塌 ① vi. 倒塌 If explosives are used, vibrations will cause the roof of the mine to collapse. With no one to repair it, the old church collapsed long ago. ② vi.(因精疲力竭)倒下;(身体等)垮掉 After many years’ hard work, my mother’s health collapsed. He had run more than forty miles. As soon as he was out of danger, he collapsed. 【Text】 Six men have been trapped in a mine for seventeen hours. If they are not brought to the surface soon they may lose their lives. However, rescue operations are proving difficult. If explosives are used, vibrations will cause the roof of the mine to collapse. Rescue workers are therefore drilling a hole on the north side of the mine. They intend to bring the men up in a special capsule. If there had not been a hard layer of rock beneath the soil, they would have completed the job in a few hours. As it is, they have been drilling for sixteen hours and they still have a long way to go. Meanwhile, a microphone, which was lowered into the mine two hours ago, has enabled the men to keep in touch with their closest relatives. Though they are running out of food and drink, the men are cheerful and confident that they will get out soon. They have been told that rescue operations are progressing smoothly. If they knew how difficult it was to drill through the hard rock, they would lose heart. 参考译文 6个人被困在矿井里已有17个小时了。如果不把他们尽快救到地面上来,他们就有可能丧生。然而,事实证明营救工作非常困难。如果用炸药爆破,震动会引起矿顶塌落。因此,营救人员在矿井的北侧钻了一个洞。他们准备用一种特制的容器把这6个人救上来。如果不是因为土壤下面有一层坚硬的岩石,他们的营救工作仅用几个小时就可以完成了。实际情况是,他们已连续钻了16个小时了,但离钻透还早着呢。 与此同时,两个小时以前放下井去的一只麦克风使井下的人可以与其亲属保持联系。虽然他们的食物和饮料都快消耗尽了,但这些人的心情很好,坚信他们很快就会出去。他们一直被告知营救工作进行得非常顺利。如果他们知道了钻透那坚硬的岩石有多么困难,他们会丧失信心的。 【课文讲解】 1、However, rescue operations are proving difficult. rescue operations 营救工作 prove vt. 证明是,结果是 What he had told us proved false. 2、Rescue workers are therefore drilling a hole on the north side of the mine. therefore adv. 因此,所以(可独立使用,也可位于动词前) The new flat is larger and therefore more expensive. His parents gave him some money, and he was therefore able to buy a car. so conj. 所以,因此(不能放在动词前) We arrived early, so we got good seats. 3、As it is, they have been drilling for sixteen hours and they still have a long way to go. as it is =as it was 事实上,实际上 I thought they would help us. As it was, they just sat there and looked on. I promised to return books yesterday. As it is, I won’t be able to do so until next Monday. 4、Meanwhile, a microphone, which was lowered into the mine two hours ago, has enabled the men to keep in touch with their closest relatives. enable vt. 使……能够 The hubble telescope will enable us to have a better understanding of the distant stars and galaxies. 前缀 en-加在名词或形容词前可以使这个词成为动词,如 endanger(危及,使遭受危险),enlarge(扩大,扩展,扩充),enslave(奴役,使成为奴隶),entrap(使……入陷阱/圈套,欺骗) keep in touch with 与……保持联系(可以用stay,get等其他动词) George is in close touch with Ian. Can you get in touch with the company? 5、Though they are running out of food and drink, the men are cheerful and confident that they will get out soon. run out of 用完,用尽 6、If they knew how difficult it was to drill through the hard rock, they would lose heart. lose heart 失望,丧失信心/勇气,泄气,灰心 Seeing that the enemy was much stronger than themselves, the soldiers lost heart at once. 【Special Difficulties】 与run有关的短语 run out of 用完,耗尽 They are running out of food and drink. He has run out of money. run after 追赶,追逐 Seeing that his sister was annoyed, he ran after her to apologize. run over 在……驶过/辗过 The car ran over a snake/his legs. run in 试车,试转(发动机等) John is running his new car in. Run in the engine before you start work. run into 偶然碰见 I ran into Mary and Jane in the flower shop. He ran into Sterlings while travelling in Italy. ★Lesson 89 A slip of the tongue 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(7) slip n. 小错误 comedy n. 喜剧 present v. 演出;adj. 出席,到场的 queue v. 排队 dull adj. 枯燥,无味 artiste n. 艺人 advertiser n. 报幕员 ★slip n. 小错误,失误,疏漏 You’ve made some slips (of the pen) in your report. When he was nervous, he would sometimes make a slip of tongue. 【Text】 People will do anything to see a free show -- even if it is a bad one. When the news got round that a comedy show would be presented at our local cinema by the P. and U. Bird Seed Company, we all rushed to see it. We had to queue for hours to get in and there must have been several hundred people present just before the show began. Unfortunately, the show was one of the dullest we have ever seen. Those who failed to get in need not have felt disappointed, as many of the artistes who should have appeared did not come. The only funny things we heard that evening came from the advertiser at the beginning of the programme. He was obviously very nervous and for some minutes stood awkwardly before the microphone. As soon as he opened his mouth, everyone burst out laughing. We all know what the poor man should have said, but what he actually said was: 'This is the Poo and Ee Seed Bird Company. Good ladies, evening and gentlemen!" 参考译文 人们总要想尽办法看不花钱的演出——哪怕是拙劣的演出。当“皮尤”鸟食公司将在我们当地影院演出喜剧节目的消息传开后,我们都赶紧跑去观看。我们不得不排了好几个小时才进得场去。在演出开始前场内肯定已有好几百人了。不幸的是,这次演出是我们看过的最乏味的演出了。那些没能进到场内的人没有必要感到失望,因为很多应该出场的专业演员都没有来。那天晚上唯一有趣的事情是节目开始时那个报幕员的开场白。他显然非常紧张,局促不安地在麦克风前站了好几分钟。但他刚一开口说话,人们便哄堂大笑起来。我们都明白那个可怜的人应该说些什么,而他实际说的却是:“ 这是‘浦伊’鸟食公司,好女士们,晚上和先生们!” 【课文讲解】 1、A slip of the tongue a slip of the tongue 口误,说走了嘴,失言 Are you sure that it was just a slip of tongue? 你确信那只是一时口误吗? 2、People will do anything to see a free show -- even if it is a bad one. anything用于肯定句时表示“不论什么,任何事情”,to see a free show表示目的,也可以用 for +名词形式: He will do anything to save his child’s life. He will do anything for the child. 3、When the news got round that a comedy show would be presented at our local cinema by the P. and U. Bird Seed Company, we all rushed to see it. get round = get around/about 四处传遍,(消息、谣言等)传开 The word soon got round that there was buried treasure in that cave. Bad news gets round quickly. 4、As soon as he opened his mouth, everyone burst out laughing. burst out 突然……起来(后面常接动名词,或in/into+名词) When she heard that her father had died in the accident, she burst out crying. At the sight of the drunk, everyone burst out laughing/in laughter. 【Special Difficulties】 Free and Single free ① adj. 免费的,无偿的 She has got some free ticket to the comedy show. The people are free to choose who will govern them. ② adj. 自由的,没束缚的,不受控制的,空闲的 You are free to make your own decision. I’m free on Friday evening. single adj. 单身的,独身的,未婚的 I enjoy being single. Are you married or single? a single parent 单亲(独自一人养育儿女的父亲或母亲) Queue and Row queue ① vi. 排队 We had to queue for hours to get in. She has to queue for the bus every morning. ②n.(按顺序等待的人、车等的)行列、队(通常为纵队) There’s a long queue/line of people waiting for the bus. We’d better join the queue for tickets. row n.(人或物的)一排、一行(通常为横的) You can see me in this old photo, standing in the back row. Please put the desks in four rows. Funny ① adj. 有趣的,滑稽的,逗人发笑的(与amusing同义) He included a large number of funny stories in his speech. ② adj. 反常的,古怪的,奇怪的(口语) I thought there was something funny about the parcel, so I phoned the police. This morning I saw her wearing a funny hat which looked like a lighthouse. ★Lesson 90 What's for supper? 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(15) chip n. 油煎土豆片 overfish v. 过度捕捞 giant adj. 巨大的 terrify v. 吓,使恐怖 diver n. 潜小员 oil rig 石油钻塔 wit n. (复数)理智,头脑 cage n. 笼 shark n. 鲨鱼 whale n. 鲸 variety n. 品种 cod n. 鳕 skate n. 鳐 factor n. 因素 crew n. 全体工作人员 ★overfish v. 过度捕捞 over 做前缀,表示“过度的” overdressed 打扮的过了份 ;well-dressed 打扮的很好 I overcook the rice. 我把饭做糊了。 You overdid it. 你过分了。 ★giant adj. 巨大的 giant = huge quantity big/large/great/huge/immense/fantastic tremendous adj. 巨大的(大的让人不相信,惊讶) enormous adj. 巨大的(大的让人不相信,惊讶) This is a tremendous shoe. This is tremendous and enormous. giant n. 巨人;adj. 像巨人一样的 ★terrify v. 吓,使恐怖 terrify/horrify 恐惧(主语是吓人者,宾语是被吓者) The thief/robber terrified me. The snake terrified me. fear/be afraid of 害怕……(主语是人) frighten/scare 吓了一跳(主语是物,吓了一跳,但很快就恢复了平静,主语是吓人者,宾语是被 吓者) You frighten me. 你吓了我一跳 ★wit n.(复数)理智,头脑 out of one's wits 吓个半死 The snake terrified me out of my wits. She was frightened out of her wits by the great fire. 大火吓得她惊慌失措。 Are you out of your wits? 你疯了吗? beat sb. to mummy 打个半死,失去理智,惊慌失措 ★variety n. 品种(品种的多样性) variety show 综艺节目 various = all kinds of adj. 各种各样的 ★crew n. 全体工作人员(指在飞机上或船上的工作人员) staff n. 办公室的全体工作人员 crew 和staff 属于集合名词,可能会做单数,可能会做复数。 ★special ① adj. 特殊的,特别的,独特的 He received special care while in Paris. ② adj. 专门的,特制的,专用的 Special cages are made to protect them from giant fish. 【Text】 Fish and chips has always been a favourite dish in Britain, but as the oceans have been overfished, fish has become more and more expensive. So it comes as a surprise to learn that giant fish are terrifying the divers on North Sea oil rigs. Oil rigs have to be repaired frequently and divers, who often have to work in darkness a hundred feet under water, have been frightened out of their wits by giant fish bumping into them as they work. Now they have had special cages made to protect them from these monsters. The fish are not sharks or killer whales, but favourite eating varieties like cod and skate which grow to unnatural sizes, sometimes as much as twelve feet in length. Three factors have caused these fish to grow so large: the warm water round the hot oil pipes under the sea; the plentiful supply of food thrown overboard by the crews on the rigs; the total absence of fishing boats around the oil rigs. As a result, the fish just eat and eat and grow and grow in the lovely warm water. Who eats who? 参考译文 油煎鱼加炸土豆片一直是英国人喜爱的一道菜,但是随着海洋里的滥捕滥捞,鱼已经变得越来越昂贵。因此,听说北海石油钻井平台上的潜水员受到巨型鱼类的恐吓,确实很让人吃惊。钻井平台需要经常修理,潜水员常常要在水面100英尺以下摸黑工作,他们曾在工作时被撞到他们身上的大鱼吓得惊惶失措。现在他们有了特制的笼子,用来保护他们免受大鱼的侵袭。这些鱼并不是鲨鱼或逆戟鲸,而是深受人们喜爱的食用鱼品种,如鳕鱼和鳐鱼,只不过它们长得出奇地大,有时长达 12 英尺。这些鱼能长得这么大是由 3个因素造成的:海底热的输油管道附近的温暖的海水;钻井平台工作人员抛到海里充足的食物;钻井平台周围根本没有捕鱼船只。结果是,这些鱼就在可爱的温暖的水流中吃呀吃,长呀长。究竟谁吃谁呢? 【课文讲解】 1、What's for supper? What's for breakfast? I have eggs/nothing for breakfast. 2、Fish and chips has always been a favourite dish in Britain, but as the oceans have been overfished, fish has become more and more expensive. fish and chips(鱼和炸土豆片,传统英国食物,是一道菜)被看作是一个整体,因此,虽然 chips 是复数形式,它后面却要跟动词的单数形式。 dish 在这里指“一盘菜”或“菜肴”、“ 食 品 ”: I like French dishes. 我喜欢(吃)法国菜。 Would you like a sweet dish? 您要一盘甜食吗? more and more 越来越……(多音节用more and more 加原级) more and more interesting I love you more and more each day as time goes by. 随着时间的流逝我每一天越来越爱你。 fatter and fatter 越来越胖(单音节直接加er,然后用 and 连接) 3、So it comes as a surprise to learn that giant fish are terrifying the divers on North Sea oil rigs. it comes as a surprise + to do sth. /that 某事令人惊讶 It comes as a surprise that it rains/snows. It comes as a surprise to have four ★Lessons in three hours. 令人吃惊的表达: ① to one’s surprise ② The most surprising thing about it is that ③ get a surprise ④What a surprise it is ⑤It comes as a surprise + to do sth. /that 4、Oil rigs have to be repaired frequently and divers, who often have to work in darkness a hundred feet under water, have been frightened out of their wits by giant fight bumping into them as they work. bump into ① 碰上,撞上 Wandering in darkness, the drunk bumped into a policeman. 那醉汉在黑夜中闲荡时撞到了一个警察的身上。 ② 偶然遇见,碰见(多用于口语) I bumped into Jane at the conference. 我开会时碰见了简。 5、Now they have had special cages made to protect them from these monsters. protect sb. from + n. 保护……使之不受侵害(protect常与 from或against连用) This coat will protect you against the cold. He tried to protect the child from the rain/the dog. 6、The fish are not sharks or killer whales, but favourite eating varieties like cod and skate which grow to unnatural sizes, sometimes as much as twelve feet in length. not…but… 不是……而是…… eating adj. 供食用的;宜生食的 favourite eating variety 深受人们喜爱的食用的品种 Eating corn is quite sweet. 食用玉米很香甜。 These are eating apples, and those are cooking apples/ones. 这些是生吃的苹果,那些是烹饪用的苹果。 grow to 长到 as much as 像……一样(最大限度)+ 数字 as much as five meters tall as far as + 从句 as far as I could get 长宽高深的表达方式 ①数词 + 量词 +adj. two feet deep ②数词 + 量词 + in + 名词 long - length ;high - height ;wide – width ;deep - depth two feet in depth 7、Three factors have caused these fish to grow so large: the warm water round the hot oil pipes under the sea; the plentiful supply of food thrown overboard by the crews on the rigs; the total absence of fishing boats around the oil rigs. cause sb. to do sth. 导致…… grow + adj. 变得…… grow large plentiful supply of… ……的充足供应 plentiful supply of money/workers throw sth. overboard = throw away 扔掉 throw the rubbish overboard total在这里表示“完全的,彻底的”(相当于complete) His letter is a total surprise to her. That girl is a total stranger to me. absence of 缺少,不存在 These plants don’t grow well because of the absence of rain/sunshine. total absence of… 完全没有…… total absence of mind 心不在焉 The total absence of mind caused him to fail the exam. the total absence of order… 没有秩序 8、As a result, the fish just eat and eat and grow and grow in the lovely warm water. as a result = so 结果是,因此 He didn’t work hard at mathematics. As a result, he failed in the examination. as a result of = because of 因为…… As a result of his hard work, he succeeded. 【Special Difficulties】 被看作整体的、用and连接的两个名词 当主语是and连接的两个名词时,谓语通常用复数形式: An umbrella and a suitcase are still needed. 有些名词由于经常在一起连用,就把它们看成一个整体(或一个单位),因而成了一种复合名词。它们不仅有固定的词序,且后面的谓语动词通常要用单数形式。这类复合名词有:bacon and eggs(咸肉和鸡蛋),bread and butter(面包和黄油),cheese and wine(奶酷和葡萄酒),fish and chips(鱼和油炸土豆片),a knife and fork(一副刀叉),sausage(s) and mash(香肠和土豆泥)。通常被作为单数看待的有一道菜和一套东西。 Fish and chips is a popular meal in Britain. 如果把两个名词看成是分开的东西,动词就要用复数: Fish and chips make a good meal. ★Lesson 91 Three men in a basket 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(5) balloon n. 气球 royal adj. 皇家 spy v. 侦察 track n. 轨迹,踪迹 binoculars n. 望远镱 ★spy v. 侦察 ① vi. 暗中监视;侦察(通常与on,upon连用) I noticed some policemen spying on the foreign tourists. ② vt. 发现,看见 She spied a cloud of smoke in the distance. He spied a stranger in his garden. ③ n. 间谍,密探 He was once a spy for the police/British government. They have arrested three spies. 【Text】 A pilot noticed a balloon which seemed to be making for a Royal Air Force Station nearby. He informed the station at once, but no one there was able to explain the mystery. The officer in the control tower was very angry when he heard the news, because balloons can be a great danger to aircraft. He said that someone might be spying on the station and the pilot was ordered to keep track of the strange object. The pilot managed to circle the balloon for some time. He could make out three men in a basket under it and one of them was holding a pair of binoculars. When the balloon was over the station, the pilot saw one of the men taking photographs. Soon afterwards, the balloon began to descend and it landed near an airfield. The police were called in, but they could not arrest anyone, for the basket contained two Members of Parliament and the Commanding Officer of the station! As the Commanding Officer explained later, one half of the station did not know what the other half was doing! 参考译文 一个飞行员发现了一只气球,它像是正飞往附近的一个皇家空军基地。他马上把情况报告了该基地,但那里的人没有一个能解释这到底是怎么回事。控制塔上的官员得知这一消息后,非常气愤,因为气球有可能给飞机造成极大的危险。他说可能有人正对基地进行侦察,因此命令那个飞行员跟踪那个奇怪的飞行物。飞行员设法绕着气球飞了一阵。他看清了气球下面有 3个人呆在一只筐里,其中一个举着望远镜。当气球飞临基地上空时,飞行员看见有一个人在拍照。不久,气球开始降落,在一个停机坪附近着了陆。警察被召来了,但他们却不能逮捕任何人,因为筐里是两名国会议员和一名基地的指挥官!正如指挥官后来解释的那样,基地的这半边不知道那半边正在干什么! 【课文讲解】 1、A pilot noticed a balloon which seemed to be making for a Royal Air Force Station nearby. seem to be doing sth. 似乎正在做…… She seems to be looking for somebody/something. make for 走向,飞向,向……前进 After leaving Calais, the ship made for Dover. 2、He said that someone might be spying on the station and the pilot was ordered to keep track of the strange object. keep track of 跟踪,追踪,保持联系,记录(反义词为lose track of) Keep track of the man wearing a grey hat. He looks suspicious to me. She managed to keep track of her friends. 3、He could make out three men in a basket under it and one of them was holding a pair of binoculars. make out (勉强)看出,辨认出,听出 I can’t make out the boss’s handwriting. In the darkness of night, he could just make out three men coming toward them. 4、The police were called in, but they could not arrest anyone, for the basket contained two Members of Parliament and the Commanding Officer of the station! call in 召来 When he discovered that some important thins were missing in his room, he called the police in. Sam has a temperature. We’d better call in a doctor. 【Special Difficulties】 与make连用的短语 make out ① 写出,填写(相当于write out) He made out a cheque of 1,000 dollars and gave it to the secretary. ②(勉强)看出,辨认出,听出,理解 Can you make out what they are talking about? I can’t make out the boss’s handwriting. Jane is angry again. Sometimes I can’t make her out at all. Her moods change quickly. I could not make out what he said. make up ① 编造,捏造,虚构 Every time he played truant, Tom would make up an excuse. ②(给……)化妆/化装 She always makes herself up/makes up her face before going out. Making up takes up a lot of her time. make up for 补偿,弥补 I had to walk faster to make up for lost time. She managed to make up for her mistake. make for (匆匆)走向,向……前进 While the thief was making for his car, a policeman stopped him. ★Lesson 92 Asking for trouble 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(5) fast adv. 熟(睡) ladder n. 梯子 shed n. 棚子 sarcastic adj. 讽刺的,讥笑的 tone n. 语气,腔调 ★tone n. 语气,腔调 ① n. 语气,口气,腔调 The policeman answered in a sarcastic tone. ② n. 语调,声调 You should use the rising/falling tone at the end of this sentence. ③ n. 格调,风格,气氛 Her dress has a bright tone. The building has a foreign tone. 【Text】 It must have been about two in the morning when I returned home. I tried to wake up my wife by ringing the doorbell, but she was fast asleep, so I got a ladder from the shed in the garden, put it against the wall, and began climbing towards the bedroom window. I was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said, 'I don't think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.' I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. I immediately regretted answering in the way I did, but I said, 'I enjoy cleaning windows at night.' 'So do I,' answered the policeman in the same tone. 'Excuse my interrupting you. I hate to interrupt a man when he's busy working, but would you mind coming with me to the station?' 'Well, I'd prefer to stay here,' I said. 'You see. I've forgotten my key.' 'Your what?' he called. 'My key,' I shouted. Fortunately, the shouting woke up my wife who opened the window just as the policeman had started to climb towards me. 参考译文 我回到家时,肯定已是凌晨两点左右了。我按响了门铃,试图唤醒我的妻子,但她睡得很熟。于是,我从花园的小棚里搬来了一个梯子,把它靠在墙边,开始向卧室的窗口爬去。快要爬到窗口时,下面一个人用讽刺的口吻说:“ 我 看 不 必 在 夜 里 这 个 时 候 擦 窗 子 吧 。” 我 向 下面看去。当我看清是一个警察时,差一点儿从梯子上掉下去。我回答了他的话,但马上又后悔不该那样说,我是这样说的:“ 我 喜欢在夜里擦窗子。” “我也是的,”警察用同样的声调回答,“请原谅我打断了您。当一个人在忙着干活时,我是不愿意去打断他的,但请您跟我到警察局去一趟好吗?” “可我更愿意呆在这儿,”我说,“您瞧,我忘带钥匙了。” “什么?”他大声问。 “钥匙!”我喊道。 幸运得很,这喊声惊醒了我的妻子。就在警察开始向我爬上来时,她打开了窗子。 【课文讲解】 1、Asking for trouble ask for trouble 自找麻烦,自计苦吃(多用于口语) The boss seems to be annoyed. To talk to him now is to ask for trouble. 2、I don't think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night. 有些动词如think,believe,expect,suppose等后接表示否定意思的宾语从句时,通常在主句中使用否定形式,但译成汉语时否定意义仍在宾语从句中。 I don’t believe he is still in London. need表示“需要”时,后面接动名词有被动的含义。 need cleaning = need to be cleaned 3、I immediately regretted answering in the way I did, but I said, 'I enjoy cleaning windows at night.' regret doing sth. 后悔做了……(对已发生的事情表示后悔) I regretted saying it almost at once. regret to do sth. 遗憾……(对现在要发生的事表示抱歉) We regret to inform you that you needn’t come here next week. remember/forget +to do sth. 指末来的动作 I remembered to post the letters. 我记着去邮信了。( 没 有 忘 记 ) I forgot to ask Tom. 我忘了去问汤姆。 remember/forget doing sth. 指过去的动作(已发生过) I remember posting/having posted the letters. Have you forgotten meeting/having met her at a party? 你忘记了曾在一次聚会上见过她吗? stop to do sth. 指目的 On the way to the station I stopped to buy a paper. stop doing sth. 停下正在做的动作 When he told us the story, we just couldn’t stop laughing. 【Special Difficulties】 用于并列补充句和反应句的so和neither/nor so和neither/nor 用于并列补充句和表示反应的句子时表示“也,同样”,so用于肯定句,neither/nor 用于否定句。它们后面跟的是省略形式的分句,只有助动词+主语,也可以是情态助动词+主语: John can speak French and so can I. I didn’t got to the meeting last night. Neither/Nor did I. You shouldn’t work so hard and nor should I. ★Lesson 93 A noble gift 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(13) noble adj. 高尚的,壮丽的 monument n. 纪念碑 statue n. 雕像 liberty n. 自由 present v. 赠送 sculptor n. 雕刻家 actual adj. 实际的,真实的 copper n. 铜 support v. 支持,支撑 framework n. 构架,框架 transport v. 运送 site n. 场地 pedestal n. 底座 ★support v. 支持,支撑 ① vt. 支持,支撑(某个具体东西) The actual figure was supported by a metal framework. Feeling weak, she supported herself against a desk and rested for a short time. ② vt. 拥护,赞成,支持(人、想法等) He made the right decision. Unfortunately, nobody supported him. I supported his opinion that another bridge should be built over the river. ③ vt. 抚养,供养,赡养 You need a high income these days to support a large family. My son can support himself now. 【Text】 One of the most famous monuments in the world, the Statue of Liberty, was presented to the United States of America in the nineteenth century by the people of France. The great statue, which was designed by the sculptor Auguste Bartholdi, took ten years to complete. The actual figure was made of copper supported by a metal framework which had been especially constructed by Eiffel. Before it could be transported to the United States, a site had to be found for it and a pedestal had to be built. The site chosen was an island at the entrance of New York Harbour. By 1884, a statue which was 151 feet tall had been erected in Paris. The following year, it was taken to pieces and sent to America. By the end of October 1886, the statue had been put together again and it was officially presented to the American people by Bartholdi. Ever since then, the great monument has been a symbol of liberty for the millions of people who have passed through New York Harbour to make their homes in America. 参考译文 世界上最著名的纪念碑之一的自由女神雕像是在19世纪时由法国人民赠送给美国的。这座由雕像家奥古斯特.巴索尔地设计的巨大雕像是用 10 年时间雕像刻成的。这座雕像的主体是用铜制成的,由艾菲尔特制的金属框架支撑着。在雕像被运往美国之前,必须为它选好一块场地,同时必须建造一个基座。场地选在了纽约港入口处的一个鸟上。到 1884 年,一座高度达 151 英尺的雕像在巴黎竖立起来了。第二年,它被拆成若干小块,运到美国。到 1886年10月底,这座雕像被重新组装起来,由巴索尔地正式赠送给美国人民。从那时起,这座伟大的纪念碑对通过纽约港进入美国定居的千百万人来说就一直是自由的象征。 【课文讲解】 1、One of the most famous monuments in the world, the Statue of Liberty, was presented to the United States of America in the nineteenth century by the people of France. the Statue of Liberty 自由女神像 the people指某个国家的人民;指复数的“人们”时通常不加 the: A lot of /Few people went to their wedding. 2、The following year, it was taken to pieces and sent to America. take…to pieces 把……拆卸开/拆散 This machine is too large to be transported in whole. It has to be taken to pieces first. 3、By the end of October 1886, the statue had been put together again and it was officially presented to the American people by Bartholdi. put…together 把……装配起来(take…to piece的反义词) I can’t put the broken vase together. 我无法把那打碎的花瓶重新拼起来。 4、Ever since then, the great monument has been a symbol of liberty for the millions of people who have passed through New York Harbour to make their homes in America. ever since then 从那以后 make one’s home in… 在……安家落户 Ian (has) left England and made his home in China. 【Special Difficulties】 同形不同音的词 许多词既可以作名词又可以作动作,但有些词为不同的词类使用时发音上,尤其是重音的位置会有变化,这些词有: accent v. 重读 n. 重音, conduct v. 指挥;导电 n. 行为, conflict v. 冲突 n. 冲突, contest v. 争夺,竞争 n. 比赛, contrast v. 形成对比 n. 对比, export v. 输出,出口 n. 出口, increase v. 增加 n. 增加, insult v. 侮辱 n. 侮辱, present v. 赠送 n. 礼物, product v. 生产 n. 农产品, protest v. 抗议 n. 抗议, record v. 记录,录音 n. 记录,唱片, refuse v. 拒绝 n. 垃圾, transport v. 运输,运送 n. 运输 ★Lesson 94 Future champions 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(9) instruct v. 指导,传授 Los Angeles 洛杉矶 reluctant adj. 勉强的,不愿意的 weight n. 重物 underwater adj. 水下的 tricycle n. 三轮车 compete v. 比赛,对抗 yard n. 码 gasp v. 喘气 ★instruct v. 指导,传授 ① vt. 指导,教,传授 Children can be instructed in swimming at a very early age. Dan instructs chemistry at a nearby college. vt. ② 批示,命令,吩咐 The doctor instructed Jimmy to stay in bed for a week. I’ve been instructed to give you this parcel. ★compete v. 比赛,对抗 vi. ①比赛,对抗(通常与with或against连用) The children compete against each other to reach the other end of the pool. During the singing contest, Mary competed with Helen for the first prize. vi. ② 匹敌,比得上,媲美(通常与with连用,多用于否定句) Hugh’s house can’t compete with yours. None of his later books can compete with his first one. 【Text】 Experiments have proved that children can be instructed in swimming at a very early age. At a special swimming pool in Los Angeles, children become expert at holding their breath under water even before they can walk. Babies of two months old do not appear to be reluctant to enter the water. It is not long before they are so accustomed to swimming that they can pick up weights from the floor of the pool. A game that is very popular with these young swimmers is the underwater tricycle race. Tricycles are lined up on the floor of the pool seven feet under water. The children compete against each other to reach the other end of the pool. Many pedal their tricycles, but most of them prefer to push or drag them. Some children can cover the whole length of the pool without coming up for breath even once. Whether they will ever become future Olympic champions, only time will tell. Meanwhile, they should encourage those among us who cannot swim five yards before they are gasping for air. 参考译文 实验证明,儿童在很小的时候就可以开始学习游泳。在洛杉矶的一个特设的游泳池里,孩子们甚至在还没有学会走路时就已经能熟练地在水下屏住呼吸了。两个月的婴儿并未显得不愿意入水。他们很快便适应了游泳,以致能捡起池底的物品。这些幼小的游泳运动员非常喜爱的一种游戏是水下三轮车比赛。三轮车并排放在7英尺深的游泳池底上。孩子们比赛看谁先到达游泳池的另一端。很多孩子用脚蹬车,但多数孩子更愿意推或是拉着三轮车。有些孩子能够跑完游泳池的全长而不用露出水面换气。他们将来是否能成为奥林匹克的冠军,这只能由时间来作出回答。与此同时,他们对我们中的那些游不了 5 码就已喘不过气来的人应该是种鼓舞。 【课文讲解】 1、At a special swimming pool in Los Angeles, children become expert at holding their breath under water even before they can walk. expert at/in doing sth. ……方面的专家,熟练者 Rex soon became an expert at opening the gate. hold one’s breath 屏住呼吸 Last night, when I heard a strange noise coming from the bar, I held my breath and listened carefully. 2、It is not long before they are so accustomed to swimming that they can pick up weights from the floor of the pool. not long before 不久,很快 be accustomed to n./doing sth. 习惯的,适应了的 He soon became accustomed to his new job. My mother is accustomed to getting up early. 3、A game that is very popular with these young swimmers is the underwater tricycle race. be popular with… 深受……的欢迎,为……所喜爱 Mary is popular with/among children. Swimming is popular with these girls. 4、Tricycles are lined up on the floor of the pool seven feet under water. line up (使)排成行/排队 Why are people lining up over there? Line these chairs up, please. 5、The children compete against each other to reach the other end of the pool. compete against 与……竞争,与……抗衡 6、Some children can cover the whole length of the pool without coming up for breath even once. come up for breath 升上水面换气 7、Whether they will ever become future Olympic champions, only time will tell. 倒装句,宾语从句置于句首,通常,以疑问词引导的宾语从句会用于这种句型: What made him do it, no one knows. How they found out the truth, only George can tell. ★Lesson 95 A fantasy 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(12) fantasy n. 幻想故事 ambassador n. 大使 Escalopia n. 艾斯卡罗比亚(虚构的国名) frightful adj. 可怕的,令人吃惊的 fire extinguisher 灭火器 drily adv. 冷淡地,枯燥无味地 embassy n. 大使馆 heaven n. 天,天堂 basement n. 地下室 definitely adv. 肯定地 post v. 派任 shot n. 子弹 ★post v. 派任 vt. ①派任,委派(与人连用) I must definitely get that fellow posted. Two months ago, Horst was posted to Paris. vt. ②邮寄(与物连用,美语用 mail) He posted me a Christmas card last year. Would you please post this parcel for me? ★aim vt. ①&vi.(把……)瞄准/对准 He aimed a fire extinguisher at me. He aimed at the dog but missed. vi. ②目标在于,志向 What he aims for is money. 他追求的是金钱。 She aims to be a painter. n. ③目的,目标,志向 What is your aim in life? You’ve missed your aim again. 【Text】 When the Ambassador of Escalopia returned home for lunch, his wife got a shock. He looked pale and his clothes were in a frightful state. 'What has happened?' she asked. 'How did your clothes get into such a mess?' 'A fire extinguisher, my dear,' answered the Ambassador drily. 'University students set the Embassy on fire this morning.' 'Good heavens!' exclaimed his wife. 'And where were you at the time?' 'I was in my office as usual,' answered the Ambassador. 'The fire broke out in the basement. I went down immediately, of course, and that fool, Horst, aimed a fire extinguisher at me. He thought I was on fire. I must definitely get that fellow posted.' The Ambassador's wife went on asking questions, when she suddenly noticed a big hole in her husband's hat. 'And how can you explain that?' she asked. 'Oh, that,' said the Ambassador.'Someone fired a shot through my office window. Accurate, don't you think? Fortunately, I wasn't wearing it at the time. If I had been, I would not have been able to get home for lunch.' 参考译文 当艾斯卡罗比亚国的大使回到家吃午饭时,把他的夫人吓了一跳。他面色苍白,衣服也搞得不成样子。 “发生了什么事?”她问,“你的衣服怎么搞得一塌糊涂?” “灭火器弄的,亲爱的,”大使冷冷地回答,“今天上午大学生们放火点着了大使馆。” “天啊!”他的夫人惊叫,“那你当时在什么地方?” “我和往常一样,在办公室里,”大使回答说。“地下室突然着火,我当然马上下去了。但那个傻瓜霍斯特把灭火器对准了我。他认为是我着火了。我一定要把那个家伙打发走。” 大使夫人继续提出问题,她突然又发现丈夫的帽子上有个洞。 “那么你对那又作何解释呢?”她问。 “那个嘛,”大使说,“有人向我办公室窗户开了一枪。真够准的,是不是?幸亏我当时没戴帽子。如果真戴着它,我现在就不能回家来吃午饭了。” 【课文讲解】 1、How did your clothes get into such a mess? get into a mess 搞得这样糟 When she returned from the market, the children had got the room into a terrible mess. Why was her hair in such a mess? 2、University students set the Embassy on fire this morning. set…on fire 放火,使……燃烧,放火烧…… In 1834, someone set the Houses of Parliament on fire. 3、The fire broke out in the basement. break out (火灾、战争等)突然发生,爆发 When the fire broke out in the ship, Sally was frightened out of her wits. 4、I went down immediately, of course, and that fool, Horst, aimed a fire extinguisher at me. aim…at 用……瞄准 5、Someone fired a shot through my office window. fire v. 发射(枪、弹等) When the prisoner of war tried to escape, a guard fired a gun at him. A young man fired on the British Ambassador to Japan. ★Lesson 96 The dead return 【New words and expressions】生词和短语(3) festival n. 节日 lantern n. 灯笼 spectacle n. 景象,壮观,场面 ★drift vi. ①漂流,漂移 Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea. The boat drifted gently across the water. vi. ②漂泊,游荡 He has lost his job and just drifts in the city all day long. He drifted from France to Italy. ★guide ① vt. 给……领路 The old man guided the explorers through the forest. These lanterns will guide the dead on their return journey to the other world. vt. ② 指导(……的行动);影响(……的决策等) We should be always guided by truth. 我们应该永远受真理的指导。 Don’t let your wife’s opinion guide your actions. 【Text】 A Festival for the Dead is held once a year in Japan. This festival is a cheerful occasion, for on this day, the dead are said to return to their homes and they are welcomed by the living. As they are expected to be hungry after their long journey, food is laid out for them. Specially-made lanterns are hung outside each house to help the dead to find their way. All night long, people dance and sing. In the early morning, the food that had been laid out for the dead is thrown into a river or into the sea as it is considered unlucky for anyone living to eat it. In towns that are near the sea, the tiny lanterns which had been hung in the streets the night before, are placed into the water when the festival is over. Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding the dead on their return journey to the other world. This is a moving spectacle, for crowds of people stand on the shore watching the lanterns drifting away until they can be seen no more. 参考译文 日本每年过一次“亡灵节”。这个节日是个欢乐的日子,因为在这一天,据说死去的人要回到他们的家里来,活着的人则对他们表示欢迎。因为预料到他们在经过长途旅行之后会感到饥饿,所以为他们摆放好了食品。特制的灯笼挂在各家的门外,为的是帮助亡灵看清道路。整个夜晚人们载歌载舞。一大早,人们便把为死者摆放的食品扔进河中或海里,因为人们认为活着的人吃了这些东西是不吉利的。在靠海的城镇中,头天夜里挂在大街小巷的小灯笼在节后就放在了水里。成千上万只灯笼慢慢漂向大海,指引着亡灵返回另一个世界。这是一个感人的场面,人们成群地伫立在海岸上,注视着灯笼远去,直到再也看不见为止。 【课文讲解】 harm n. & vt. 损害;危害1、A Festival for the Dead is held once a year in Japan. n. 快车;速递The dead和the living均为“定冠词+形容词”结构,表示某类人。 otherwise conj. 否则;不然2、As they are expected to be hungry after their long journey, food is laid out for them. lay out 摆放,展示,摆设,摊开 Don’t lay out your clothes on the bed. Put them away. 3、All night long, people dance and sing. ahead of 在……前面all night long 整夜(long为副词,表示“整个,在整段期间中”,常与all连用) It snowed all day long. in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 She stayed with her grandfather all summer long. 4、Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding the dead on their return journey to the other world. △leftover n. 剩余物;残留物;剩饭the other world 另一个世界,即阴间 Carla n. 卡拉(女名) She believes that she will meet her dead parents in the other world. as far as one is concerned 就……而言the next world = the world to come 来世 (英国动物学家)5、This is a moving spectacle, for crowds of people stand on the shore watching the lanterns drifting away until they can be seen no more. vt. 转换moving adj. 动人的,感人的 a moving spectacle 一个感人的场面 本文档由香当网(https://www.xiangdang.net)用户上传

    下载文档到电脑,查找使用更方便

    文档的实际排版效果,会与网站的显示效果略有不同!!

    需要 10 香币 [ 分享文档获得香币 ]

    下载文档

    文档贡献者

    🔺dabao🔻

    贡献于2019-11-08

    下载需要 10 香币 [香币充值 ]
    亲,您也可以通过 分享原创文档 来获得香币奖励!
    下载文档